List of Rugby World Cup finals

Last updated
List of Rugby World Cup finals
RWC 2011 final FRA - NZL McCaw with Ellis Cup.jpg
Sport Rugby union
Instituted1987
Number of teams20
CountryInternational (World Rugby)
HoldersFlag of South Africa.svg  South Africa (2019)
Most titlesFlag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa (3 titles)

The Rugby World Cup is an international rugby union competition established in 1987. It is contested by the men's national teams of the member unions of the sport's governing body, World Rugby, and takes place every four years. The winners of the first final were New Zealand, who beat France. South Africa are the latest winners, having won the 2019 Rugby World Cup in Japan. [1]

Rugby World Cup international rugby union competition

The Rugby World Cup is a men's rugby union tournament contested every four years between the top international teams. The tournament was first held in 1987, when the tournament was co-hosted by New Zealand and Australia.

Rugby union Team sport, code of rugby football

Rugby union, widely known simply as rugby, is a contact team sport that originated in England in the first half of the 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand. In its most common form, a game is played between two teams of 15 players using an oval-shaped ball on a rectangular field with H-shaped goalposts at either end.

World Rugby rugby union international governing body

World Rugby is the world governing body for the sport of rugby union. World Rugby organises the Rugby World Cup every four years, the sport's most recognised and most profitable competition. It also organises a number of other international rugby competitions, such as the World Rugby Sevens Series, the Rugby World Cup Sevens, the World Under 20 Championship, and the Pacific Nations Cup.

Contents

The Rugby World Cup final is the last match of the competition. The winning team is declared world champion and receives the Webb Ellis Cup. [2] If the score is a draw after 80 minutes of regular play, an additional 20-minute period of play, called extra time, is added. If the score remains tied, an additional 10 minutes of sudden-death extra time are played, with the first team to score points immediately declared the winner. If no team is able to break the tie during extra time, the winner is ultimately decided by a penalty shootout. [3] Two of the eight finals contested have gone to extra time: South Africa's victory against New Zealand in the 1995 final, and England's triumph against Australia in the 2003 final. [4]

Webb Ellis Cup Rugby trophy

The Webb Ellis Cup is the trophy awarded to the winner of the men's Rugby World Cup, the premier competition in men's international rugby union. The Cup is named after William Webb Ellis, who is often credited as the inventor of rugby football. The trophy is silver gilt and has been presented to the winner of the Rugby World Cup since the first competition in 1987. It has been held three times by New Zealand and three times by South Africa, twice by Australia, and once by England in 2003.

A draw or tie occurs in a competitive sport when the results are identical or inconclusive. Ties or draws are possible in some, but not all, sports and games. Such an outcome, sometimes referred to as deadlock, can occur in politics, business, and wherever there are different factions regarding an issue.

In a sport or game, sudden death is a form of competition where play ends as soon as one competitor is ahead of the others, with that competitor becoming the winner. Sudden death is typically used as a tiebreaker when a contest is tied at the end of regulation (normal) playing time or the completion of the normal playing task.

New Zealand and South Africa are the most successful teams in the history of the tournament, with three wins each. New Zealand is the only team to have won consecutive tournaments, with their victories in the 2011 and 2015 Rugby World Cup. Australia have won the competition twice, while England have one win; they are the only nation from the Northern Hemisphere to have won the competition. [5] France are the only team to appear in a final without ever winning one, losing all three finals they have contested. [6]

2011 Rugby World Cup 7th Rugby World Cup

The 2011 Rugby World Cup was the seventh Rugby World Cup, a quadrennial international rugby union competition inaugurated in 1987. The International Rugby Board (IRB) selected New Zealand as the host country in preference to Japan and South Africa at a meeting in Dublin on 17 November 2005. The tournament was won by New Zealand, who defeated France 8–7 in the final. The defending champions, South Africa, were eliminated by Australia 11–9 in the quarter-finals. The result marked the third time that the tournament was won by the country that hosted the event.

