Order of St. Olav

Last updated
  • Order of Saint Olav
  • Sankt Olavs Orden
Cross Norwegian Order of St. Olav.JPG
Cross of the Order of St. Olav
Awarded by
Royal Arms of Norway.svg
King of Norway
Type Chivalric order with five degrees
Established21 August 1847;173 years ago (1847-08-21)
MottoRET OG SANDHED (Justice and Truth)
Criteriaremarkable accomplishments on behalf of the country and humanity
StatusCurrently constituted
Grand Master King Harald V
Grades
  • Grand Cross with Collar
  • Grand Cross
  • Commander with Star
  • Commander
  • Knight 1st Class
  • Knight
Precedence
Next (higher)None (formerly the Order of the Norwegian Lion)
Next (lower) Order of Merit
St. Olavs Orden stripe.svg
Riband of the Order of St. Olav

The Royal Norwegian Order of Saint Olav (Norwegian : Den Kongelige Norske Sankt Olavs Orden; or Sanct Olafs Orden, the old Norwegian name) is a Norwegian order of chivalry instituted by King Oscar I on 21 August 1847. It is named after King Olav II, known to posterity as St. Olav.

Contents

Just before the union with Sweden was dissolved in 1905, the Order of the Norwegian Lion was instituted in 1904 by King Oscar II, but no appointments were awarded by his successor, King Haakon VII. The Order of St. Olav thus became the kingdom's only order of chivalry for the next 80 years. The Grand Master of the order is the reigning monarch of Norway. It is used to reward individuals for remarkable accomplishments on behalf of the country and humanity. Since 1985, appointments to the order has only been conferred upon Norwegian citizens, though foreign heads of state and royalty may be appointed as a matter of courtesy.

Grades and classes

The reigning monarch of Norway is the order's Grand Master. [1] The order consists of three grades, of which two are divided into two classes, and may be awarded for either civilian or military contributions, in descending order of distinction. The collar is awarded as a separate distinction of the Grand Cross to those recipients deemed exceptionally worthy.

Ribbon bars
St Olavs Orden storkors stripe.svg
Grand Cross with Collar
St Olavs Orden storkors stripe.svg
Grand Cross
St Olavs Orden kommandor med stjerne stripe.svg
Commander with Star
St Olavs Orden kommandor stripe.svg
Commander
St Olavs Orden ridder 1 klasse stripe.svg
Knight 1st Class
St. Olavs Orden stripe.svg
Knight

Insignia

The Star of The Order of Saint Olav Star Norwegian Order of St. Olav.JPG
The Star of The Order of Saint Olav
Design of the collar of the Order of St. Olav since 1906. Collier Ordre de Saint Olaf type 1906.svg
Design of the collar of the Order of St. Olav since 1906.

The collar of the Order is in gold, with five enamelled and crowned monograms "O" (for "Oscar", the royal cipher of Oscar I, the Order's founder), five enamelled and crowned coat-of-arms of Norway, and 10 gold crosses bottony each flanked by two battle axes with silver blades and golden shafts (The latter element is also featured in the coat of arms of the Church of Norway).

The badge of the Order is a white enamelled Maltese Cross, in silver for the knight class and in gilt of the higher classes; crowned monograms "O" (for "Oscar") appear between the arms of the cross. The obverse central disc is red with the golden Norwegian lion rampart bearing a battle-axe; the reverse disc bears the King Oscar's motto «Ret og Sandhed»   "Justice and Truth" in Norwegian; both discs are surrounded by a white-blue-white ring. The cross is topped by a crown; military awards have crossed swords between the crown and the cross.

The star of the Order for the Grand Cross is an eight-pointed silver star with faceted rays, bearing the obverse of the badge of the Order (minus the crown on the top).

The star for Commander with Star is a silver faceted Maltese Cross, with gilt crowned monograms "O" (for "Oscar") between the arms of the cross. The central disc is red with the golden Norwegian lion rampart bearing a battle axe, surrounded by a white-blue-white ring. [2]

The ribbon of the Order is red with white-blue-white edge stripes.

In very exceptional circumstances the Order may be awarded "with diamonds", in which case a ring of diamonds replaces the white-blue-white enamel ring surrounding the central disc on the front of the badge.

The insignia are expected to be returned either upon the receiver's advancement to a higher level of the order or upon his or her death. The insignia are produced in Norway by craftsmen.

Eligibility and appointment

The King makes appointments upon the recommendation of a six-member commission, none of whom may be a member of the government, consisting of a chancellor, vice chancellor, the Lord Chamberlain (acting as treasurer), and three other representatives. The Lord Chamberlain nominates the members of the commission, and the monarch approves them. [3] Nominations to the order are directed at the commission through the county governor.

Princes and Princesses with succession rights to the throne are appointed to the highest degree upon reaching their age of majority. [4]

Ranking

The Order of St. Olav is the highest civilian honour currently conferred by Norway and only ranks after the military War Cross among all Norwegian decorations still awarded in the general ranking.

In the order of precedence used at the royal court of Norway, bearers of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav with collar are ranked 15th in the order of precedence, directly after the Mistress of the Robes and generals and directly before recipients of the War Cross with Sword. Bearers of the Grand Cross of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav are ranked 16th.

Current holders of the Grand Cross

This list contains holders of the Grand Cross, some of whom have also been awarded the Collar and gives the year of their appointment. The list is collated alphabetically by the last name; those recipients not possessing the last name, such as royalty and most Icelanders are collated by the first name. Six of the listed are not heads of states or royals; these are marked by names in bold. Before the Royal Norwegian Order of Merit was created in 1985, appointments to the Order of St Olav was awarded to members of a foreign delegation during state visits. Many holders of the Grand Cross who are not heads of state are not listed here.

