4th Governor of Quintana Roo
5 April 1993 –4 April 1999
|Preceded by||Miguel Borge Martín|
|Succeeded by||Joaquín Hendricks Díaz|
|Born||2 July 1948|
Chetumal, Quintana Roo
|Political party|| Institutional Revolutionary Party |
|Profession|| Agronomist |
Mario Ernesto Villanueva Madrid, aka "El Chueco",(born 2 July 1948) is a Mexican politician who built an important political career within the ranks of Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI). From 1993 to 1999 he served as the fourth governor of the state of Quintana Roo. Accused of drug trafficking at the end of his gubernatorial period, he did not arrive at the ceremony at which he was to hand the office over to his elected successor, Joaquín Hendricks Díaz, and remained a fugitive from justice for two years. He served a six-year prison sentence and was extradited to the United States on 8 May 2010.
Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.
Governors of the Mexican state of Quintana Roo since statehood in 1975:
Quintana Roo, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Quintana Roo, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico. It is divided into 11 municipalities and its capital city is Chetumal.
Born in Chetumal, Quintana Roo, Villanueva studied agronomy at the Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua. He was elected presidente municipal (mayor) of Benito Juárez, Quintana Roo, in 1990 (the municipality that includes Cancún) but resigned that position the year later to fight (and win) a seat representing Quintana Roo in the federal Senate. He resigned as senator to run for governor of the state, to which he was elected in 1993.
Chetumal is a city on the east coast of the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico. It is the capital of the state of Quintana Roo and the municipal seat of the Municipality of Othón P. Blanco. In 2010 it had a population of 151,243 people.
Municipalities are the second-level administrative divisions of Mexico, where the first-level administrative division is the state. As of the establishment of two new municipalities in Chiapas in September 2017, there are 2,448 municipalities in Mexico, not including the 16 delegaciones of Mexico City. The internal political organization and their responsibilities are outlined in the 115th article of the 1917 Constitution and detailed in the constitutions of the states to which they belong.
Cancún is a city in southeast Mexico on the northeast coast of the Yucatán Peninsula in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. It is a significant tourist destination in Mexico and the seat of the municipality of Benito Juárez. The city is on the Caribbean Sea and is one of Mexico's easternmost points.
During his time as governor he promoted the development of the Riviera Maya tourist area, located to the south of Cancún. In 1993 he created the new municipality of Solidaridad in that region, with its municipal seat in Playa del Carmen.
The Riviera Maya is a tourism and resort district south of Cancun, Mexico. It straddles the coastal Federal Highway 307, along the Caribbean coastline of the state of Quintana Roo, located in the eastern portion of the Yucatán Peninsula. Historically, this district started at the city of Playa del Carmen and ended at the village of Tulum, although the towns of Puerto Morelos, situated to the north of Playa del Carmen, as well as the town of Felipe Carrillo Puerto, situated 40 kilometres (25 mi) to the south of Tulum, are both currently being promoted as part of the Riviera Maya tourist corridor.
Playa del Carmen is a city located along the Caribbean Sea in the municipality of Solidaridad, in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. It is a popular tourist area in eastern Mexico. Playa del Carmen features a wide array of tourist activities due to its geographical location in the Riviera Maya. It has also been the destination of PGA Tour golf tournaments and the set location for various television shows. The town has become one of the fastest to grow in population size in Mexico.
Criminal charges accusing Villanueva of involvement in cocaine shipments passing through his state were filed while he was still serving as governor. Federal Assistant Attorney General Mariano Herrán interviewed him at the governor's mansion in Chetumal. Fearing that he would be arrested at the end of his governorship, when his immunity (fuero) expired, he disappeared from public view two weeks before the hand-over date.
The Attorney General of Mexico is the head of the Attorney General's Office and the Federal Public Ministry, an institution belonging to the Federal Government's executive branch that is responsible for the investigation and prosecution of federal crimes. The office is governed mainly by the Constitution of Mexico and the Organic Law of the Attorney General's Office. The Attorney General is a member of the President's Cabinet.
