Michael Edwards, 2014
|Born|| Michael Anthony Edwards|
10 December 1943
|Occupation||Fragrance expert, author, editor|
|Notable works||Fragrances of the World , Perfume Legends: French Feminine Fragrances|
Michael Anthony Edwards (10 December 1943) is a British fragrance taxonomist, historian, and founding editor of Fragrances of the World , the largest guide to perfume classification. His lectures and writings, including the book Perfume Legends: French Feminine Fragrances, pioneered critical scholarship on the history of perfumery, while his fragrance wheel marked a major innovation in perfume retail. He resides in Australia, France, and the United States.
The British people, or the Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, and the Crown dependencies. British nationality law governs modern British citizenship and nationality, which can be acquired, for instance, by descent from British nationals. When used in a historical context, "British" or "Britons" can refer to the Celtic Britons, the indigenous inhabitants of Great Britain and Brittany, whose surviving members are the modern Welsh people, Cornish people, and Bretons. It may also refer to citizens of the former British Empire.
Fragrances of the World is the largest independent guide to fragrance classification. First published in 1984 by Michael Edwards in Sydney, Australia, the guide was originally named The Fragrance Manual before becoming Fragrances of the World in 2000. It has since been printed annually in a bilingual English-French edition. An online companion, the Fragrances of the World database, was launched in 2004 and, as of 2015, profiles over 17,000 perfumes, updated weekly. Fragrances of the World is considered a standard encyclopedic reference within the fragrance industry, colloquially termed the “Fragrance Bible”.
A fragrance wheel, variously called an aroma wheel, a fragrance circle, a perfume wheel or a smell wheel, is a round diagram showing the inferred relationships among olfactory groups based upon similarities and differences in their odor. The groups bordering one another are implied to share common olfactory characteristics. Fragrance wheels are frequently used as a classification tool in oenology and perfumery.
Michael Edwards was born on 10 December 1943 in Zomba, Nyasaland (present-day Malawi). After attending school in the United Kingdom and Rhodesia, he briefly studied biochemistry at the University of Natal [ citation needed ] before accepting a marketing job in London at the Beecham Group, specializing in toiletries. Edwards later moved to Paris to join Norton Simon as the international marketing director for Halston.
Zomba is a city in southern Malawi, in the Shire Highlands. It is the administrative capital of Zomba District.
Nyasaland was a British Protectorate located in Africa that was established in 1907 when the former British Central Africa Protectorate changed its name. Between 1953 and 1963, Nyasaland was part of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. After the Federation was dissolved, Nyasaland became independent from Britain on 6 July 1964 and was renamed Malawi.
Malawi, officially the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in southeast Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland. It is bordered by Zambia to the northwest, Tanzania to the northeast, and Mozambique on the east, south and west. Malawi is over 118,000 km2 (45,560 sq mi) with an estimated population of 18,091,575. Lake Malawi takes up about a third of Malawi's area. Its capital is Lilongwe, which is also Malawi's largest city; the second largest is Blantyre, the third is Mzuzu and the fourth largest is its old capital Zomba. The name Malawi comes from the Maravi, an old name of the Nyanja people that inhabit the area. The country is also nicknamed "The Warm Heart of Africa" because of the friendliness of the people.
By 1984, Michael Edwards, then working in Sydney, was aware of the need for a guide to help retailers suggest perfumes to consumers. That year, Edwards independently published The Fragrance Manual, the first retailer’s guide to fragrance classification. The manual proved a success, going through several editions, and was expanded at the request of Nordstrom, first to include American fragrances, followed by men's fragrances and niche brands.
Nordstrom Inc. is an American chain of luxury department stores, also operating in Canada and headquartered in Seattle, Washington. Founded in 1901 by Swedish American John W. Nordstrom and Carl F. Wallin, the company began as a shoe retailer and expanded its inventory to include clothing, accessories, handbags, jewelry, cosmetics, and fragrances. Select Nordstrom stores also include wedding and home furnishings departments. The company also has in-house cafes, restaurants and espresso bars. Nordstrom, Inc.'s common stock is publicly traded on the NYSE under the symbol JWN.
The 1992 edition of The Fragrance Manual was the first to feature a "fragrance wheel". This annular taxonomy organized fragrance families in relation to one another, showing their interchange, a system better suited to retail than the linear, sectional genealogy used in previous editions. It was widely adopted in the industry.
Renamed Fragrances of the World in 2000 and published annually, Edwards’ guide has become an authoritative reference in the fragrance industry, colloquially termed the 'Fragrance Bible'. Its online database, updated weekly, archives profiles of over 16,000 fragrances.
In 1990, Michael Edwards proposed to perfumer Guy Robert, president of the French Society of Perfumers, the creation of a book detailing the history of French feminine perfume, drawing from interviews to be held with famous perfumers. This was to be a novel effort, as perfumers rarely discussed their work publicly, instead preferring the secrecy traditional to the fragrance industry. Robert agreed to lend his support, becoming, alongside perfumer Edmond Roudnitska, a key advocate on Edwards’ behalf.
