Lion (Australasian company)

Last updated

Lion
Type Subsidiary
IndustryBeverage
Founded1923;98 years ago (1923) New Zealand Breweries
1977;44 years ago (1977) Lion Breweries
1988;33 years ago (1988) Lion Nathan
2009;12 years ago (2009) Lion Nathan National Foods
Headquarters Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Key people
Rod Eddington AO (Chairman)
Stuart Irvine (CEO) [1]
Products Beer, wine, cider
Owner Mitsubishi keiretsu (through Kirin Holdings)
Parent Kirin
Subsidiaries South Australian Brewing Company
James Boag Brewing
Hahn Brewing Company
James Squire Brewery
Castlemaine
Little Creatures Brewery
Website www.lionco.com

Lion is an alcoholic beverage company that operates in Australia and New Zealand, and a subsidiary of Japanese beverage giant Kirin. It produces and markets a range of beer and cider in Australia, and wine in New Zealand and the United States through Distinguished Vineyards & Wine Partners. It acts as distributors for a range of spirits in New Zealand, but does not own any distilleries outright, although holding a 50% share of Four Pillars Gin in Victoria.

Contents

Lion was formed in October 2009 under the name Lion Nathan National Foods when Kirin Holdings Company Limited purchased brewer Lion Nathan and merged the business with National Foods, which it had owned since 2007. In 2011, the company changed its name to Lion, one company with three businesses: Lion Beer, Spirits, and Wine Australia; Lion, Beer, Spirits and Wine NZ; with National Foods becoming a Melbourne-based subsidiary called Lion Dairy & Drinks. Lion Dairy & Drinks was acquired by Bega in November 2020.

As of 2020 the Australian arm of the company is registered in Sydney as Lion-Beer Spirits & Wine Pty Ltd, a body corporate with multiple business names registered to it, including the Lion Nathan Australia, South Australian Brewing Company, James Boag Brewing, Byron Bay Brewery, Hahn Brewing Company, James Squire Brewery, Castlemaine, Little Creatures Brewery, and others.

Lion New Zealand is the largest alcoholic beverage company in the country, employing 1000 people. The company markets beers such as Speight's, Steinlager, Mac's, Emerson's, Stella Artois and Corona, big names in spirits such as Smirnoff, Baileys, Bacardi, and Johnnie Walker, and many wines.

The company owns a number of breweries and contract bottling plants in Australia and New Zealand. The Thebarton brewery in Adelaide operated by the South Australian Brewing Company is sometimes referred to as the West End Brewery (for other uses of this name, see West End Brewery).

History

Antecedents

The original forerunner of the company was Brown Campbell & Co, the company of Logan Campbell and William Brown who established the Hobson Bridge Brewery in Auckland in 1840. By 1897 it was the largest brewery in the North Island if not the country. In May 1897 Brown Campbell & Co amalgamated with Louis Ehrenfried's Albert Brewery, which he had bought in 1878, to form Campbell and Ehrenfried. [2] The new company was managed by Arthur Myers, Ehrenfried's nephew. In 1914 Campbell and Ehrenfried merged with the Great Northern Brewery, which owned the Lion brand. In 1923 ten breweries amalgamated to form New Zealand Breweries. Campbell and Ehrenfried merged its breweries into New Zealand Breweries but remained a separate company. Douglas Myers, grandson of Arthur Myers, became CEO of Campbell and Ehrenfried in 1965. [3] [4]

The northern division of New Zealand Breweries adopted the name Lion Breweries in 1977. Campbell and Ehrenfried bought 19.9 per cent of Lion Breweries in 1981. By the late 1980s, New Zealand Breweries had developed into one of New Zealand's largest companies. In 1988 Lion Breweries took over LD Nathan & Co, New Zealand's largest retailer, which at the time owned Woolworths NZ, to form Lion Nathan, listed on both the Australian and New Zealand stock exchanges under the symbol LNN. The same year, Woolworths' general merchandise division was rebranded DEKA, with ownership transferred to the Farmers Trading Company in 1992. In 1990 it became an Australasian business when it established a major presence in Australia by securing management control of Bond Corporation’s brewing assets, including the Tooheys Brewery in Sydney and Castlemaine Perkins in Brisbane. In 1998 Douglas Myers sold most of his 16 percent share in Lion Nathan to Kirin Brewery Company of Japan. [3] [4]