Fuero, Fur, Foro or Foru is a Spanish legal term and concept. The word comes from Latin forum, an open space used as market, tribunal and meeting place. The same Latin root is the origin of the French terms for and foire, and the Portuguese terms foro and foral; all of these words have related, but somewhat different, meanings.
He was arrested over two years later, on 24 May 2001, in a chance vehicle inspection near Cancún.He was convicted of money-laundering offences (but cleared of drug-trafficking and organized crime charges) and spent six years in the Altiplano High-Security Prison in Almoloya de Juárez, Estado de México. He was released on 21 June 2007 but was immediately taken back into custody to face proceedings under an extradition request filed by the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York on charges including conspiracy to traffick and transport cocaine. After a lengthy process that included the lodging of amparo constitutional relief remedies, the extradition request was granted by the Secretariat of Foreign Affairs on 7 November 2007. On 4 June 2008, while in custody awaiting extradition to the United States, a federal judge found him guilty of the original drug trafficking charges and extended his original six-year sentence to 36 years and 9 months in prison.
Almoloya de Juárez is a town in the State of Mexico and the seat of the municipality of Almoloya de Juárez. The name Almoloya comes from the Nahuatl, that is properly Almoloyan, composed of: atl, "water"; molo "impersonal voice of moloni, to flow the source" and yan, "place"; that it means "place where flows the water source".
Extradition is an act where one jurisdiction delivers a person accused or convicted of committing a crime in another jurisdiction, over to their law enforcement. It is a cooperative law enforcement process between the two jurisdictions and depends on the arrangements made between them. Besides the legal aspects of the process, extradition also involves the physical transfer of custody of the person being extradited to the legal authority of the requesting jurisdiction.
The United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, known informally as The Mother Court, is a federal district court. Appeals from the Southern District of New York are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit.
On 8 May 2010 Villanueva was extradited to the United States. He was arraigned in a New York court and pleaded not guilty to drug trafficking and money laundering charges.
On 29 June 2013 Villanueva was sentenced in New York, United States to 11 years in prison after being accused of conspiring to import hundreds of tons of cocaine and launder millions of dollars in bribe payments. In 2012, he pleaded guilty to conspiracy to commit money laundering. He was sentenced to 11 years in prison but because he has been imprisoned since his 2001 arrest, he is expected to only serve three more years in prison.
Osiel Cárdenas Guillén is a Mexican drug lord and the former leader of the Gulf Cartel and Los Zetas. Originally a mechanic in Matamoros, Tamaulipas, he entered the cartel by killing Juan García Abrego's friend and contender Salvador Gómez, after the former's arrest in 1996. As confrontations with rival groups heated up, Osiel Cárdenas sought and recruited over 30 deserters from the Grupo Aeromóvil de Fuerzas Especiales to form the cartel's armed wing. Los Zetas served as the hired private mercenary army of the Gulf Cartel.
The Tijuana Cartel or Arellano-Félix Organization is a Mexican drug cartel based in Tijuana. The cartel once was described as "one of the biggest and most violent criminal groups in Mexico." However, since the 2006 Sinaloa Cartel incursion in Baja California and the fall of the Arellano-Félix brothers, the Tijuana Cartel has been reduced to a few cells. In 2016, the organization has become known as Cartel Tijuana Nueva Generación and has begun to align itself under the Jalisco New Generation Cartel, along with Beltrán Leyva Organization (BLO) to create an anti-Sinaloa alliance, in which the Jalisco New Generation Cartel heads, creating a possible powershift in Mexico.
Gilberto José Rodríguez Orejuela is a Colombian former drug lord, who once was one of the leaders of the Cali Cartel, based in the city of Cali.
Diego León Montoya Sánchez, also known as Don Diego, is a Colombian former crime boss and leader of the Norte del Valle drug cartel. On October 25, 2002, Montoya was listed as a Specially Designated Narcotics Trafficker on the United States Department of Treasury's Specially Designated National List.
