Project Thread

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Project Thread was a Canadian police operation that resulted in the arrest of 24 immigrants in the Greater Toronto Area in 2003 amidst incorrect allegations they formed a threat to national security, and maintained "suspected ties to al-Qaeda". [1] [2] It was later determined that police had based their operation on "flimsy evidence and stereotypes". [3]

Greater Toronto Area Metropolitan area in Ontario, Canada

The Greater Toronto Area (GTA) is the most populous metropolitan area in Canada. It consists of the central city, Toronto, along with 25 surrounding municipalities distributed among four regional municipalities: Durham, Halton, Peel, and York. According to the 2016 census, the Greater Toronto Area has a population of 6,417,516.

National security defense and maintenance of a state through use of all powers at the states disposal

National security is the security of a nation state, including its citizens, economy, and institutions, which is regarded as a duty of government.

Al-Qaeda Salafi jihadist organization

Al-Qaeda is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988 by Osama bin Laden, Abdullah Azzam, and several other Arab volunteers during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.


After investigating an unregistered diploma mill, police had seized a copy of the names of the 400 students who had attended the school and arrested 24 of them, allegedly gathering the Muslim names off the list and finding dubious connections between them to report as a disrupted terrorist plot. [4] Among the accusations, authorities alleged that the "al-Qaeda sleeper cell" had experimented with explosives, that one had taken flight training and others had been seen loitering around the Pickering power plant, and may have been targeting the CN Tower in Toronto. [1] [4] After criticism that the Muslim community in Canada had ignored the plight of the falsely accused men, [4] 18 different men from the Greater Toronto Area were arrested three years later by Canadian authorities and charged with almost identical offences. [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]

A diploma mill is a company or organization that claims to be a higher education institution but provides illegitimate academic degrees and diplomas for a fee. These degrees may claim to give credit for relevant life experience, but should not be confused with legitimate prior learning assessment programs. They may also claim to evaluate work history or require submission of a thesis or dissertation for evaluation to give an appearance of authenticity. Diploma mills are frequently supported by accreditation mills, set up for the purpose of providing an appearance of authenticity. The term may also be used pejoratively to describe an accredited institution with low academic admission standards and a low job placement rate. An individual may or may not be aware that the degree they have obtained is not wholly legitimate. In either case, legal issues can arise if the qualification is used in résumés.

CN Tower tower in Downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada

The CN Tower is a 553.3 m-high (1,815.3 ft) concrete communications and observation tower located in Downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Built on the former Railway Lands, it was completed in 1976. Its name "CN" originally referred to Canadian National, the railway company that built the tower. Following the railway's decision to divest non-core freight railway assets prior to the company's privatization in 1995, it transferred the tower to the Canada Lands Company, a federal Crown corporation responsible for real estate development.

Islam in Canada

According to Canada's 2011 National Household Survey, there were 1,053,945 Muslims in Canada, or about 3.2% of the population, making Islam the second largest religion in the country after Christianity. In the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), 7.7% of the population is Muslim, and in Greater Montreal, 6% of the population is Muslim. A majority of Canada's Muslim population follows Sunni Islam, while a significant minority adhere to the Shia and Ahmadiyya branches. The change in the demographics is shown.

Eventually the government backed away from its initial alarms of terrorism, and re-labeled the case a simple charge of "immigration fraud". [4] When they were eventually deported from the country, despite the admission they "faced the possibility of persecution", [10] the men found themselves harassed and threatened by a country that now believed they were terrorists. [4]

The men claimed that their lawyers and friends had been threatened and harassed by Canadian authorities. [11] Critics claimed the arrests had been "trying to placate US security officials". [12]

Entry to Canada

The men were held at Maplehurst Correctional Complex. [1] [2] Each was also noted as having the name Muhammad in their full name. [4] [13]

Maplehurst Correctional Complex

Maplehurst Correctional Complex is a correctional facility located in Milton, Ontario for women and men 18 years of age and older. It is a combined maximum security detention centre for remanded prisoners, and medium/maximum correctional centre for offenders sentenced to less than two years. There is also a serrate wing for minors In 1972, the government started a $13.5 million construction project for the Maplehurst Correctional Centre. It was completed in 1974 and continues to operate to this day. Sod was turned on the project on February 9, 1973.