Foundation

In 2005, Lion Nathan made a takeover bid for the independent South Australian Coopers Brewery. The takeover was strongly opposed by Coopers' management, and was rejected at an Extraordinary General Meeting when 93.4% of the shareholders voted in favour of permanently removing the "3rd tier purchasing rights" of Lion Nathan, effectively preventing any current or future takeover bid. In September 2009, shareholders voted in favour of a complete takeover by Kirin Holdings. [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]

Lion was established in October 2009 under the name Lion Nathan National Foods when Kirin purchased the brewer Lion Nathan [10] and merged the business with National Foods, which it had owned since 2007. The company was 46% owned by Kirin, with the difference made up by Australian and New Zealand share funds. [11]

Recent history

In 2011, the company changed its name to Lion, one company with three businesses: Lion Beer, Spirits, and Wine Australia; Lion, Beer, Spirits and Wine NZ; with National Foods becoming a Melbourne-based subsidiary called Lion Dairy & Drinks. [12] Lion Dairy & Drinks was acquired by Bega in November 2020. [13]

In June 2013, the company launched the Tap King draught beer product that is sold with a CO2 gas chamber so that consumers can drink draught beer at home. Lionel Richie appeared in a television commercial to promote the device and reportedly received A$$1.5 million to appear in the promotional campaign. [14] The introduction of the Tap King caused controversy, due to the perceived impact upon alcohol venues. Concerns were raised in regard to lower patronage rates for venues due to a greater incentive for consumers to drink beer in home environments. [15]

The company today

As of 2020 the Australian arm of the company is registered in Sydney as Lion-Beer Spirits & Wine Pty Ltd, a body corporate with multiple business names registered to it, including the Lion Nathan Australia, South Australian Brewing Company, James Boag Brewing, Byron Bay Brewery, Hahn Brewing Company, James Squire Brewery, Castlemaine, Little Creatures Brewery, and others. [16] [17] [18]

Lion New Zealand is the largest alcoholic beverage company in the country, employing 1000 people. The company markets beers such as Speight's, Steinlager, Mac's, Emerson's, Stella Artois and Corona, big names in spirits such as Smirnoff, Baileys, Bacardi, and Johnnie Walker, and many wines. [19]

Breweries and beers

Australia

Castlemaine Tooheys

Located in Brisbane, Queensland, Castlemaine Perkins is the brewer of the XXXX brand of beers. In March 1980, Castlemaine Perkins merged with Tooheys to form Castlemaine Tooheys. [20] Bond Corporation purchased Castlemaine Tooheys in 1985. [21] Castlemaine Tooheys was acquired in 1992 by Lion Nathan. [22]

SA Brewing Company/West End

Prior to the acquisition of the brewing assets by Lion Nathan in 1993, the South Australian Brewing Company split its brewing assets into "SA Brewing Holdings", and its diversified operations were formed into a new listed company named Southcorp. [23] The SA Brewing Company continued to trade under that name as an Australian private company until 1 May 2019, [24] [25] [26] but from 21 January 2019 was subsumed as a registered business name [27] under Lion-Beer Spirits & Wine Pty Ltd, being a body corporate registered in Sydney. [16] [17] [18]

As of 2020 the only beer brewed under the West End brand is West End Draught, a currently a 4.5% abv pale lager, first brewed in 1859. [28] (West End Export, [29] West End Gold, [30] and West End Light [31] are no longer produced.)

