Panduwasnuwara is an ancient capital, situated in Kurunegala District, Sri Lanka. It is said to be the controlling centre known as Parakramapura of Dakkhinadesa (South Country) in the 12th century, when it was ruled by Parakramabahu. 19 km (12 mi) away from Wariyapola town.The remaining ruins of the ancient kingdom still can be seen at Kotampitiya area which lies along Wariyapola-Chilaw main road about
The current site has been identified as Parakramapura, the city of Dakkhinadesa, founded by king Parakramabahu the great when he was the sub king of the territory, and called as Panduwasnuwara presently. It is believed that the name Panduwasnuwara was come to the usage during recent Kurunegala period.
Due to its name this site is erroneously identified by the locals as the ancient capital of king Panduwasadeva who ruled the country in 504 BC to 474 BC.They believe that the structure known as Chakrawalaya which is situated in the site as the ektemge (a circular tower) where princess Unmada Chitra was confined by her brothers and also a nearby village called Dorabawa to be the Doramadalawa village where prince Pandukabhaya spent his childhood. But still there is no archaeological evidence to prove such stories.
According to another belief the name Panduwasnuwara had been formed due to an ancient tank called Panda Wewa which is situated in nearby area.
As the Successor of his uncle king Kirti Sri Megha, prince Parakramabahu became the ruler of Dakkhinadesa in 1140 A.D.It was the first capital of Parakramabahu and one of the three discrete kingdoms into which the Island was divided. Historical evidences prove that king Parakramabahu had made steps to develop the infrastructure and other common facilities in the ruling territory. During this time period he had constructed a separate tooth temple at Panduwasnuwara Raja Maha Vihara premises for tooth relic of Buddha to keep it safe. After series of successful battles with his enemies Parakramabahu managed to conquer the control of entire nation and moved to Polonnaruwa where his new capital was built. The tooth relic of Buddha was also brought with him as the reputed symbol of principality.
The ruins scattered over about 20 hectaresin Panduwasnuwara are belong to 12th century A.D. Among the ruins a palace, monasteries, image houses, dagobas and monks' living quarters, carved pillars, guard stones, and other ancient constructions can be seen. The remains of the palace is bounded with moat and a brick rampart and the ground plan of the palace is similar to the palace of king Parakramabahu of Polonnaruwa. According to Stone seat inscription, a slab inscription established in the palace premises records that king Kirti Sri Nissankamalla (1187-1196 A.D.) visited this palace once on the way of his one of tours.
From the south and north areas of the palace are remains of several monasteries belong to Panchayathana architectural style.Stupa, image houses, Bodhighara and dwelling houses are available in each monastery. Beside the Sinhalese inscriptions there is a Tamil inscription belonging to reign of Nissankamalla, in one monastery premises.
Middle of the ruin site a modern temple, Panduwas Nuwara Raja Maha Vihara is situated and where small Tempita Vihara (Temple on pillars) and several pillar inscriptions belonging to 9-10th century A.D can be seen.
Kurunegala is a major city in Sri Lanka. It is the capital city of the North Western Province and the Kurunegala District. Kurunegala was an ancient royal capital for 50 years, from the end of the 13th century to the start of the 14th century. It is at the junction of several main roads linking to other important parts of the country. It is about 94 kilometres (58 mi) from Colombo, 42 kilometres (26 mi) from Kandy and 51 kilometres (32 mi) from Matale.
Abhayagiri Vihāra was a major monastery site of Mahayana, Theravada and Vajrayana Buddhism that was situated in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. It is one of the most extensive ruins in the world and one of the most sacred Buddhist pilgrimage cities in the nation. Historically it was a great monastic centre as well as a royal capital, with magnificent monasteries rising to many stories, roofed with gilt bronze or tiles of burnt clay glazed in brilliant colors. To the north of the city, encircled by great walls and containing elaborate bathing ponds, carved balustrades and moonstones, stood "Abhayagiri", one of seventeen such religious units in Anuradhapura and the largest of its five major viharas. One of the focal points of the complex is an ancient stupa, the Abhayagiri Dagaba. Surrounding the humped dagaba, Abhayagiri Vihara was a seat of the Northern Monastery, or Uttara Vihara and the original custodian of the Tooth relic in the island.