All of the men had entered the country on student visas between January 1998 and September 5, 2001, and a number of them had cited Ottawa Business College (OBC) as their chosen institution. The former director of the school which had closed in 2001, Luther Samuel, admitted to selling C$700 registration letters to approximately 400 immigration applicants to improve their ability to apply for residence in Canada, and offering small amateurly produced courses across six rented classrooms. When the students expressed fears this was just a diploma mill taking thousands of dollars in tuition money from them, the director assured them they were just in a small branch of a larger downtown school. [2] [4] Those who left the school, realising that it was a scam, said they were afraid they would lose their immigration status if they reported the situation to police. [4]


The investigation began when suspicions were raised about Khalid Jahinger, who left Lahore, Pakistan to travel to Nanaimo, British Columbia, on a student visa in December 1998. He moved to Ontario where he studied at OBC and George Brown College. He travelled to Mexico City to apply for permanent residency, which must be done from outside the country, where his C$40,000 bank account inheritance from his recently deceased father raised eyebrows and led to the beginning of the investigation. [4] In May 2003, police stormed his apartment and arrested him and his roommate Aamir Nadeem and held them for five months until they volunteered to be deported to end their detention. Upon his return to Pakistan, Jahinger was questioned for eight full hours and released. [4]

The remaining students at OBC were under investigation for months by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and Immigration services. [2]


The first 19 arrests, carried out by an anti-terrorism taskforce, [14] occurred on August 14, 2003, targeting 18 men from Punjab, Pakistan and one from southern India. [2]

  1. Zahoor Hussain, represented by Jackie Esmonde and released on October 30, but was deported the following April [10]
  2. Muhammad Waheed, 23
  3. Fahim Kayani, released on C$2,000 bail [12]
  4. Imran Khan, 31
  5. Sajjad Ahmad,
  6. Manzoor Qadar Joyia, 30, lived at Dixon and Kipling, [15] the last man still refused bail up until he became the tenth deported. [16]
  7. Yousaf Rasheed,
  8. Muhammad Asif Aziz, came to Canada in May 1999, [14] was later caught sneaking back into Canada from the United States in the back of a truck headed to Montreal, and initially gave authorities the false name "Asif Yasin Mohammad", arrested at gunpoint. [2]
  9. Kishif Siddique, 29,
  10. Mohammed Asif,
  11. Mohammad Akhtar, 30,
  12. Muhammad Waliu Sidiqui,
  13. Muhammad Naeem, doctor [17]
  14. Saif Ullah Khan, 41, brother of Aqeel Ahmed
  15. Aqeel Ahmed, brother of Saif Ullah Khan
  16. Jahan Zaib Sawhney, roommate of Awan, released on C$5,000 bail [12] [18]
  17. Muddasar Awan, refugee claimant and roommate of Sawhney, student at the University of Windsor for three years[ citation needed ], was not home during the August 14 police raid on his house, when he had lawyer Tariq Shah phone police to inform them he wanted to turn himself in when he discovered he was wanted, but nobody returned his call. Later accompanied his lawyer to travel to immigration detention himself. [18]

The later arrests involved the following;

  1. Muhammad Nouman, Karachi native who came to Canada to support his siblings after his parents died, worked as a clerk at a grocery store, arrested August 28 [18]
  2. Anwar-Ur-Rehman Mohammed, 31-year-old pharmacist, had obtained a pilot license and was accused of plotting to attack the Pickering nuclear plant, released on C$25,000 bail [12]
  3. Shehzad Khurram Toor [19]

For five days following the arrests, the men were held incommunicado and not allowed access to lawyers. [13] It was ten days before Pakistani consular officials were notified about the arrests. [13]

