TheInternational Fragrance Association (IFRA) is the global representative body of the fragrance industry. It seeks to represent the collective interests of the industry and promote the safe use of fragrances.
The Association was founded in 1973 and has its head office in Geneva, Switzerland and its operations centre in Brussels, Belgium. Its members are eight multinational companies (known as 'Regular Members') and 21 national associations covering 23 countries. There are eight 'Supporting Members' from countries where and IFRA does not have a national association.
IFRA is led by a President, Martina Bianchini, and by a Board headed by its Chairman, Michael Carlos of Givaudan.
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IFRA is the official self-regulatory representative body of the fragrance industry worldwide.Its main purpose is to ensure the safety of fragrance materials through a dedicated science program. IFRA publishes a list of usage standards for fragrance materials, limiting or prohibiting the use of ingredients, based on the findings of the Research Institute of Fragrance Materials, which gathers data regarding the safety of fragrance materials.
IFRA's day-to-day operations are led by its President. Since 2016, this role has been occupied by Martina Bianchini, heading a team of more than ten staff members based principally in Brussels.
IFRA's main decision-making body is its Board, headed by the IFRA Chairman, Michael Carlos of Givaudan. The Board has twelve voting members: eight representing the Regular Members, and four regional representatives of national associations. IFRA's Treasurer is Christophe Maubert of Robertet.
Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds, fixatives and solvents, used to give the human body, animals, food, objects, and living-spaces an agreeable scent. It is usually in liquid form and used to give a pleasant scent to a person's body. Ancient texts and archaeological excavations show the use of perfumes in some of the earliest human civilizations. Modern perfumery began in the late 19th century with the commercial synthesis of aroma compounds such as vanillin or coumarin, which allowed for the composition of perfumes with smells previously unattainable solely from natural aromatics alone.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is an independent agency of the United States government tasked with protecting public health and safety related to nuclear energy. Established by the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, the NRC began operations on January 19, 1975 as one of two successor agencies to the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Its functions include overseeing reactor safety and security, administering reactor licensing and renewal, licensing radioactive materials, radionuclide safety, and managing the storage, security, recycling, and disposal of spent fuel.
Firmenich SA is a private Swiss company in the fragrance and flavor business. It is the largest privately owned company in the field and ranks number two worldwide. Firmenich has created perfumes for over 100 years and produced a number of well-known flavors.
The Surface Transportation Board (STB) of the United States is a federal, bipartisan, independent adjudicatory board. The STB was established in 1996 to assume some of the regulatory functions that had been administered by the Interstate Commerce Commission when the ICC was abolished. Other ICC regulatory functions were either eliminated or transferred to the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration or to the Bureau of Transportation Statistics within DOT.
An aroma compound, also known as an odorant, aroma, fragrance, or flavor, is a chemical compound that has a smell or odor. For a chemical compound to have a smell or odor it must be sufficiently volatile to be transported to the olfactory system in the upper part of the nose.
Givaudan is a Swiss manufacturer of flavours, fragrances and active cosmetic ingredients. As of 2008, it is the world's largest company in the flavour and fragrance industries.
Symrise AG is a major producer of flavours and fragrances with sales of €3.154 billion in 2018. Major competitors include Firmenich, Givaudan, International Flavors and Fragrances, Frutarom and Takasago International. Symrise is a member of the European Flavour Association.
Quest International was a major producer of flavors, fragrances and food ingredients with sales of £560 million in 2005 before its acquisition by rival Givaudan. Quest created and marketed flavours and fragrance concepts and solutions for the fast-moving consumer goods industries. With operations in 31 countries, Quest made ingredients for foods, snacks, beverages, personal care, fine fragrances, and home hygiene products.
Takasago International Corporation is a major international producer of flavours and fragrances headquartered in Japan, with presence in 27 countries and regions worldwide.
