This article needs additional citations for verification . (March 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Some of this article's listed sources may not be reliable . (March 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Fragrances of the World, 2015 edition
|Original title||The Fragrance Manual|
|Publisher||Fragrances of the World|
|Media type||Print, Online|
Fragrances of the World is the largest independent guide to fragrance classification. First published in 1984 by Michael Edwards in Sydney, Australia, the guide was originally named The Fragrance Manual before becoming Fragrances of the World in 2000. It has since been printed annually in a bilingual English-French edition. An online companion, the Fragrances of the World database, was launched in 2004 and, as of 2015, profiles over 17,000 perfumes, updated weekly.Fragrances of the World is considered a standard encyclopedic reference within the fragrance industry, colloquially termed the “Fragrance Bible” (a registered trademark since 2011).
Some 8,000 perfumes were profiled in the 2015 printed edition of Fragrances of the World, accompanied by brand name, date, fragrance family and gender. The online database, updated weekly, archives profiles of over 17,000 perfumes, listing brand name, corporate group, creative director, gender, perfumer, date, country of origin, bottle designer, fragrance family, an image, an olfactory pyramid and a pronunciation guide.
The Fragrances of the World database attempts to list all perfumes currently on the market, anywhere in the world. Each listing's profile is written by the guide's editorial team, who evaluate the perfume in collaboration with the fragrance's perfumer and house evaluator.
If a mass-market perfume is discontinued, it remains listed in the guide for another two years, excluding fragrances deemed to be of outstanding influence, which are therefore maintained. Over 3,000 discontinued perfumes considered to be of exceptional popularity or historical importance have also been added to the listing.
The guide is independently published by Fragrances of the World, funded by individual subscriptions. In the interest of neutrality, the guide contains no advertising and listings are made free of charge. However, the fragrances houses are not systematically consulted, and the content is often invented.
In 1984, Michael Edwards, having left Halston as international marketing director, was aware of the need for a guide to help retailers suggest perfumes to consumers. Though Edwards had previously tried to re-establish Firmenich’s defunct classification Bouquet de la Parfumerie, the leading manual remained Haarmann & Reimer’s Guide to Fragrance Ingredients, an essentially technical genealogy unsuited to retail.
That year in Sydney, Edwards independently published The Fragrance Manual, the first retailer’s guide to fragrance classification, profiling three hundred perfumes. The manual proved a success, going through several editions, and was expanded at the request of Nordstrom, first to include American fragrances, followed by men’s fragrances and niche brands.
The manual’s original linear, sectional layout, traditional to fragrance classifications, presented certain limitations. Consumer preferences, Edwards felt, did not necessarily fall into a particular olfactory group (floral, oriental, woody, etc), and could span two or more groups if linked by similar subgroups (i.e. soft florals being akin to floral orientals). This he addressed in the 1992 edition of The Fragrance Manual, the first to feature an annular taxonomy known as the ‘fragrance wheel’, which organized olfactory groups in relation to one another while showing their interchange. The fragrance wheel proved a major innovation in perfume classification, its design copied widely throughout the fragrance industry.
In 2000, The Fragrance Manual was renamed Fragrances of the World. The printed guide has since been published annually in a bilingual English-French edition.
The Fragrances of the World online database was launched in 2004, accessible by paid subscription. Due to its weekly updates and comprehensive scope (profiling over 17,000 perfumes in 2015), the database has largely superseded the guide's printed edition.
Fragrance Finder, an application based on The Fragrance Manual designed to recommend perfumes according to consumer preferences, was originally developed for Sephora without success. The application was instead sold independently to retailers in 1994 on CD-ROM, before appearing online in 2006.
While Fragrances of the World has largely been adopted as a standard reference in the fragrance industry, the guide has also been subject to criticism. As an independent publication, the guide's fragrance classifications are sometimes discordant with those of the perfume houses, and the creations are sometimes attributed to the wrong perfumer, causing debate. Its simplistic categories, largely devised for retail, differ from the complex subgroups featured in smaller technical manuals such as the Classification officielle des parfums et terminologie (also created in 1984), published by the French Society of Perfumers.[ how? ] Its content is also limited in comparison with free resources such as Basenotes, Fragrantica or Perfume Intelligence, though it is considerably more accurate.
Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds, fixatives and solvents, used to give the human body, animals, food, objects, and living-spaces an agreeable scent. It is usually in liquid form and used to give a pleasant scent to a person's body. Ancient texts and archaeological excavations show the use of perfumes in some of the earliest human civilizations. Modern perfumery began in the late 19th century with the commercial synthesis of aroma compounds such as vanillin or coumarin, which allowed for the composition of perfumes with smells previously unattainable solely from natural aromatics alone.
An aroma compound, also known as an odorant, aroma, fragrance, or flavor, is a chemical compound that has a smell or odor. For a chemical compound to have a smell or odor it must be sufficiently volatile to be transported to the olfactory system in the upper part of the nose.
The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, referred to as The Merck Manual, is the world's best-selling medical textbook, and the oldest continuously published English language medical textbook. First published in 1899, the current print edition of the book, the 20th Edition, was published in 2018. In 2014, Merck decided to move The Merck Manual to digital-only, online publication, available in both Professional and Consumer versions; this decision was reversed in 2017, with the publication of the 20th edition the following year. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy is one of several medical textbooks, collectively known as The Merck Manuals, which are published by Merck Publishing, a subsidiary of the pharmaceutical company Merck Co., Inc. in the United States and Canada, and MSD in other countries in the world. Merck also formerly published The Merck Index, An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals.
Guerlain is a French perfume, cosmetics and skincare house, which is among the oldest in the world. Many traditional Guerlain fragrances are characterized by a common olfactory accord known as the "Guerlinade". The house was founded in Paris in 1828 by the perfumer Pierre-François Pascal Guerlain. It was run by the Guerlain family until 1994, when it was bought by the French multinational company LVMH. Its flagship store is 68, Avenue des Champs-Elysées in Paris.