The men were initially asked to give Canadian interrogators the location of Osama bin Laden, despite the fact they protested that they had never had any contact with militants or been to Afghanistan. [2] [13] One was accused of having given money to Global Relief Foundation, a charity later blacklisted for supporting Islamic militancy. [18] An apartment "linked to the men" was also alleged to have had a poster of airplane schematics on the wall, as well as a picture of guns, [14] while another apartment had an "unexplained" fire in the kitchen leading to claims that it "could" have been from testing explosives. [4]

Immigration official Stephanie Mackay stated that several of the men had travelled to the United States between May 2001 and January 2002, noting that the September 11th attacks occurred in that timeframe, leading the National Post to announce a possible link between the immigrants and the terrorist attack. [18]

Aziz was the first of the men to be given a legal hearing, at which he was denied bail. [1] The following day, Mohammad Akhtar was released on C$10,000 bail. [2]

A number of the arrested men appeared "confused" at their bail hearings, and did not have legal representation. Some voluntarily offered to be deported. [2]

Former Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) director Reid Morden was interviewed by the CBC, and stated that the arrests were legitimate, since the agency needs "only to suspect someone of being a threat before it can act". [1]


Once in Pakistan, Muhammad Asif Aziz, Muhammad Wahid, Kashif Siddiq, Imran Yunus Khan and Mudassar Awan announced their intentions to sue the government of Canada for falsely accusing them of terrorism and ruining their lives. [13] [20] Canadian politician Diane Ablonczy argued that the arrests had made Canada less safe, since the embarrassment would leave law enforcement skittish in the future. [12]

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  1. 1 2 3 4 5 CBC, Al-Qaeda suspect to stay behind bars, August 28, 2003
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 CTV News, Pme pf 19 Toronto terror suspects granted bail, August 28, 2003
  3. EJP Canada Hearing Summary
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Shephard, Michelle & Sonia Verma. Toronto Star, "They only arrested the Muhammads", November 30, 2003
  5. Lawyer: Government says terror plans included beheading Jun 7, 2006
  6. Terror suspects plotted two separate attacks Archived 2012-10-13 at the Wayback Machine .
  7. National Archived 2008-10-07 at the Wayback Machine .
  8., Frequently Asked Questions
  9. Canadian Council on American-Islamic Relations, Open letter on Toronto 11 to Authorities, May 3, 2008
  10. 1 2 Ontario Coalition Against Poverty, Zahoor Hussain Viciously Deported, April 28, 2004
  11. Iqbal, Nasir. DAWN, Released Pakistanis threaten to sue Canadian govt, December 10, 2003
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 Hasan, Khalid. Daily Times , Canadian terror probe against 19 Pakistanis falling apart, 2003
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 DAWN, Released Pakistanis threaten to sue Canada, December 10, 2003
  14. 1 2 3 AFP, Al Qaeda suspects face hearing in Canada, August 28, 2003
  15. Shephard, Michelle. Toronto Star, "Terror suspect may be freed; But others held as security threats Documents claim links to Al Qaeda", August 28, 2003
  16. Ontario Coalition Against Poverty, Project Threadbare vows to continue fight to protect human rights
  17. Gardiner, Beth. Associated Press, "Freed terror suspect says indefinite detention eroding prisoners' mental health", April 23, 2004
  18. 1 2 3 4 5 Bell, Stewart. National Post, "Possible al-Qaeda cell: Some detainees may have been in US on 9/11", September 3, 2003
  19. Shephard, Michelle. Toronto Star, "Authorities withholding facts about 19 detainees; Names released as review resumes Arrests front-page news around globe", August 26, 2003
  20. "Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Pakistan: Whether Pakistani citizens who were arrested in Toronto by Citizenship and Immigration Canada officials in August 2003 under "Project Thread" and who were deported to Pakistan in December 2003, held a press conference in Islamabad where they announced their intention to sue the government of Canada". Refworld. Retrieved 16 February 2014.