Atamasthana (අටමස්ථානය) or Eight sacred places are a series of locations in Sri Lanka where the Buddha had visited during his three visits to the country. The sacred places are known as Jaya Sri Maha Bodhiya, Ruwanwelisaya, Thuparamaya, Lovamahapaya, Abhayagiri Dagaba, Jetavanarama, Mirisaveti Stupa and Lankarama. They are situated in Anuradhapura, the capital of the ancient Anuradhapura Kingdom.
The Tissamaharama Raja Maha Vihara is an ancient Buddhist temple in Tissamaharama, Southern Province of Sri Lanka. It was one of the four major Buddhist monasteries established in Sri Lanka, after the arrival of Arhant Mahinda Thera to the country. The site of the Tissamaharama Raja Maha Vihara was consecrated by Buddha himself, who spent some time in meditation there with 500 arhats, during his third visit to the island. Tissamaharama monastery had been recognized as a pre-eminent Buddhist educational center of the southern Sri Lanka from the 3rd century B.C. to the 11th century A.D. The Tissamaharama Dagoba which is situated in the premises of the monastery is one of the largest stupas in Sri Lanka. The present chief incumbent of Tissamaharama Raja Maha Vihara is Ven. Devalegama Dhammasena Nayaka Thera.
The architecture of ancient Sri Lanka displays a rich diversity, varying in form and architectural style from the Anuradhapura Kingdom through the Kingdom of Kandy (1469–1815). Sinhalese architecture also displays many ancient North Indian influences. Buddhism had a significant influence on Sri Lankan architecture after it was introduced to the island in the 3rd century BC, and ancient Sri Lankan architecture was mainly religious, with more than 25 styles of Buddhist monasteries. Significant buildings include the stupas of Jetavanaramaya and Ruwanvelisaya in the Anuradhapura kingdom and further in the Polonnaruwa Kingdom. The palace of Sigiriya is considered a masterpiece of ancient architecture and ingenuity, and the fortress in Yapahuwa and the Temple of the tooth in Kandy are also notable for their architectural qualities. Ancient Sri Lankan architecture is also significant to sustainability, notably Sigiriya which was designed as an environmentally friendly structure.
Yapahuwa was one of the ephemeral capitals of medieval Sri Lanka. The citadel of Yapahuwa lying midway between Kurunagala and Anuradhapura was built around a huge granite rock rising abruptly almost a hundred meters above the surrounding lowlands.
Dambadeniya (DMBD) is a ruined ancient city situated in the North Western Province (Wayamba), Sri Lanka on the Kurunegala - Negombo main road. It served as the capital of Sri Lanka in the mid 13th century. Much of Dambadeniya still lies buried on a huge fortified rock. Dambadeniya is situated about 31 km from Kurunegala, the modern day capital of the North Western Province.
Parākramabāhu I was king of the Kingdom of Polonnaruwa from 1153-86. During his reign from the capital city of Polonnaruwa, he unified the three lesser kingdoms of the island, becoming one of the last monarchs in Sri Lankan history to do so. He oversaw the expansion and beautification of his capital, constructed extensive irrigation systems, reorganised the country's army, reformed Buddhist practices, encouraged the arts and undertook military campaigns in South India and Burma. The adage "not even a little water that comes from the rain must flow into the ocean without being made useful to man" is one of his most famous utterances.
The Kingdom of Dambadeniya was a medieval kingdom in what is present day Sri Lanka. The kingdom's rulers reigned from 1220–1345.
Nissanka Malla, also known as Kirti Nissanka and Kalinga Lokesvara was a king of Sri Lanka who ruled the country from 1187 to 1196. He is known for his architectural constructions such as the Nissanka Lata Mandapaya, Hatadage and Rankot Vihara, as well as for the refurbishment of old temples and irrigation tanks.
Temple of the Sacred Tooth Relic; commonly known as the ශ්රී දළදා මාළිගාව, is a Buddhist temple in Kandy, Sri Lanka. It is located in the royal palace complex of the former Kingdom of Kandy, which houses the relic of the tooth of the Buddha. Since ancient times, the relic has played an important role in local politics because it is believed that whoever holds the relic holds the governance of the country. The relic was historically held by Sinhalese kings. The temple of the tooth is a World Heritage Site mainly due to the temple and the relic.
