In present-day Spain a mancomunidad (Aragonese : mancomunidat, Asturian : mancomunidá, Catalan : mancomunitat, Galician : mancomunidade, Basque : mankomunitatea; in English "commonwealth") is a free association or commonwealth of municipalities. A mancomunidad is a legal personality, and can exist either for a particular period to achieve a concrete goal or can exist indefinitely.[ citation needed ]
A Spanish mancomunidad constitutes a local entity within the national legal framework, to which those municipalities delegate some of their functions and powers. It is similar to a comarca, with the difference that comarca has somewhat different meanings in the various autonomous communities of Spain and mancomunidad is defined identically throughout the country. The municipalities in a single mancomunidad need not be coterminous (though they usually are). They are required to set a clear goal, create management bodies distinct from those of the individual municipalities, and provide the mancomunidad with its own budget.
In Spain there are a number of natural or historical regions that, despite of the strong identity and common goals of their inhabitants, are divided by provincial or even ancient kingdom borders. Examples of such regions are Tierra de Campos, Manchuela and Ilercavonia. Such regions or comarcas have often not been able to achieve the necessary legal recognition for their administrative development within the existing provincial or autonomous frameworks. Therefore, their municipalities have resorted to organizing themselves in a mancomunidad.
Other groups of municipalities that don't face the problem of borders cutting across their natural region of comarca may form a mancomunidad for economical purposes, to improve local services or in order alleviate some form of historical administrative neglect owing to distance from and lack of communication with current administrative centers.
The term mancomunidad and its cognates are also used to translate the English word "commonwealth".[ according to whom? ]
Castilla–La Mancha, or Castile La Mancha, is an autonomous community of Spain. Comprising the provinces of Albacete, Ciudad Real, Cuenca, Guadalajara and Toledo, it was created in 1982. It is bordered by Castile and León, Madrid, Aragon, Valencia, Murcia, Andalusia, and Extremadura. It is one of the most sparsely populated of Spain's regions. Albacete is the largest and most populous city. The government headquarters are in Toledo and the High Court headquarters are in Albacete.
The province of Ciudad Real is a province in the southwestern part of the autonomous community of Castile-La Mancha, Spain. It is bordered by the provinces of Cuenca, Albacete, Jaén, Córdoba, Badajoz, and Toledo. It is partly located in the old natural region of La Mancha. Its capital is Ciudad Real. It is the third largest province by area in all of Spain, after Cáceres and Badajoz. The historic comarca Campo de Calatrava is located in the center of the province.
In Spain traditionally and historically, some autonomous communities are also divided into comarcas.
A comarca is a traditional region or local administrative division found in Portugal, Spain and some of their former colonies: Panama, Nicaragua, and Brazil. The term is derived from the term marca, meaning a "march, mark", plus the prefix co-, meaning "together, jointly".
The Commonwealth of Catalonia was a deliberative assembly made up of the councillors of the four provinces of Catalonia. Promoted in its final stages of gestation by the Regionalist League of Catalonia, it was strongly endorsed by municipal referendum in October 1913.
The Castilian Left is a leftist nationalist political movement active in the Spanish autonomous communities of Castile-La Mancha, Castile and Leon and Community of Madrid. It strives to advocate for the national recognition of Castile, and in some cases, its independence. Other current political parties include Tierra Comunera, Castilian Party, and Ahora Castilla.
The municipalities of Spain are the basic level of Spanish local government.
Campo de Gibraltar is a comarca (county) in the province of Cádiz, Spain, in the southwestern part of the autonomous community of Andalusia, the southernmost part of mainland Europe. It comprises the municipalities of Algeciras, La Línea de la Concepción, San Roque, Los Barrios, Castellar de la Frontera, Jimena de la Frontera and Tarifa.
The Valleys of the Saja and Nansa Rivers comprise an administrative comarca in Cantabria, Spain. It is formed by the valleys of said rivers, each one being a natural comarca of its own.
Curiel de Duero is a municipality located in the province of Valladolid, Castile and León, Spain. It covers an area of 18,75 km2, has a population of 134 inhabitants, yielding a density of 6,93 inhabitants/km2. It belongs to the Valle del Cuco and the county of Campo de Peñafiel. The municipalities of San Llorente, Corrales de Duero, Valdearcos de la Vega, and Bocos de Duero also belong to the Valle del Cuco. Roturas, that borders north to Curiel De Duero, historically also belonged to Curiel, but has in modern times not been included into the Valle del Cuco county. In 1900, Curiel had its peak of 590 inhabitants.
A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman provincia, which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roman Empire's territorial possessions outside Italy. The term province has since been adopted by many countries. In some countries with no actual provinces, "the provinces" is a metaphorical term meaning "outside the capital city".
Trasierra/Tierras de Granadilla, traditionally known as Tierras de Granadilla, is a comarca at the northern end of province of Cáceres in Extremadura, one of Spain's seventeen Autonomous Communities.
The Region of León, Leonese region or Leonese Country is a historic territory defined by the 1833 Spanish administrative organisation. The Leonese region encompassed the provinces of Salamanca, Zamora, and León, now part of the modern Spanish autonomous community of Castile and León. As is the case with other historical regions, and continuing with centuries of history, the inhabitants of the Leonese region are still called Leonese. Even today, according with official autonomous government, the historical territorial adjective is used in addition with the modern annexed territory, the rest of Old Castile, being "Castilians and Leonese".
The term "provinces" has been used throughout history to identify regions of continental Portugal. Current legal subdivisions of Portugal do not coincide with the provinces, but several provinces, in their 19th- and 20th-century versions, still correspond to culturally relevant, strongly self-identifying categories. They include:
In Andalusia, comarcas have no defined administrative powers; many municipalities have gathered together to form mancomunidades in order to provide basic services, but those do not always coincide with the traditional comarcas. The current (2007) Statute of Autonomy of Andalusia, unlike its 1981 predecessor, allows for the establishment and regulation of official comarcas under its Title III, Article 97, which defines the significance of comarcas and sets the basis for future legislation in this area.
The Taula del Sénia or Mancomunitat de la Taula del Sénia is a commonwealth or free association of municipalities made up of 22 towns, totalling up to 100,000 people, of some of the comarcas that make up the center of the historical region of Ilercavonia, Spain. The origin of the name lies in the fact that all municipal terms involved are located within 15 km of the Sénia River, perceived as the centre of the region in its upper course.
Tierra del Pan is a comarca located in the center of the province of Zamora, western Spain. It belongs to the Autonomous Community of Castile and León. The city of Zamora, capital of the province, is included in this comarca.
Tierra de Campos is a large historical and natural region or greater comarca that straddles the provinces of León, Zamora, Valladolid and Palencia, in Castile and León, Spain. It is a vast, desolate plain with practically no relief, except for some wide undulations of the terrain.
Lower Aragon, also known as Tierra Baja, is a natural and historical region in Aragon, Spain. The name "Lower Aragon" refers to the areas of the lowest altitude within the Ebro river basin, but the historical region encompasses only the river basins of several right tributaries of the Ebro River, namely the Matarranya, Guadalope, Regallo, Martín and Aguas, located between the Ebro and the Iberian mountain range.
Local government in Spain refers to the government and administrative powers exercised by what the Constitution calls "local entities", principally municipalities, but there are also various forms of supra-municipal bodies such as provincial councils and cabildos and sub-municipal bodies such as comarcas. Together, these local entities make up the third tier of government, the first tier being the state (Spain) and the second tier the regions. Spain adheres to the European Charter of Local Self-Government although it declares itself not bound to the full extent by the requirement for direct elections of all local authorities.