Edmond Roudnitska (1905–1996) was a French master perfumer and author. He is known for creating perfumes such as Dior's Eau Sauvage and Diorissimo, and Rochas's Femme. Many of his creations are still in production today. He was the father of perfumer Michel Roudnitska.
Over the course of six years, Edwards interviewed some 150 perfumers, couturiers, bottle designers, and industry executives, while gaining unprecedented access to private and corporate archives. The resulting book was titled Perfume Legends: French Feminine Fragrances.
Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds, fixatives and solvents, used to give the human body, animals, food, objects, and living-spaces an agreeable scent. It is usually in liquid form and used to give a pleasant scent to a person's body. Ancient texts and archaeological excavations show the use of perfumes in some of the earliest human civilizations. Modern perfumery began in the late 19th century with the commercial synthesis of aroma compounds such as vanillin or coumarin, which allowed for the composition of perfumes with smells previously unattainable solely from natural aromatics alone.
A perfumer is a term used for an expert on creating perfume compositions, sometimes referred to affectionately as a Nose due to their fine sense of smell and skill in producing olfactory compositions. The perfumer is effectively an artist who is trained in depth on the concepts of fragrance aesthetics and who is capable of conveying abstract concepts and moods with fragrance compositions. At the most rudimentary level, a perfumer must have a keen knowledge of a large variety of fragrance ingredients and their smells, and be able to distinguish each of the fragrance ingredients whether alone or in combination with other fragrances. As well, they must know how each ingredient reveals itself through time with other ingredients. The job of the perfumer is very similar to that of flavourists, who compose smells and flavourants for many commercial food products. The practice of perfume-making has recently attracted academic interest among major research funding agencies.
Chypre is the name of a family of perfumes that are characterised by an accord composed of citrus topnotes, a middle centered on cistus labdanum, and a mossy-animalic set of basenotes derived from oakmoss. Chypre perfumes fall into numerous classes according to their modifier notes, which include but are not limited to leather, florals, fruits, and amber.
M is a women's fragrance from Elizabeth Arden, and is the first perfume to be endorsed by American singer Mariah Carey.
Ernest Beaux was a Russian-born French perfumer who is best known for creating Chanel No. 5, which is perhaps the world's most famous perfume.
Basenotes is a United Kingdom-based online fragrance resource which includes a fragrance database, message boards and editorial. The site was launched in August 2000 by Grant Osborne as an information site for men's fragrance and grooming. In 2004, the site expanded to include feminine fragrances.
Henri Robert is a French perfumer and chemist, he is best known for his role as Chief Perfumer at Les Parfums Chanel from 1953–1978.
Nicolas de Barry is a French perfumer.
Creed is a British multi-national perfume house. Based in Paris, it was originally established and founded in England as a tailoring house in 1760 by the antecedents of French British fashion impresario Charles Creed, and it became widely known for fragrances in the 1980s.
Ambition is the third women's fragrance created by American pop/R&B singer, songwriter Jordin Sparks alongside CPL Aromas & Preferred Fragrance, endorsed by Jordin Sparks. The product was released exclusively to Bon-Ton Department Stores nationwide on November 8, 2012 in store and online. Ambition... was Preceded by two additional releases. her first fragrance "Because of You..." and her second fragrance "Fascinate". Each scent was followed with its own Eau De Parfum release and multiple gift sets.
Michael Boadi is a session hairstylist and perfumer.
Jacques Cavallier-Belletrud is a French perfumer formerly with the Swiss fragrance and flavor company Firmenich, who currently works for Louis Vuitton of the LVMH Luxury Group.
A gourmand fragrance is a perfume consisting primarily of synthetic edible (gourmand) notes, such as honey, chocolate, vanilla or candy. These top and middle notes may be blended with non-edible base notes such as patchouli or musk. They have been described as olfactory desserts. They are also called "foodie" fragrances and can be both feminine and masculine.
Diorissimo is a floral perfume released by fashion brand Christian Dior and created by French master perfumier Edmond Roudnitska. Originally introduced in 1956, Diorissimo is an attempt to simulate lily of the valley. The flower was designer Dior's favorite, decorating his stationary, his garden, and often his lapel, as well as serving as the inspiration for his 1954 spring collection, but the flower's scent is difficult to recreate in perfume since no essential oils can be obtained from the actual flowers. Consequently Diorissimo's lily scent largely used lab-created molecules to evoke the flower and is often considered the most successful effort in the history of perfumery. Diorissimo also has notes of ylang-ylang, amaryllis, boronia and jasmine.
Aventus is an Eau de Parfum launched by Paris-based perfume house Creed. The fragrance was released in September 2010, as part of the celebrations for Creed's 250th Anniversary.
Pierre 'Frédéric' Serge Louis Jacques Malle is a French businessman, author and 'Editeur de Parfums' who founded the perfume house Editions de Parfums Frédéric Malle in 2000.
Joséphine Catapano was an American perfumer.