The Thebarton site finally closed on 17 June 2021, with about a third of the workforce, mainly those in sales and sponsorship roles, staying on with the company in South Australia. The company said that West End beer would be produced at its other breweries and that it would maintain the same recipe. [32]

Malt Shovel/James Squire

James Squire beers are mostly produced by the Malt Shovel Brewery in Sydney. The brewery has won various awards including: Champion Australasian Brewery, 2000 and 2003 (Australian International Beer Awards), [33] and Best Bohemian-Style Pilsener, 2008 (World Beer Cup). [34] Since 2017, Malt Shovel also brews the originally New Zealand Panhead range of beers. [35]

Other Australian brands

Other Australian beer breweries and labels owned by Lion as of December 2020 are Hahn, Emu/Swan, James Boag, Little Creatures, Iron Jack (Sydney), and Furphy (brewed in Geelong, Victoria), [36] White Rabbit, and Kosciuszko. [37]

New Zealand

Mac's Brewery Spring Tide beer bottle Mac's Brewery Spring Tide.JPG
Mac's Brewery Spring Tide beer bottle

Mac's craft beers

Mac's craft beers were produced in New Zealand's first significant craft brewery, McCashin's Brewery, in 1981, by Terry McCashin. Lion acquired the brand in 1999, but the original brewery continues to produce craft beers under a different name (Stoke). [38]

A wide range of styles of beers in both bottles and cans continue to be sold under Mac's branding, As of 2020 including Mac's Gold (lager), Black Mac (a dark lager), and Hop Rocker (golden pilsener). [39] The website continues to list the back catalogue of Mac's beers as well. [40]

Other NZ beers

As of December 2020, Lion owns the Emerson's Brewery, Speight's, Steinlager, Lion Red, Lion Brown, Panhead, Little Creatures, [41] Waikato Draught, Black Ice, Rheineck and Lion Ice brands. [42]

Canterburydraughtlogo2.jpg

(Canterbury Draught, first brewed in 1854 as Ward's Beer after the brewer Hamilton Ward and rebranded as Canterbury Draught in 1990, was associated with the Canterbury Cricket Association through sponsorship by Lion. [43] However, the Christchurch earthquakes in 2011 put the brewery out of business. [44] )

International brands

The following beer brands are as of December 2020 brewed and/or marketed in Australia by Lion: [45]

Ciders

Lion owns 5 Seeds, James Squire, Kirin, and Pipsqueak (Little Creatures) ciders. [50]

Wines

As of 2020 Lion does not have interests in any Australian wine brands.

In 2001 the Lion Nathan Wine group purchased a controlling interest in Australian wine companies Petaluma and Banksia, adding New Zealand wine company Wither Hills in 2002.[ citation needed ] In 2005, Fine Wine Partners (FWP) was established as a joint venture between distributors Distinguished Vineyards and Tucker Seabrook, Robert Hirst's company. [51] Lion bought out Tucker Seabrook in 2008, becoming sole owner of the company. [52] FWP included the brands brands Petaluma, Croser, St Hallett, Knappstein, Stonier and Tatachilla, four wineries, and a large distribution network. In 2016, Accolade Wines acquired FWP, with Lion concentrating its core business of beer and cider in Australia, but continuing to hold wine businesses in New Zealand and the United States. [53]

Distinguished Vineyards & Wine Partners was founded in 2008, [54] and as of December 2020 owns a number of wineries and brands in the US (including Markham Vineyards and Textbook Wines in the Napa Valley of California [54] ) as well as in New Zealand [55] (such as Wither Hills, Mt Difficulty, The Ned and Lindauer). [56]

Spirits

In 2006, Lion bought ready-to-drink McKenna Bourbon from its parent company, Kirin. [57] In 2007 it bought Inner Circle Rum, which included a distillery in Beenleigh, Queensland. [58] While retaining ownership of the two brands, in a 2008 joint venture with Bacardi-Martini, Lion Bacardi would be marketing the two brands. [59]

In 2020 McKenna Bourbon is owned by Heaven Hill distillers in the US. [60] The only mention of this and a wide range of other spirits on the website is with regard to their distribution in New Zealand by Lion. [61]

In March 2019, Lion acquired a 50% stake in Victorian small distillery Four Pillars Gin. [62] [63] In November 2020 Four Pillars were awarded as the World's best Gin producer for the second year running at the International Wine and Spirits Competition. [64]

See also

Related Research Articles

Fosters Lager brand of lager

Foster's Lager is an internationally-distributed brand of lager. It is owned by the international brewing group Asahi Group Holdings., and is brewed under licence in a number of countries, including its biggest market, the UK, where the European rights to the brand are owned by Heineken International.