2015 Rugby World Cup 8th Rugby World Cup

The 2015 Rugby World Cup was the eighth Rugby World Cup, the quadrennial rugby union world championship. The tournament was hosted by England from 18 September to 31 October. Of the 20 countries competing in the World Cup in 2011, there was only one change: Uruguay replaced Russia. This was the first World Cup with no new teams to the tournament.

History

The first final of the Rugby World Cup was contested in June 1987, in Auckland, between New Zealand and France. The host team opened the scoring in the 14th minute, following a drop goal by fly-half Grant Fox. They extended their lead later in the first half when Michael Jones scored a try, which was converted by Fox. Losing 9–0 at half-time, [A] the French opened their scoring in the second half, through a penalty by Didier Camberabero. Following this, New Zealand controlled the match and tries from David Kirk, John Kirwan and the goal kicking of Fox extended their lead to 29–3. A try by Pierre Berbizier in the final minutes, which was converted by Camberabero, reduced the deficit to 29–9, as New Zealand won the tournament's inaugural final. [7]

Drop goal method of scoring points in rugby, scored by drop-kicking the ball over the crossbar and between the goalposts

A drop goal, field goal, dropped goal, or pot is a method of scoring points in rugby union and rugby league and also, rarely, in American football and Canadian football. A drop goal is scored by drop kicking the ball over the crossbar and between the goalposts. After the kick, the ball must not touch the ground before it goes over and through, although it may touch the crossbar. If the drop goal attempt is successful, play stops and the non-scoring team restarts play with a kick from halfway. If the kick is unsuccessful, the offside rules for a kick apply and play continues until a normal stoppage occurs. Because of the scoring attempt this is usually from the kicked ball going dead or into touch. Defenders may tackle the kicker while he is in possession of the ball, or attempt to charge down or block the kick.

Grant James Fox is a former rugby union player from New Zealand. He was a member of the All Blacks team that won the inaugural Rugby World Cup in 1987.

Michael Jones (rugby union) New Zealand rugby union footballer and coach

Sir Michael Niko Jones is a New Zealand former rugby union player and coach. He was named by Rugby World magazine as the third best All Black of the 20th century after Colin Meads and Sean Fitzpatrick. John Hart, who first selected him for Auckland, called him "almost the perfect rugby player".

As the hosts, England reached the final of the 1991 tournament at Twickenham, where they faced Australia. Fly-half Michael Lynagh opened the scoring for Australia with a penalty in the 27th minute. They extended their lead before half-time when prop Tony Daly scored a try, which was converted by Lynagh. England scored two penalties in the second half, courtesy of full-back Jonathan Webb, but a further penalty by Lynagh sealed Australia's victory at 12–6. [8] The tournament hosts reached the final again in 1995, as South Africa faced New Zealand in Johannesburg. Fly-half Andrew Mehrtens opened the scoring for New Zealand in the 6th minute after scoring a penalty. His opposite number, Joel Stransky, levelled the score five minutes later. The pair swapped successful penalty attempts before Stransky gave South Africa a 9–6 lead with a 32nd-minute drop goal just before half-time. New Zealand equalized in the 55th minute with a drop goal by Mehrtens, and as no further points were scored, the final went into extra time for the first time. Mehrtens converted a penalty to put New Zealand back the lead, but Stransky replied minutes later. With seven minutes to the end of extra time, Stransky scored a drop goal to secure a 15–12 victory for South Africa. [9] Nelson Mandela, the South African President, wearing a Springboks jersey, presented the Webb Ellis Cup to South Africa captain Francois Pienaar. [10]

The 1991 Rugby World Cup Final was the final match of the 1991 Rugby World Cup, the second edition of the rugby union competition, to decide the world champions. The match was played on 2 November 1991 at Twickenham Stadium, London, and was contested by the host nation England, and Australia. Australia won the match 12–6.

Twickenham Suburban area in South West London, England

Twickenham is an affluent suburban town in south-west London, England. It lies on the River Thames and is 10 miles (16 km) west-southwest of Charing Cross, 2 miles (3.2 km) south-east of Hounslow, and 2.6 miles (4.2 km) north-west of Kingston upon Thames. Historically part of Middlesex, it has formed part of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames since 1965.