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George Enrique Herbert is a Belizean gang leader and drug trafficker who worked with Mexican and Colombian drug cartels to distribute controlled drugs in Belize and the United States. He was convicted by a jury in Manhattan federal court on December 14, 2004 on multiple cocaine importation charges. He is married and has one child.
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Miguel Ángel Rodríguez Orejuela is a Colombian drug lord, formerly one of the leaders of the Cali Cartel, based in the city of Cali. He is the younger brother of Gilberto Rodríguez Orejuela. He married Miss Colombia 1974, Marta Lucía Echeverry.
Sandra Ávila Beltrán is a Mexican drug cartel leader, dubbed "La Reina del Pacífico" by the media. She was arrested on September 28, 2007, and was charged with organized crime and conspiracy to drug trafficking ; Some charges were later dropped but she was still held on possession of illegal weapons and money laundering, pending her extradition to the United States. On August 10, 2012, she was extradited to the United States to answer to criminal charges by the U.S. government.
The Colima Cartel was a Mexican drug trafficking and methamphetamine producing cartel operating in Guadalajara, Jalisco. It was founded and led by José de Jesús Amezcua Contreras and supported by his brothers Adán and Luis.
Miguel Ángel Caro Quintero is a former Mexican Drug lord born in La Noria, Badiraguato, Sinaloa, Mexico, in 1963. He is believed to have been one of the leaders of the Sonora Cartel.
Robert Randall "Randy" Crane is a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas.
Christopher Michael Coke, also known as Dudus, is a Jamaican drug lord and the leader of the Shower Posse, a violent drug gang started by his father Lester Coke in Jamaica, which exported "large quantities" of marijuana and cocaine into the United States.
Alfredo Beltrán Leyva, commonly referred to by his alias El Mochomo, is a convicted Mexican drug lord and former leader of the Beltrán-Leyva Cartel, a drug trafficking organization. He was one of Mexico's most-wanted drug lords. Beltrán Leyva was responsible for smuggling multi-ton shipments of cocaine and methamphetamine to the United States from Mexico and South America between the 1990s and 2000s. He worked alongside his brothers Héctor, Carlos, and Arturo.
The illegal drug trade in Panama includes trans-shipment of cocaine to the United States. The 1989 United States invasion of Panama to topple Dictator Manuel Noriega was justified in part by the need to combat drug trafficking. Noriega, the dictator of Panama from 1983 to 1989, had a relationship with the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) from the 1950s. More recently, Mexican cartels such as Sinaloa have been active in Panama.
Jimmy Cournoyer, sometimes called the Pot Playboy or the King of Pot, is a convicted Canadian drug trafficker and prior to being arrested, the biggest supplier of marijuana to New York and the U.S. East Coast. He was known for his lavish lifestyle, which included dating lingerie models and partying with Hollywood actor Leonardo DiCaprio.
Alberto Orlandez Gamboa, also known as "El Caracol", is a Colombian drug trafficker and the former leader of the North Coast Cartel.
Juan Carlos de la Cruz Reyna is a convicted Mexican criminal and former high-ranking member of the Gulf Cartel, a criminal group based in Tamaulipas. He was also a senior member in Los Zetas, the Gulf Cartel's former paramilitary group. In the 1990s, de la Cruz Reyna was an officer in the Tamaulipas State Police while working as a hitman for the Gulf Cartel. After he left the agency in 1999, he became a bodyguard for former Gulf Cartel kingpin Osiel Cárdenas Guillén, and was eventually promoted to regional leader of the cartel in Tampico. He reportedly had policemen on his payroll, and managed international drug trafficking shipments from Central and South America.
Miguel Borge Martín
| Governor of Quintana Roo |
5 April 1993 to 5 April 1999
| Succeeded by|
Joaquín Hendricks Díaz
María Cristina Sangri Aguilar
| Senator for Quintana Roo |
1991 to 1993
| Succeeded by|
José Epifanio Godoy Hernández
José González Zapata
| Municipal President of|
Benito Juárez, Quintana Roo
1990 to 1991
| Succeeded by|
Jorge Arturo Contreras