Castlemaine XXXX Australian beer brand

XXXX is a brand of Australian beer brewed in Milton, Brisbane by Queensland brewers Castlemaine Perkins. It enjoys wide popularity in the state of Queensland, where it is commonly found on-tap in pubs and bars.

Tooheys Brewery

Tooheys is a brewery in the suburb of Lidcombe, in Sydney, Australia. It produces beers and ciders under the Tooheys and Hahn Brewery trademarks, and is part of the Lion beverages group which was acquired by the Japanese Kirin Company in 2009.

Fosters Group

Foster's Group Pty. Ltd. was an Australian beer group with interests in brewing and soft drinks, known for Foster's Lager, now called Carlton & United Breweries since the company was renamed in 2011. Foster's was founded in 1888 in Melbourne, Victoria by two American brothers, who sold the brewery a year later.

Swan Brewery

The Swan Brewery is a brewing company, whose brewery was located in Perth, Western Australia.

Castlemaine Perkins

Castlemaine Perkins is a brewery at 185 Milton Road, Milton, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. It is a wholly owned entity of the Japanese-controlled Lion company. Operations began in 1878 and continue today. Castlemaine Perkins is the home of the XXXX beer brand.

Kirin Company Japanese holding company of Kirin group

Kirin Brewery Company, Limited is a Japanese integrated beverages company. It is a subsidiary of Kirin Holdings Company, Limited. Its major operating units include Kirin Brewery Company, Limited, Mercian Corporation and Kirin Beverages Company, Limited. Kirin is a member of the Mitsubishi Group.

Carlton & United Breweries Australian beverage manufacturer

Carlton & United Breweries is an Australian brewing company based in Melbourne. In 1983 it became a wholly owned subsidiary of Elders IXL and CUB was delisted. In 1990, Elders IXL was renamed as Foster's Group, and in July 2004, Fosters Group changed its name to Carlton & United Beverages. In February 2009, CUB announced the decision to separate the Australian Wine division from the Australian Beer, Cider & Spirits (BCS) division, and rename BCS to Carlton & United Breweries.

Beer in Australia Overview of the beer culture in Australia

Beer arrived in Australia at the beginning of British colonisation. In 2004 Australia was ranked fourth internationally in per capita beer consumption, at around 110 litres per year; although, the nation ranked considerably lower in a World Health Organization report of alcohol consumption per capita of 12.2 litres. Lager is by far the most popular type of beer consumed in Australia.

Asahi Breweries Japanese food and beverage company

Asahi Group Holdings, Ltd. is a Japanese global beer, spirits, soft drinks and food business group headquartered in Sumida, Tokyo.

Hahn Brewery NSW Beer brewing company

Hahn Brewery is a brewery that was established by Dr Charles "Chuck" Hahn in 1988 at an old factory site in the suburb of Camperdown in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Beer in New Zealand

Beer is the most popular alcoholic drink in New Zealand, accounting for 63% of available alcohol for sale. At around 64.7 litres per person per annum, New Zealand is ranked 27th in global beer consumption per capita. The vast majority of beer produced in New Zealand is a type of lager, either pale or amber in colour, and typically 4–5% alcohol by volume.

Tooheys New

Tooheys New is a standard Australian lager and the most popular of the Tooheys' beers owned by the New Zealand Lion Nathan beverages company.

Tooth and Co.

Tooth and Co was the major brewer of beer in New South Wales, Australia. The company owned a large brewery on Broadway in Sydney from 1835 until 1985, known as the Kent Brewery. It was historically one of Australia's oldest companies, having been established as a partnership in 1835 and listed on the then Sydney Stock Exchange in July 1961. The brand has undergone a revival in 2015.

South Australian Brewing Company Brewery established in Adelaide in 1888

The South Australian Brewing Company, Limited is a brewery located in Thebarton, an inner-west suburb of Adelaide, South Australia. It is a subsidiary of Lion, which in turn is owned by Kirin, a Japan-based beverage company. It manufactures West End Draught beer.