Michael Patrick Thomas Lynagh, AM is an Australian former rugby union footballer who played mainly as a fly-half.

Francois Trinh-Duc tackled by New Zealand players during the 2011 Rugby World Cup Final. RWC 2011 final FRA - NZL Trinh-Duc and C Smith.jpg
François Trinh-Duc tackled by New Zealand players during the 2011 Rugby World Cup Final.

The 1999 final saw Australia face France at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff. Two tries by Owen Finegan and Ben Tune, and seven penalties by Matt Burke contributed to Australia's 35–12 win, as they became the first nation to win the Rugby World Cup twice. [11] Australia also became the first side to contest successive finals when they faced England in the 2003 final at the Telstra Stadium in Sydney. The hosts opened the scoring in the sixth minute through a Lote Tuqiri try. England responded and scored three penalties by fly-half Jonny Wilkinson and a try by winger Jason Robinson to achieve a 14–5 lead at half-time. Three penalties from Elton Flatley in the second half allowed Australia to level the score and send the final into extra time. Wilkinson and Flatley scored a penalty apiece before the former scored a drop goal in the last minute of the match to give England a 20–17 victory. They became the first side from the Northern hemisphere to win the tournament. [12]

1999 Rugby World Cup Final

The 1999 Rugby World Cup Final was the final match in the 1999 Rugby World Cup. It was played at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff, Wales on 6 November 1999, between Australia and France with 72,500 in attendance.

Millennium Stadium National stadium of Wales, located in central Cardiff

The Millennium Stadium, is the national stadium of Wales. Located in Cardiff, it is the home of the Wales national rugby union team and has also held Wales national football team games. Initially built to host the 1999 Rugby World Cup, it has gone on to host many other large-scale events, such as the Tsunami Relief Cardiff concert, the Super Special Stage of Wales Rally Great Britain, the Speedway Grand Prix of Great Britain and various concerts. It also hosted six FA Cup finals and several other high-profile football fixtures while Wembley Stadium was being redeveloped.

Owen Finegan is an Australian former rugby union player who played as a flanker or lock, for the Australian national team. He is nicknamed "Melon" because of his large head. Finegan is currently the CEO of The Kids' Cancer Project Australia.

England reached the final again in 2007, where they faced South Africa, who had won 36–0 when the two teams met during the pool stage. [13] South African full-back Percy Montgomery scored three penalties to Wilkinson's one to give South Africa a 9–3 lead at half-time. England had a try disallowed in the first minutes of the second half, when Mark Cueto was adjudged to be in touch before scoring. A penalty from Wilkinson and a further two penalties, one from Montgomery, and one from Steyn reduced the gap but did not prevent South Africa from winning 15–6 and secure their second World Cup victory. [14] The 2011 final pitted hosts New Zealand against France for the second time in the tournament, after their first encounter in the pool stage resulted in a 37–17 win for New Zealand. [15] The host team scored the first points of the match, with a try in the 15th minute through prop Tony Woodcock. Nine minutes later, New Zealand's third-choice fly-half Aaron Cruden went off injured and was replaced by Stephen Donald, who had only been called into the squad following injuries to first-choice fly-halves Dan Carter and Colin Slade. [16] Donald extended New Zealand's lead in the second half with a penalty; a minute later, French captain Thierry Dusautoir scored a try, which was converted by François Trinh-Duc to leave France one point behind New Zealand. Despite constant pressure from the French for the remainder of the final, they were unable to score more points and New Zealand won the match 8–7 to lift their second World Cup trophy. [17]

New Zealand reached the final again in 2015, where they faced Australia at Twickenham. Tries from Nehe Milner-Skudder, Ma'a Nonu and Beauden Barrett, along with four penalties, two conversions and one drop goal from fly-half Dan Carter produced a 34–17 win for New Zealand. With this victory, they became the first team to win the World Cup three times and the first holders to retain the trophy. It was also the first time that New Zealand won the competition outside of their country. [18]