The Maya Rata , also known as the Kingdom of Dakkinadesa, was a medieval era Sinhalese kingdom located in Western part of Sri Lanka. The capitals were Kelaniya & Panduwasnuwara. The boundaries of the Kingdom of Maya Rata are Deduru Oya River from North, and Kalu River River from South.
Ridi Viharaya or Silver Temple is a 2nd-century BCE Theravada Buddhist temple in the village of Ridigama, Sri Lanka. Built during the reign of Dutthagamani of Anuradhapura, the temple is considered as the place where the silver ore, which provided silver to complete Ruwanwelisaya; one of the largest stupa in Sri Lanka, was discovered. According to the chronicles Mahavamsa and Thupavamsa, the Ridi Viharaya complex was built in gratitude for helping him cherish his dream of completing Ruwanwelisaya.
Mulkirigala Raja Maha Vihara is an ancient Buddhist temple in Mulkirigala, Sri Lanka. It has been built on a 205 m (673 ft) high natural rock, surrounded with another four rocks known as Benagala, Kondagala, Bisogala and Seelawathiegala. The temple site is located about 2 km (1.2 mi) from the Mulkirigala junction and can be reached from either Dikwella or Tangalle towns. The temple has been formally recognised by the Government as an archaeological site in Sri Lanka. The designation was declared on 8 April 1988 under the government Gazette number 501.
Naigala Rajamaha Viharaya is an ancient Buddhist temple situated in Weeraketiya, Hambantota District, Sri Lanka. It is located about 2 km (1.2 mi) away from Weeraketiya junction and 8 km (5.0 mi) from ancient Buddhist temple, Mulkirigala Raja Maha Vihara.
Warana Raja Maha Vihara is an ancient Buddhist temple situated in Thihariya, Gampaha District, Sri Lanka. The temple is located approximately 5 km (3.1 mi) away from the Colombo - Kandy highway. Currently this temple has been recognized as an archaeological protected site in Gampaha District by Archaeological department.
Kasagala Raja Maha Vihara is an ancient Buddhist Temple, situated in Angunukolapelessa, Hambantota District, Sri Lanka. It is situated about 10 km (6.2 mi) away from Ranna Junction along Ranna - Weeraketiya road. The temple has been formally recognised by the Government as an archaeological site in Sri Lanka. The designation was declared on 6 June 2008 under the government Gazette number 1553.
Kotte Raja Maha Vihara is a historic Buddhist temple situated in Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, Western province, Sri Lanka. It is located near to the historic building Pita Kotte Gal Ambalama at the Pita Kotte junction on Kotte road. The temple has been formally recognised by the Government as an archaeological site in Sri Lanka. The designation was declared on 17 May 2013 under the government Gazette number 1811.
Dodanthale Raja Maha Vihara is an historic Buddhist temple situated in Mawanella, Kegalle District, Sri Lanka. The temple is located about 4 km (2.5 mi) away from the Mawanella town. The temple has been formally recognised by the Government as an archaeological site in Sri Lanka. The designation was declared on 10 November 1978 under the government Gazette number 10.
Asgiri Maha Viharaya is a Buddhist monastery located in Kandy, Sri Lanka. It is the headquarters of the Asgiriya chapter of Siyam Nikaya, one of the two Buddhist monasteries that holds the custodianship of sacred tooth relic of Buddha kept in Sri Dalada Maligawa, Kandy. The chief incumbent of the Asgiri Maha Viharaya is the Mahanayaka thero of Asgiri chapter of Siyam nikaya, a leading Buddhist monastic fraternity in Sri Lanka. The present chief incumbent of Asgiri Maha Viharaya is Venerable Warakagoda Sri Gnanarathana Thero. Asgiri Maha Vihara traces its origin from the Wanavasi sect of the Dimbulagala forest monastery of Polonnaruva. Currently, 565 Buddhist temples in Sri Lanka function under Asgiri Viharaya of Kandy.