West End Draught, commonly referred to as red tins, is a South Australian lager brewed by Lion, a subsidiary of Japanese company Kirin. It was formerly brewed by the South Australian Brewing Company on Port Road, Thebarton, which was taken over Lion in 1993. The company continued to trade as SA Brewing until 1 May 2019. Lion continues to use the name "West End Brewery" for its current brewery and website, which was the name of a former brewery on Hindley Street, taken over by SA Brewing in 1888.

Waikato Draught is a New Zealand Draught-style Bitter beer brewed by Lion. It is mainly sold in the Waikato region of New Zealand, but can also be found in stores elsewhere in New Zealand and abroad.

Australian International Beer Awards Annual brewing competition

Australian International Beer Awards (AIBA) is an annual brewing competition that commenced in 1992.

Magic Rock Brewing Brewery in Huddersfield, West Yorkshire, England

Magic Rock Brewing is an English brewery established in Huddersfield, West Yorkshire in 2011 by Richard Burhouse, aided by head brewer Stuart Ross. The company states that it is inspired by both local brewing traditions and the US craft beer scene.

References

  1. "Our Leadership - About Us". Lion. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  2. The Campbell and Ehrenfried Company Limited The Cyclopedia of New Zealand (Auckland Provincial District), published 1902
  3. 1 2 "Our history". Lion Nathan. Archived from the original on 5 September 2008. Retrieved 3 May 2009.
  4. 1 2 Gaynor, Brian (2 May 2009). "Cheers, say Lion's minority shareholders". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 3 May 2009.
  5. Lion Nathan shareholders approve Kirin takeover, The Australian, 17 September 2009. Retrieved on 2009-09-17.
  6. Lion Nathan shareholders approve $3 bln takeover by Kirin, Forbes.com, 17 September 2009. Retrieved on 2009-09-17.
  7. Shareholders bid sayonara to Lion Nathan, Sydney Morning Herald, 17 September 2009. Retrieved on 2009-09-17.
  8. "Lion Nathan shareholders approve takeover". Television New Zealand . 17 September 2009. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  9. Beer acquisition creates Australia's biggest supermarket supplier, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 17 September 2009. Retrieved on 2009-09-17.
  10. Moore, Ali (5 November 2009). "Beer sales boost Lion Nathan profit". Lateline . Australian Broadcasting Corporation . Retrieved 20 November 2009.
  11. Lion Nathan Annual Report 2006, Lion Nathan website, retrieved 2008-10-10.
  12. "2000's - Our History - About Us". Lion Dairy & Drinks. 27 November 2008. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  13. Jasper, Clint (26 November 2020). "Bega Cheese confirms purchase of Lion Dairy and Drinks, owner of Pura Milk, Dare and Yoplait". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  14. Eamonn Duff (27 June 2013). "Lionel Richie's cash splash in beer commercial". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
  15. Matt Shea (9 October 2013). "Tap King: Beer of the Future or Frothy Fail?". The Vine. Digital Media. Archived from the original on 9 October 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
  16. 1 2 "Historical details for ABN 13 008 596 370 [Lion-Beer Spirits & Wine Pty Ltd]". ABN Lookup. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  17. 1 2 "Current details for ABN 13 008 596 370 [Lion-Beer Spirits & Wine Pty Ltd]". ABN Lookup. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  18. 1 2 "Lion-Beer,Spirits & Wine Pty Ltd". ASIC. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  19. "Our Business: Lion New Zealand". Lion. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  20. "Castlemaine Tooheys merger is profitable". The Canberra Times . 56 (16, 813). 8 October 1981. p. 24. Retrieved 18 December 2020 via National Library of Australia.
  21. [ "Castlemaine concedes". The Canberra Times . 59 (18, 229). Australian Capital Territory, Australia. 28 August 1985. p. 1. Retrieved 18 December 2020 via National Library of Australia.
  22. "Lion's rating on hold". The Canberra Times . 67 (21, 280). 20 July 1993. p. 11. Retrieved 18 December 2020 via National Library of Australia.
  23. "Southcorp Finance Limited ACN 008 055 776". ASIC. Retrieved 15 December 2020. Registration date: 17/01/1985...Date deregistered:12/03/2009
  24. "Historical details for ABN 89 007 869 310 [The South Australian Brewing Company Pty Limited]". ABN Lookup. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
  25. "Current details for ABN 89 007 869 310 [The South Australian Brewing Company Pty Limited]". ABN Lookup. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