The World Nuclear Association is the international organization that promotes nuclear power and supports the companies that comprise the global nuclear industry. Its members come from all parts of the nuclear fuel cycle, including uranium mining, uranium conversion, uranium enrichment, nuclear fuel fabrication, plant manufacture, transport, and the disposition of used nuclear fuel as well as electricity generation itself.
The National Economic and Development Authority, abbreviated as NEDA, is an independent cabinet-level agency of the Philippine government responsible for economic development and planning. It is headed by the President of the Philippines as chairman of the NEDA board, with the Secretary of Socio-Economic Planning, concurrently NEDA Director-General, as vice-chairman. A number of Cabinet members, the Governor of the Central Bank, the Chairman of the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority, the Governor of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, the Chairman of the Commission on Information and Communications Technology, the Chairman of the Subic-Clark Area Development Corporation, and the National President of the Union of Local Authorities of the Philippines are members of the NEDA Board.
The Construction Industry Council (CIC) is the representative forum for professional bodies, research organisations and specialist business associations in the United Kingdom construction industry.
Sir Howard John Davies is a British Economist and Author who is the current Chairman of the Royal Bank of Scotland and the former Director of the London School of Economics.
Executive Schedule is the system of salaries given to the highest-ranked appointed officials in the executive branch of the U.S. government. The President of the United States appoints individuals to these positions, most with the advice and consent of the United States Senate. They include members of the president's Cabinet, several top-ranking officials of each executive department, the directors of some of the more prominent departmental and independent agencies, and several members of the Executive Office of the President.
The Delegation of the European Union to the United States represents the European Union in the United States, working in coordination with the diplomatic and consular missions of all the EU Member States. It is located at 2175 K Street, N.W., in the West End neighborhood of Washington, D.C..
The National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) is the national association representing the state public service commissioners who regulate essential utility services, including energy, telecommunications, and water. NARUC members are responsible for assuring reliable utility service at fair, just, and reasonable rates. Founded in 1889, the Association is a resource for its members and the regulatory community, providing a venue to set and influence public policy, share best practices, and foster solutions to improve regulation.
TheCityUK is a private-sector membership body and industry advocacy group promoting the financial and related professional services industry of the United Kingdom (UK). TheCityUK is often referred to as the industry's "most powerful" or "most prominent" lobbyists with close links to the UK Government and to policymakers in Brussels and Washington.
"The Advertising Standards Council of India (ASCI)", established in 1985, is a self-regulatory voluntary organization of the advertising industry in India. It is a non-Government body. ASCI is committed to the cause of self- regulation in advertising ensuring the protection of the interest of consumers. ASCI seeks to ensure that advertisements conform to its Code for Self-Regulation, which requires advertisements to be legal, decent, honest and truthful and not hazardous or harmful while observing fairness in competition. ASCI looks into complaints across ALL MEDIA such as Print, TV, Radio, hoardings, SMS, Emailers, Internet / web-site, product packaging, brochures, promotional material and point of sale material etc. ASCI’s role has been acclaimed by various Government bodies including The Department of Consumer Affairs (DoCA), Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI), Ministry of AYUSH as well as the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. The association with these Government bodies is to co-regulate and curb misleading and objectionable advertisements in the respective sectors. In January 2017, the Supreme Court of India in its judgement has also affirmed and recognized the self-regulatory mechanism as an effective pre-emptive step to statutory provisions in the sphere of advertising content regulation for TV and Radio in India. ASCI is a part of the Executive Committee of International Council on Ad Self-Regulation (ICAS). Among several awards bestowed by the European Advertising Standards Alliance (EASA), ASCI bagged two Gold Global Best Practice Awards for the Mobile App "ASCIonline" (2016) and for reducing the time taken to process complaints (2013).
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European Flavour Association (EFFA) is a non-profit European-level trade association of the flavor industry, based in Brussels, Belgium. Founded in 1961, the organisation originally focused on both flavours and fragrances, but has focused solely on flavours since 2006. Its members include 12 national and 10 direct member companies.