Finals

Key
Dagger-14-plain.pngMatch was won during extra time
List of final matches, and respective venues, finalists and scores
YearWinnersFinal scoreRunners-upVenueLocationAttendanceRef(s)
1987 Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 29–9 Flag of France.svg  France Eden Park Auckland, New Zealand48,035 [7]
1991 Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 12–6 Flag of England.svg  England Twickenham London, England56,208 [8] [19]
1995 Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 15–12 Dagger-14-plain.png [B] Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand Ellis Park Johannesburg, South Africa62,000 [20] [21]
1999 Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 35–12 Flag of France.svg  France Millennium Stadium Cardiff, Wales72,500 [11] [22]
2003 Flag of England.svg  England 20–17 Dagger-14-plain.png [C] Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia Telstra Stadium Sydney, Australia82,957 [23]
2007 Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 15–6 Flag of England.svg  England Stade de France Paris, France80,430 [24]
2011 Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 8–7 Flag of France.svg  France Eden Park Auckland, New Zealand61,079 [6]
2015 Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 34–17 Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia Twickenham London, England80,125 [25] [26]
2019 Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 32–12 Flag of England.svg  England Nissan Stadium Yokohama, Japan70,103 [27]

Results by nation

National teamWinsRunners-upTotal finalsYears wonYears runners-up
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 314 1987, 2011, 2015 1995
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 303 1995, 2007, 2019
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 224 1991, 1999 2003, 2015
Flag of England.svg  England 134 2003 1991, 2007, 2019
Flag of France.svg  France 033 1987, 1999, 2011

See also

Notes

A.  ^ Prior to 1992, a try was worth four points. [28]

B.  ^ Score was 9–9 after 80 minutes.

C.  ^ Score was 14–14 after 80 minutes.

Related Research Articles

1995 Rugby League World Cup

The 1995 Rugby League World Cup was held during October in the United Kingdom. It was the eleventh staging of the Rugby League World Cup and was marketed as the Halifax Centenary World Cup, reflecting the tournament's sponsorship and the fact that 1995 marked the centenary of the sport. Envisaged as a celebration of rugby league football, the size of the competition was doubled, with four additional teams invited and Great Britain split into England and Wales

Jonny Wilkinson English rugby union player

Jonathan Peter Wilkinson, CBE is an English former rugby union player. A fly-half, he played for Newcastle Falcons and Toulon and represented England and the British and Irish Lions. He is particularly known for scoring the winning drop goal in the 2003 Rugby World Cup Final and is widely acknowledged as one of the best rugby union players of all time.

The 1995 Rugby World Cup was the third Rugby World Cup. It was hosted and won by South Africa, and was the first Rugby World Cup in which every match was held in one country.

Bryan Habana South African rugby union player

Bryan Gary Habana OIS is a South African former rugby union player who played as a wing. He most recently played for Toulon in the French Top 14 competition, and for the South Africa national team. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest Rugby Union players in history.

2003 Rugby World Cup Final

The 2003 Rugby World Cup Final was the final match in the 2003 Rugby World Cup, the fifth Rugby World Cup. The match was played between England and Australia on 22 November 2003 at Telstra Stadium in Sydney in front of a crowd of 82,957.

2007 Rugby World Cup Final rugby union match, played on Saturday, 20 October 2007

The 2007 Rugby World Cup Final was a rugby union match, played on Saturday, 20 October 2007 at the Stade de France, Saint-Denis, Paris, to determine the winner of the 2007 Rugby World Cup. South Africa beat England 15–6. Having also won the 1995 tournament, South Africa became the second country to win two World Cups, following Australia, who won in 1991 and 1999.

Jamie Roberts rugby union player and physician from Wales

Jamie Huw Roberts is a Welsh rugby union player. He has played for Wales since 2008, and has represented the British and Irish Lions on their tours to South Africa in 2009 and Australia in 2013. Roberts is currently playing for Bath Rugby in the English Premiership. His usual position is centre.