  26. "Details: The South Australian Brewing Company Pty Limited ACN 007 869 310". ASIC. 14 March 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
  27. "The South Australian Brewing Company". ASIC. Retrieved 15 December 2020. Holder(s) details: Holder Name: Lion-Beer,Spirits & Wine Pty Ltd
  28. West End Draught Archived 2 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine , Lion Nathan website, retrieved 2008-10-10.
  29. West End Export Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine , www.lion-nathan.com.au
  30. West End Gold Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine , www.lion-nathan.com.au
  31. West End Light Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine , www.lion-nathan.com.au
  32. Kelsall, Thomas (16 June 2021). "What we know today, Thursday June 17: West End Brewery closes doors". InDaily. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
  33. Grand Champion Beer Trophy 2003 Archived 21 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine , Australian International Beer Awards website, retrieved 2008-12-04.
  34. 2008 Brewers Association World Beer Cup Winners [ permanent dead link ], World Beer Cup event website, retrieved 2008-12-04.
  35. "Panhead ready for an Australia-wide push". The Shout. 6 November 2017. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  36. "Beer". Lion. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  37. "Craft Beer". Lion. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  38. O'Connell, Tim (1 November 2017). "Nelson craft beer pioneer Terry McCashin dies". Stuff. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
  39. "Current Beers". Mac's Beer NZ. 7 January 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  40. "Back Catalogue". Mac's Beer NZ. 7 January 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  41. "Craft Beer". Lion. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  42. "Beer". Lion. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  43. Canterbury Draught Archived 29 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine , Lion Nathan Website, retrieved 2008-10-10.
  44. "Canterbury Draught". RateBeer. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  45. "International Beer". Lion. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  46. Blair Speedy (10 March 2012). "Lion snares Corona contract from Foster's". The Australian . Retrieved 10 March 2012.
  47. "Lion snatches Stella Artois..." Archived from the original on 1 February 2012. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  48. Lion gets Stella from Foster's cellar
  49. 1 2 3 4 5 Greenblat, Eli (3 August 2012). "The Lion's share keeps growing". Fairfax. The Age. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
  50. "Cider". Lion. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  51. "A toast to a wine set favourite". The Sydney Morning Herald. 4 September 2007. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
  52. Ball, Amelia (10 March 2008). "Lion Acquires Fine Wine Partners". The Shout. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
  53. "Accolade Wines agrees to acquire Lion's Australian Premium Wine Business, Fine Wine Partners". Lion. 14 November 2016. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
  54. 1 2 "Lion-owned Distinguished Vineyards & Wine Partners Acquires Two Napa Valley Wineries: Markham Vineyards and Textbook". Lion. 28 March 2019. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
  55. "Pur Leadership Principles". DVWP. 23 October 2020. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
  56. "Wine: Our New Zealand Wine portfolio". Lion. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
  57. Evans, Simon (15 August 2006). "Beer flat, but Lion keeps its spirits up". Australian Financial Review. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  58. "Lion Nathan in high spirits after buying Inner Circle". The Age. 8 March 2007. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  59. "Bacardi Lion To Distribute McKenna and Inner Circle". The Shout. 11 June 2008. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  60. "Review of Henry McKenna Bourbon". The Scotch Noob. 4 May 2020. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  61. "Spirits & RTDs". Lion. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  62. Evans, Simon (21 March 2019). "Beer giant Lion buys half of Four Pillars Gin". Australian Financial Review. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  63. Connellan, Nick (22 March 2019). "Four Pillars Gin Sold to Lion (Kind Of)". Broadsheet. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  64. "Four Pillars named world's best gin producer two years running". businessnewsaustralia. 19 November 2020.


Further reading