Independent Parliamentary Group

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The Independent Parliamentary Group was a right-wing political organisation in the United Kingdom. It was founded in 1920 by Horatio Bottomley, elected in the 1918 general election as an independent Member of Parliament.

United Kingdom Country in Europe

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. The UK's 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi) were home to an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.

Horatio Bottomley English financier, journalist, editor, newspaper proprietor, swindler, and Member of Parliament

Horatio William Bottomley was an English financier, journalist, editor, newspaper proprietor, swindler, and Member of Parliament. He is best known for his editorship of the popular magazine John Bull, and for his patriotic oratory during the First World War. His career came to a sudden end when, in 1922, he was convicted of fraud and sentenced to seven years' imprisonment.

1918 United Kingdom general election

The 1918 United Kingdom general election was called immediately after the Armistice with Germany which ended the First World War, and was held on Saturday, 14 December 1918. The governing coalition, under Prime Minister David Lloyd George, sent letters of endorsement to candidates who supported the coalition government. These were nicknamed ‘Coalition Coupons’, and led to the election being known as the ‘coupon election’. The result was a massive landslide in favour of the coalition, comprising primarily the Conservatives and Coalition Liberals, with massive losses for Liberals who were not endorsed. Nearly all the Liberal MPs without coupons were defeated, although party leader H. H. Asquith managed to return to Parliament in a by-election.

In 1919, Bottomley founded the People's League. He hoped the League would become "a great Third Party" which would represent "the People" against organised labour and organised capital. The 4th Marquess of Salisbury was also initially involved in the League. According to Sir Oswald Mosley, he and Leslie Hore-Belisha were also active members.

In economics, capital consists of an asset that can enhance one's power to perform economically useful work. For example, in a fundamental sense a stone or an arrow is capital for a caveman who can use it as a hunting instrument, while roads are capital for inhabitants of a city.

James Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury British politician

James Edward Hubert Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury,, known as Viscount Cranborne from 1868 to 1903, was a British statesman.

Leslie Hore-Belisha British politician

Leslie Hore-Belisha, 1st Baron Hore-Belisha, PC was a British Liberal, then National Liberal Member of Parliament (MP) and Cabinet Minister. He later joined the Conservative Party. He proved highly successful in modernizing the British road system in 1934–37 as Minister of Transport. As Secretary of War, 1937–1940, he feuded with the commanding generals and was removed in 1940. Anti-semitism played a role in blocking his appointment as Minister of Information. His biographer compares his strong and weak points:

In 1920, Bottomley complemented the League by forming the "Independent Parliamentary Group" with other MPs sympathetic to his ideas, while still using the People's League to stand George Makgill in the 1920 Leyton by-election.

George Makgill British writer

Sir George Makgill, 11th Baronet was a Scottish peer who was also a novelist and right-wing propagandist.

Several Members of Parliament joined the group, including Bottomley, Cecil Beck, Christopher Lowther, Claude Lowther, [1] Charles Frederick Palmer and Sir C. V. F. Townshend. It also sponsored several candidates; John Nicholson accepted its support, but after winning the 1921 Westminster Abbey by-election, did not join the group. Murray Sueter, who was co-sponsored by the group and by the Anti-Waste League, was elected in the 1921 Hertford by-election.

Cecil Beck British politician

Sir Arthur Cecil Tyrrell Beck was a British Liberal Party politician.

Major Christopher William Lowther was a British Conservative Party politician, the eldest son of James Lowther, 1st Viscount Ullswater.

Colonel Claude William Henry Lowther was an English Conservative politician.

Later in 1921, a business venture of Bottomley's, the John Bull Victory Bond Club, was sunk by fraud and mismanagement. In the ensuing scandal, the group was disbanded, and the following year, Bottomley was expelled from Parliament.

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References

  1. F. W. S. Craig, Minor Parties at British Parliamentary Elections