Rhys Priestland Welsh rugby union player

Rhys Priestland is a Welsh international rugby union player who primarily plays as a fly-half, but is also capable of playing at full-back. He attended Ysgol Gyfun Gymraeg Bro Myrddin in Carmarthen, and he is a fluent Welsh speaker.

2019 Rugby World Cup ninth edition of the Rugby World Cup

The 2019 Rugby World Cup was the ninth edition of the Rugby World Cup, the quadrennial world championship for men's rugby union teams. It was hosted in Japan from 20 September to 2 November in 12 venues all across the country. The opening match was played at Tokyo Stadium in Chōfu, Tokyo with the final match being held at International Stadium Yokohama in Yokohama. This was the first time that the tournament had taken place in Asia and outside the traditional Tier 1 rugby nations.

Owen Farrell English professional rugby union player

Owen Andrew Farrell is an English professional rugby union player, currently playing for Premiership Rugby side Saracens. Farrell has played international rugby for England since 2011, has previously played for the British and Irish Lions and has been the Captain of England since 2018. He is considered by many to be one of the best currently-active rugby union players in the world, having been nominated for World Rugby Player of the Year in 2012, 2016 and 2017. However he is often criticised for high tackles and has been learning a new technique for low tackling given to him by England rugby head coach Eddie Jones

Taulupe Faletau Tongan-born rugby union player for Wales

Tangaki Taulupe "Toby" Faletau is a Tongan-born professional rugby union player who represents Wales internationally. The back row forward played for Cross Keys RFC and Newport RFC before joining the Newport Gwent Dragons. As of the 2016/2017 season, Faletau plays for Bath Rugby.

1995 Rugby World Cup Final

The 1995 Rugby World Cup Final was the final match of the 1995 Rugby World Cup, played in South Africa. The match was played at Ellis Park Stadium, Johannesburg on 24 June 1995 between the host nation, South Africa, and New Zealand.

2003 Rugby World Cup 5th Rugby World Cup

The 2003 Rugby World Cup was the fifth Rugby World Cup and was won by England. Originally planned to be co-hosted by Australia and New Zealand, all games were shifted to Australia following a contractual dispute over ground signage rights between the New Zealand Rugby Union and Rugby World Cup Limited. The pre-event favourites were England, regarded by many at the time as the best team in the world. New Zealand, France, South Africa and defending champions Australia were also expected to make strong showings, with New Zealand being second favourites after victory in the southern-hemisphere Tri-Nations championship.

Eben Etzebeth South African rugby union footballer

Eben Etzebeth is a South African rugby player for the South Africa national team and Toulon in the Top 14 in France. His regular playing position is as a number 4 lock.

The 2013 Rugby League World Cup final was the conclusive game of the 2013 Rugby League World Cup tournament and was played between New Zealand and Australia on November 30, 2013 at Old Trafford, Manchester, England. Australia won the final by 34 points to 2 in front of a sell-out crowd, finishing the tournament undefeated. They reclaimed the cup from New Zealand, who had defeated them in the 2008 final. The Kangaroos won the Rugby League World Cup for the tenth time, and the first time since 2000. Their five-eighth, Johnathan Thurston was named man-of-the-match.

Handré Pollard South African rugby union footballer

Handré Pollard is a South African rugby union player for the South Africa national team and Montpellier in the French Top 14. His regular position is fly-half. Occasionally he will also play as a centre.

The 2016 Rugby Championship was the fifth edition of the expanded annual southern hemisphere Rugby Championship, featuring Argentina, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand. The competition is operated by SANZAAR, a joint venture of the four countries' national unions. New Zealand won their first four matches with bonus points to gain an unassailable lead, winning the title for the fourth time.

2015 Rugby World Cup Final

The 2015 Rugby World Cup Final was a rugby union match to determine the winner of the 2015 Rugby World Cup, played between reigning champions New Zealand and their rivals Australia on 31 October 2015 at Twickenham Stadium in London. New Zealand beat Australia 34–17, winning the World Cup for a record third time, and becoming the first team to retain the Webb Ellis Cup.