CountryNameChargeGrand Cross
with Collar
Grand CrossYear
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina Mauricio Macri Former PresidentCheck mark 23x20 04.svg2018
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria Heinz Fischer 2007
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium Albert II Former KingCheck mark 23x20 04.svg1964
Mathilde QueenCheck mark 23x20 04.svg2003
Paola Former Queen1997
Philippe King2003
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva Former President2003
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria Georgi Parvanov 2006
Flag of Chile.svg  Chile Sebastián Piñera President2019
Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia Ivo Josipović Former president2011
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark Benedikte Princess1974
Frederik Crown Prince1990
Joachim Prince1991
Margrethe II QueenCheck mark 23x20 04.svg1958
Marie PrincessCheck mark 23x20 04.svg2014
Mary Crown Princess2005
Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia Toomas Hendrik Ilves Former President2014
Arnold Rüütel 2002
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland Martti Ahtisaari 1994
Tellervo Koivisto Former President's wife1983
Sauli Niinistö President2012
Tarja Halonen Former President2000
Flag of France.svg  France Valéry Giscard d'Estaing Former President (when Minister of Finance)1962
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Joachim Gauck Former President2014
Horst Köhler 2007
Marianne von Weizsäcker Former first lady1986
Hellenic Kingdom Flag 1935.svg
Greece
Constantine II Former KingCheck mark 23x20 04.svg1964, 1962
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran Farah Pahlavi Former Empress1965
Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland Guðni Th. Jóhannesson President2017
Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson Former President1998
Vigdís Finnbogadóttir Check mark 23x20 04.svg1982
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Sergio Mattarella PresidentCheck mark 23x20 04.svg2016
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan Akihito Emperor EmeritusCheck mark 23x20 04.svg2001, 1953
Masako Empress (when Crown Princess)2001
Michiko Empress Emerita2001
Naruhito Emperor (when Crown Prince)2001
Nobuko Princess2001
Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan Abdullah II King2000
Hussein Crown Prince2020
Hassan Prince (when Crown Prince)?
Rania Queen2000
Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia Guntis Ulmanis Former President1998
Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga 2000
Andris Bērziņš 2015
Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania Valdas Adamkus 1998
Dalia Grybauskaitė 2011
Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg Henri Grand DukeCheck mark 23x20 04.svg2011
Maria Teresa Grand DuchessCheck mark 23x20 04.svg1996
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands Beatrix Former Queen (when Princess)Check mark 23x20 04.svg1964
Margriet PrincessCheck mark 23x20 04.svg1964
Willem-Alexander King1996
Máxima Queen2013
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway Astrid PrincessCheck mark 23x20 04.svg1956
Kjell Magne Bondevik Former Prime MinisterCheck mark 23x20 04.svg2004
Lars Petter Forberg Former Lord Chamberlain of the Royal Household2004
Åge Bernhard Grutle 2015
Haakon Crown PrinceCheck mark 23x20 04.svg1991
Magne Hagen Former Cabinet Secretary to the KingCheck mark 23x20 04.svg2000
Harald V KingCheck mark 23x20 04.svg
Grand Master
1955, 1991
Märtha Louise PrincessCheck mark 23x20 04.svg1989
Mette-Marit Crown PrincessCheck mark 23x20 04.svg2001, 2016
Edvard Moser Professor, psychologist and neuroscientist, Nobel laureat 2018
May-Britt Moser 2018
Arne Omholt Former Marshal of the Court2016
Carsten Smith Former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Norway2003
Sonja QueenCheck mark 23x20 04.svg1972
Berit Tversland Former Cabinet Secretary to the KingCheck mark 23x20 04.svg2012
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland Andrzej Duda President2016
Bronislaw Komorowski Former President2012
Aleksander Kwaśniewski 1996
Lech Wałęsa 1995
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal António Ramalho Eanes Check mark 23x20 04.svg1978
Jorge Sampaio Check mark 23x20 04.svg2004
Aníbal Cavaco Silva 2008
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania Emil Constantinescu 1999
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea Moon Jae-in President2019
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia Andrej Kiska Former President2018
Ivan Gašparovič 2010
Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia Borut Pahor President2019
Danilo Türk Former President2011
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Cristina Princess1995
Elena 1995
Felipe King1995
Juan Carlos I Former KingCheck mark 23x20 04.svg1982
Sofía Former QueenCheck mark 23x20 04.svg1982
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden Carl XVI Gustaf KingCheck mark 23x20 04.svg1974
Carl Philip PrinceCheck mark 23x20 04.svg2005
Christina Princess1992
Désirée 1992
Madeleine 2005
Silvia Queen1982
Victoria Crown Princess1995
Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand Sirikit Former Queen1965
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Abdullah Gül Former president2013
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Elizabeth II QueenCheck mark 23x20 04.svg1955
Philip Prince consort and Duke of Edinburgh 1952
Andrew Prince and Duke of York Check mark 23x20 04.svg1988
Charles Prince of Wales Check mark 23x20 04.svg1978
Edward Prince and Duke of Kent Check mark 23x20 04.svg1988
Richard Prince and Duke of Gloucester 1973

See also

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References

  1. Statutes, §2
  2. "Utnevnelse til St. Olavs Orden" . Retrieved 21 September 2014.
  3. section 5, Statues of the Order of St. Olav
  4. section 3, Statues of the Order of St. Olav