|Onsong concentration camp|
온성 제12호 관리소
|Revised Romanization||Onseong Je Sipi-ho Gwalliso|
|McCune–Reischauer||Onsŏng Che Sibi-ho Kwalliso|
|Revised Romanization||Onseong Jeongchibeum Suyongso|
|McCune–Reischauer||Onsŏng Chŏngch'ibŏm Suyongso|
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|Human rights in North Korea|
The Onsong concentration camp was an internment camp in Changpyong, Onsong County, North Hamgyong, North Korea. It housed approximately 15,000 political prisoners. The camp was officially known as Concentration Camp (Kwan-li-so) No. 12.
Although information about the camp is scarce, two defectors have alleged the forcible suppression of a large riot in May 1987 at the camp. According to the testimony of Ahn Myong-chol, a guard at a similar camp, and Mun Hyon-il, a nearby resident, the riot started when one political prisoner at the camp killed a guard in protest of the guard's treatment of another prisoner; he was then joined by 200 others at the scene who overcame another guard. At the height of the riot, some 5,000 prisoners were openly in revolt.
Reinforced from a second camp, guards proceeded to open fire on the rioters with machine guns, the defectors have stated. Reports on the number of dead vary; the defectors claim all rioters were executed, while a third defector previously involved with the North Korean security services describes being told of the execution of only a third.
The camp was closed in 1989, a decision thought to be because of its proximity to the border with China. The prisoners were then transferred to Hoeryong concentration camp.
Human experimentation in North Korea is an issue raised by some North Korean defectors and former prisoners. They have described suffocation of prisoners in gas chambers, testing deadly chemical weapons, and surgery without anesthesia.
Hoeryong concentration camp was a prison camp in North Korea that was reported to have been closed in 2012. The official name was KwallisoNo. 22. The camp was a maximum security area, completely isolated from the outside world.
North Korea's human rights record is often considered to be the worst in the world and has been globally condemned, with the United Nations, the European Union and groups such as Human Rights Watch all critical of the country's record. Most international human rights organizations consider North Korea to have no contemporary parallel with respect to violations of liberty.
Kang Chol-hwan is a North Korean defector and author. As a child, he was imprisoned in the Yodok concentration camp for 10 years. After his release he fled the country, first to China and eventually to South Korea. He is the author, with Pierre Rigoulot, of The Aquariums of Pyongyang and worked as a staff writer specialized in North Korean affairs for The Chosun Ilbo. He is the founder and president of the North Korea Strategy Center.
Yodok concentration camp was a kwalliso in North Korea. The official name was Kwan-li-so No. 15. The camp was used to segregate those seen as enemies of the state, punish them for political misdemeanors, and put them to hard labour. It was closed down in 2014.
Lee Soon-ok is a former prisoner of a North Korean political prison and the author of Eyes of the Tailless Animals: Prison Memoirs of a North Korean Woman, an account of her ordeal of being falsely accused, tortured, and imprisoned under poor conditions for crimes against the state and her subsequent release from prison and defection from the country. Since leaving North Korea, she has resided in South Korea.
Kaechon concentration camp is a prison in North Korea with many political prisoners. The official name is Kyo-hwa-so No. 1. It is not to be confused with Kaechon internment camp, which is located 20 km (12 mi) to the south-east.
Kaechon Internment Camp is a labor camp in North Korea for political prisoners and descendants of alleged criminals. The official name for the camp is Kwan-li-so No. 14. The camp is commonly known as Camp 14. It is not to be confused with the Kaechon concentration camp, which is located 20 km (12 mi) to the northwest.
Pukch'ang concentration camp is a labor camp in North Korea for political prisoners. It is sometimes called Tŭkchang concentration camp. The official name is Kwan-li-so No. 18.
Hwasong concentration camp is a labor camp in North Korea for political prisoners. The official name is Kwan-li-so No. 16.
Chongjin concentration camp is a labour camp in North Korea for political prisoners. The official name is Kwan-li-so No. 25. Satellite images show a major expansion of the camp after 2010.
Chongori concentration camp is a reeducation camp in North Korea. The official name of the camp is Kyo-hwa-so No. 12.
Conditions inside North Korean prison camps are unsanitary and life-threatening. Prisoners are subject to torture and inhumane treatment. Public and secret executions of prisoners, even children, especially in cases of attempted escape, are commonplace. Infanticides also often occur. The mortality rate is very high, because many prisoners die of starvation, illnesses, work accidents, or torture.
North Korea's political penal labour colonies, transliterated kwalliso or kwan-li-so, constitute one of three forms of political imprisonment in the country, the other two being what Hawk translated as "short-term detention/forced-labor centers" and "long-term prison labor camps", for misdemeanour and felony offenses respectively. In total, there are an estimated 80,000 to 120,000 political prisoners.
Shin Suk-ja is a South Korean woman who is currently imprisoned, along with her daughters, in North Korea after her husband Oh Kil-nam defected from North Korea to Denmark, having been given a political asylum. The case received international attention, including Amnesty International's naming her a prisoner of conscience and campaigning heavily for her release; this appeal remains ignored by North Korean authorities.
Kangdong concentration camp is a reeducation camp in North Korea. The official name of the camp is Kyo-hwa-so No. 4.
Kyo-hwa-so Hoeryong is a "reeducation camp" in Hoeryong, in North Hamgyong province of North Korea. It is not to be confused with Haengyong political prison camp, which is located 10 km (6.2 mi) north-east of Hoeryong and is sometimes also called Hoeryong camp. It holds roughly 1,500 prisoners.
Hamhung concentration camp is a reeducation camp in North Korea. The official name of the camp is Kyo-hwa-so No. 9. The sub-facility for women is sometimes called Kyo-hwa-so No. 15.
Chungsan concentration camp is a reeducation camp in North Korea. Its official name is Kyo-hwa-so No. 11.
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