Chypre is the name of a family of perfumes that are characterised by an accord composed of citrus topnotes, a middle centered on cistus labdanum, and a mossy-animalic set of basenotes derived from oakmoss. Chypre perfumes fall into numerous classes according to their modifier notes, which include but are not limited to leather, florals, fruits, and amber.
Chanel No. 19 perfume was first marketed in 1971. The number 19 was chosen to commemorate Coco Chanel's birthday, 19 August. The perfume was launched a year before she died. The scent was created by Henri Robert.
Basenotes is a United Kingdom-based online fragrance resource which includes a fragrance database, message boards and editorial. The site was launched in August 2000 by Grant Osborne as an information site for men's fragrance and grooming. In 2004, the site expanded to include feminine fragrances.
Heat is a perfume endorsed by Beyoncé. It was created by her alongside Claude Dir and Olivier Gillotin of the company Givaudan. The product, which was released on February 3, 2010, uses the tagline "catch the fever". The release was promoted with a cover version of "Fever" recorded by Beyoncé and a limited edition extended play (EP) also titled Heat. She also appeared at Macy's Herald Square to launch the perfume and on The Today Show where she discussed about Heat.
The Osmothèque is the world's largest scent archive, a leading international research institution tracing the history of perfumery, based in Versailles with conference centers in New York City and Paris. Founded in 1990 by Jean Kerléo and other senior perfumers including Jean-Claude Ellena and Guy Robert, the Osmothèque is internationally responsible for the authentication, registration, preservation, documentation and reproduction of thousands of perfumes gathered from the past two millennia, archived at the Osmothèque repository and consultable by the public.
Creed is a multi-national perfume house. Based in Paris, it was originally established and founded in England as a tailoring house in 1760 by the antecedents of French British fashion impresario Charles Creed, and it became widely known for fragrances in the 1980s.
A fragrance wheel, variously called an aroma wheel, a fragrance circle, a perfume wheel or a smell wheel, is a round diagram showing the inferred relationships among olfactory groups based upon similarities and differences in their odor. The groups bordering one another are implied to share common olfactory characteristics. Fragrance wheels are frequently used as a classification tool in oenology and perfumery.
Beyoncé Pulse is the third women's fragrance created and endorsed by Beyoncé, with Bruno Jovanovic and Loc Dong of IFF. The ad's tagline is "Feel the Power." Beyoncé Pulse comes in an upside-down chrome-and-blue bottle, neatly tucked into a holographic carton, inspired by Knowles' fashion during stage performances. It features notes of pear blossom, peony, midnight blooming jasmine, Madagascar vanilla, and bluebird orchid.
Jacques Edouard Guerlain was a French perfumer, the third and most famous of the Guerlain family. One of the most prolific and influential perfumers of the 20th century, over eighty of Guerlain's perfumes remain known, though certain estimates suggest he composed some four hundred. Among his greatest fragrances are L’Heure Bleue (1912), Mitsouko (1919) and Shalimar (1925). Though his work earned him universal renown, a considerable fortune and honours such as that of Chevalier of the Legion of Honour, Guerlain avoided public attention, never once granting an interview. As a result, relatively little is known of his creative process or personal life.
Michael Boadi is a session hairstylist and perfumer.
Elixir is a women's fragrance by Colombian singer songwriter Shakira, developed in a collaboration with international fashion company Puig. After the release of her first two fragrances, Puig enlisted several perfumers to work on Shakira's third fragrance, which she claimed would capture her "most sensual and exotic side." The final product was Elixir, an oriental perfume based on various spicy and woody sources. The flacon of the perfume is inspired by apothecary bottles and is made to resemble a magical potion, featuring a light golden colour scheme.
Michael Anthony Edwards is a British fragrance taxonomist, historian, and founding editor of Fragrances of the World, the largest guide to perfume classification. His lectures and writings, including the book Perfume Legends: French Feminine Fragrances, pioneered critical scholarship on the history of perfumery, while his fragrance wheel marked a major innovation in perfume retail. He resides in Australia, France, and the United States.
A gourmand fragrance is a perfume consisting primarily of synthetic edible (gourmand) notes, such as honey, chocolate, vanilla or candy. These top and middle notes may be blended with non-edible base notes such as patchouli or musk. They have been described as olfactory desserts. They are also called "foodie" fragrances and can be both feminine and masculine.
Rise is a perfume endorsed by Beyoncé and distributed through division Coty Beauty of manufacturer Coty, Inc. She collaborated with perfumer Loc Dong from the company International Flavors & Fragrances (IFF) for creating the scent. It marks her third fragrance following the release of Heat (2010) and Pulse (2011). Inspired by African-American author Maya Angelou and meant to showcase private sides of Beyoncé's personal life, Rise was created as a woman's fragrance.
Diorissimo is a floral perfume released by fashion brand Christian Dior and created by French master perfumier Edmond Roudnitska. Originally introduced in 1956, Diorissimo is an attempt to simulate lily of the valley. The flower was designer Dior's favorite, decorating his stationary, his garden, and often his lapel, as well as serving as the inspiration for his 1954 spring collection, but the flower's scent is difficult to recreate in perfume since no essential oils can be obtained from the actual flowers. Consequently Diorissimo's lily scent largely used lab-created molecules to evoke the flower and is often considered the most successful effort in the history of perfumery. Diorissimo also has notes of ylang-ylang, amaryllis, boronia and jasmine.
The Art and Olfaction Awards are a non-profit award mechanism designed to celebrate excellence in international artisan, experimental and independent perfumery and olfactory art through a yearly blind-judged competition.