In mathematics, a scattered space is a topological space X that contains no nonempty dense-in-itself subset.Equivalently, every nonempty subset A of X contains a point isolated in A.
A subset of a topological space is called a scattered set if it is a scattered space with the subspace topology.
In mathematics, a topological space is called separable if it contains a countable, dense subset; that is, there exists a sequence of elements of the space such that every nonempty open subset of the space contains at least one element of the sequence.
This is a glossary of some terms used in the branch of mathematics known as topology. Although there is no absolute distinction between different areas of topology, the focus here is on general topology. The following definitions are also fundamental to algebraic topology, differential topology and geometric topology.
In mathematics, a subset of a topological space is called nowhere dense or rare if its closure has empty interior. In a very loose sense, it is a set whose elements are not tightly clustered anywhere. For example, the integers are nowhere dense among the reals, whereas an open ball is not.
The Baire category theorem (BCT) is an important result in general topology and functional analysis. The theorem has two forms, each of which gives sufficient conditions for a topological space to be a Baire space.
In mathematics, general topology is the branch of topology that deals with the basic set-theoretic definitions and constructions used in topology. It is the foundation of most other branches of topology, including differential topology, geometric topology, and algebraic topology. Another name for general topology is point-set topology.
In mathematics, an order topology is a certain topology that can be defined on any totally ordered set. It is a natural generalization of the topology of the real numbers to arbitrary totally ordered sets.
In the mathematical fields of general topology and descriptive set theory, a meagre set is a set that, considered as a subset of a topological space, is in a precise sense small or negligible. A topological space T is called meagre if it is a meager subset of itself; otherwise, it is called nonmeagre.
In the mathematical field of topology, a Gδ set is a subset of a topological space that is a countable intersection of open sets. The notation originated in German with G for Gebiet meaning open set in this case and δ for Durchschnitt. The term inner limiting set is also used. Gδ sets, and their dual, Fσ sets, are the second level of the Borel hierarchy.
In mathematics, a Lindelöf space is a topological space in which every open cover has a countable subcover. The Lindelöf property is a weakening of the more commonly used notion of compactness, which requires the existence of a finite subcover.
In topology and related areas of mathematics, a topological property or topological invariant is a property of a topological space which is invariant under homeomorphisms. That is, a property of spaces is a topological property if whenever a space X possesses that property every space homeomorphic to X possesses that property. Informally, a topological property is a property of the space that can be expressed using open sets.
In mathematics, more specifically in point-set topology, the derived set of a subset of a topological space is the set of all limit points of It is usually denoted by
In mathematics, set-theoretic topology is a subject that combines set theory and general topology. It focuses on topological questions that are independent of Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory (ZFC).
In general topology, a subset of a topological space is perfect if it is closed and has no isolated points. Equivalently: the set is perfect if , where denotes the set of all limit points of , also known as the derived set of .
In mathematics, the particular point topology is a topology where a set is open if it contains a particular point of the topological space. Formally, let X be any set and p ∈ X. The collection
In the mathematical field of topology, a hyperconnected space or irreducible space is a topological space X that cannot be written as the union of two proper closed sets. The name irreducible space is preferred in algebraic geometry.
In mathematics a topological space is called countably compact if every countable open cover has a finite subcover.
In general topology, a subset of a topological space is said to be dense-in-itself or crowded if has no isolated point. Equivalently, is dense-in-itself if every point of is a limit point of . Thus is dense-in-itself if and only if , where is the derived set of .
In mathematics, a topological space is called collectionwise normal if for every discrete family Fi of closed subsets of there exists a pairwise disjoint family of open sets Ui, such that Fi ⊆ Ui. A family of subsets of is called discrete when every point of has a neighbourhood that intersects at most one of the sets from . An equivalent definition demands that the above Ui are themselves a discrete family, which is stronger than pairwise disjoint.
In mathematics, particularly topology, a Gδ space is a topological space in which closed sets are in a way ‘separated’ from their complements using only countably many open sets. A Gδ space may thus be regarded as a space satisfying a different kind of separation axiom. In fact normal Gδ spaces are referred to as perfectly normal spaces, and satisfy the strongest of separation axioms.
In topology and related areas of mathematics, a subset A of a topological space X is called dense if every point x in X either belongs to A or is a limit point of A; that is, the closure of A constitutes the whole set X. Informally, for every point in X, the point is either in A or arbitrarily "close" to a member of A — for instance, the rational numbers are a dense subset of the real numbers because every real number either is a rational number or has a rational number arbitrarily close to it.