2019 Rugby World Cup Final Final 2019 Rugby World Cup match won by South Africa

The 2019 Rugby World Cup Final was a rugby union match played on 2 November 2019 at the International Stadium Yokohama in Yokohama, Japan. It marked the culmination of the 2019 Rugby World Cup and was played between England and South Africa, a rematch of the 2007 Rugby World Cup Final.

2017 Rugby League World Cup Final

The 2017 Rugby League World Cup Final was a rugby league match to determine the winner of the 2017 Rugby League World Cup, played between reigning champions Australia and their rivals England on December 2, 2017 at Brisbane Stadium in Brisbane, immediately after the final of the concurrent women's competition. It was the first time in 22 years since England had played in a World Cup final, when they lost to Australia 8–16 in the 1995 Rugby League World Cup Final at Wembley Stadium.

References

  1. "Yokohama Stadium to host 2019 Rugby World Cup Final". The Guardian. London. 28 September 2015. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
  2. "A guide to the Webb Ellis Cup". World Rugby. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
  3. "Tournament Rules". Rugby World Cup. Archived from the original on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
  4. Woolford, Anthony (2019-09-09). "The tragedy of South Africa's 1995 World Cup-winning team". walesonline. Retrieved 2019-11-04.
  5. Linden, Julian (19 October 2015). "Southern hemisphere completes sweep of Rugby World Cup quarterfinals". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
  6. 1 2 Fordyce, Tom (23 October 2011). "New Zealand 8–7 France". BBC Sport. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
  7. 1 2 "1987: Kiwis see off France in final". BBC Sport. 24 September 2003. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
  8. 1 2 Seeckts, Richard (2 November 1991). "Wallabies claim their first World Cup". ESPN. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  9. "Great Sporting Moments: South Africa 15 New Zealand 12, World Cup Final, Ellis Park, Johannesburg, 24 June, 1995". The Independent. London. 16 July 2009. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
  10. Smith, David (8 December 2013). "Francois Pienaar: 'When the whistle blew, South Africa changed forever'". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
  11. 1 2 "Australia ease to World Cup glory". ESPN. 6 November 1999. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  12. Ingle, Sean; Mitchell, Kevin; Williams, Richard; Jones, Dan (28 October 2013). "Rugby World Cup 2003: How the Guardian covered England's victory". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  13. Kitson, Robert (15 September 2007). "England hammered and humiliated". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  14. Mitchell, Kevin (21 October 2007). "England lose the kicking game as dream dies". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  15. Standley, James (24 September 2011). "New Zealand 37–17 France". BBC Sport. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  16. "New Zealand hero Stephen Donald delights in 'unreal' World Cup journey". BBC Sport. 23 October 2011. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  17. McMorran, Steve (23 October 2011). "New Zealand win Rugby World Cup". The Independent. London. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  18. Rees, Paul (31 October 2015). "New Zealand retain Rugby World Cup with ruthless display against Australia". The Observer. London. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  19. "1991: Wallabies pip England". BBC Sport. 24 September 2003. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
  20. "1995: Party time for SA". BBC Sport. 24 September 2003. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
  21. "South Africa 15–12 New Zealand". ESPN. Archived from the original on 24 December 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  22. "1999: Aussies rule world again". BBC Sport. 24 September 2003. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
  23. "England win Rugby World Cup". BBC Sport. 22 November 2003. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
  24. Standley, James (20 October 2007). "England 6–15 South Africa". BBC Sport. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
  25. Fordyce, Tom (31 October 2015). "New Zealand beat Australia to retain Rugby World Cup". BBC Sport. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
  26. "New Zealand 34–17 Australia". Rugby World Cup. Archived from the original on 12 December 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
  27. Fordyce, Tom (2 November 2019). "England 12–32 South Africa: Springboks win World Cup for record-equalling third time". BBC Sport. Retrieved 2 November 2019.
  28. Griffiths, John (1 February 2009). "First five-point try, England at Twickenham and the origins of a No.8". ESPN. Retrieved 11 January 2016.