Smile Train

Last updated
Smile Train
Smile train logo14.png
Formation1999;21 years ago (1999)
Type 501(c)(3) nonprofit
Headquarters New York City, New York, United States
Susannah Schaefer
Website www.smiletrain.org

Smile Train is a nonprofit organization and charity providing corrective surgery for children with cleft lips and palates. [1]

Contents

Headquartered in New York City and founded in 1999, Smile Train provides free corrective cleft surgery in 87 countries, [2] training local doctors and providing hospital funding for the procedures. [2]

According to Forbes magazine writing in 2014, Smile Train was the 72nd largest charity in America. [3]

History

Smile Train was created in 1998 by Brian Mullaney and Charles Wang, who had previously worked with Operation Smile, another charity focused on correcting cleft lips and palates. [4] They felt the most efficient way to provide cleft surgery was to train and support local doctors rather than to fly in Western doctors to provide surgeries in poor, developing countries. [4] [5] Local doctors would also be able to provide care year-round rather than the limited engagements of the "mission-based" model. [4] [5]

In 1999, Smile Train began providing corrective surgeries in China. [2] The charity worked with the then-American and Chinese presidents, George H.W. Bush and Jiang Zemin, in the planning of Smile Train's first operation in China. [6] [ citation needed ] As of 2013, the charity had provided approximately 300,000 corrective surgeries in partnership with 397 local hospitals within China. [2]

Smile Train began working in India in 2000. [7] In 2011, Aishwarya Rai, a Bollywood actress and former Miss World, became Smile Train's first goodwill ambassador. [8] By 2013, Smile Train was conducting 50,000 corrective surgeries in India annually. [9]

In 2006, Smile Train co-founded the Pan African Congress on Cleft Lip and Palate. The charity also funded the 2008 Pan African Anaesthesia Symposium. [10]

In October 2010, Smile Train experienced a major leadership change which included the departure of Mullaney and other top executives. [11] [12]

Smile Train unveiled a new advertising campaign, "The Power of a Smile", in April 2014. [13] The campaign featured work from Kátia Lund and photojournalist Alex Webb, and coincided with the release of a new organizational logo. [13] That same month, Smile Train also held an event at the Barclays Center to celebrate its millionth cleft operation. [14]

Smile Train and Operation Smile

In early 2011, Smile Train and Operation Smile announced the two charities would merge, [15] [16] followed three weeks later by announcements the merger had been aborted, [17] Smile Train having canceled the union. [18] Smile Train's board also named Priscilla Ma the executive director of the organization, while other board members and directors stepped down. [19]

In 2009, Smile Train initiated an advertising campaign [20] in the Richmond Times-Dispatch highlighting Smile Train's attempts between 2006 and 2009 to donate nearly $9 million to Operation Smile, [21] the organization Brian Mullaney had split from in 1998 in what Mullaney described as a "messy divorce". [22] In the ad, Mullaney contended Operation Smile was refusing money that could benefit children, later calling the situation "shameful"; [21] Mullaney also noted that he respects that in some countries need overwhelms available doctors and he had "a newfound respect for what Operation Smile does". [22] The Virginian Pilot outlined the history and differences between the two organizations and indicated Mullaney wanted the two organizations to reconcile. [22] At the time, Dr. Magee of Operation Smile declined a newspaper interview, and Operation Smile formally responded to the ad campaign, saying the two organizations "have different operating philosophies and business ethics", and that Operation Smile would continue foregoing donations from an "unproductive relationship". [22]

Technology

In 1999, Smile Train approached Dr. Court B. Cutting of New York University's Virtual Research Laboratory to create training videos, which could be used to train local doctors on how to perform advanced cleft surgery techniques. [23] The 3D models used in the videos were based on the CT scan of two Chinese patients. [24] Smile Train distributes the DVDs to local doctors worldwide. [5] [23] The DVDs are available in English, Spanish, and Mandarin. [25]

Smile Train later used the 3D models of the two Chinese patients to build the first 3D open access virtual surgical simulator, which teaches cleft palate and lip surgery to doctors in developing countries. [26] The simulator, which was created in partnership with BioDigital Systems, is web-based, open source and available for free. [26] It does not require any special hardware to use. [27] A mobile application is under development. [27] In September 2014, Smile Train showcased a 3D virtual surgery simulator at TEDMED 2014 in Washington, D.C. [28]

Smile Train maintains Smile Train Express (STX), an internet-based, digital patient record database. [6] [25] STX enables Smile Train to have outside medical experts review patient records and quality of care. [5] [6] The charity also boasts a large medical research library with more than 1,000 articles related to clefts accessible online for free. [29]

Partnerships and supporters

Smile Train helps the cause of cleft care through its funding of 1,000+ active partners representing nearly 1,200 hospitals and 2,300 partner surgeons in the world's poorest nations; through these local partnerships, the organization is able to provide free surgery for children any day of the year, with more than one million total surgeries performed as of 2016. [30]

In addition to partnerships with cleft care organizations, Smile Train has partnered with other individuals organizations in an effort to improve safety and quality at their partner hospitals, such as Dr. Atul Gawande, World Health Organization, World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists [31] and Lifebox. [32]

Smile Train has a number of corporate partnerships, including Artisanal Cheese, [33] Dubai Duty Free, [34] Estée Lauder, FedEx, [35] QBE [36] The Queens Flowers, [37] Mars Retail Group [38] and Vertu. [39] [40] These partnerships, in addition to those in partnership with donors on grassroots efforts, serve to both raise money and spread awareness.

Current and former supporters include: Tatyana Ali, [41] John Bishop, Christie Brinkley, [42] Dean Cain, [43] Stephen Colbert, Kevin Connolly, [44] Walter Cronkite, [45] Erik Estrada, [46] Lucy Hale, Sammi Hanratty, [47] Rebecca Herbst, [48] Jane Kaczmarek, [49] Howie Mandel, Mary McCartney, [50] Reba McEntire, [51] Bette Midler, Jimmy Pardo, [52] General Colin Powell, [53] Aishwarya Rai Bachchan, [8] Carly Simon and Hilary Swank. [54]

Recognition

In a 2008 New York Times article, economist Steven Levitt of Freakonomics fame indicated that the organization's model and its technological innovations "likely make Smile Train one of the most productive charities, dollar for deed, in the world." [55]

In 2008, Smile Train was the runner-up in the Health-Care IT category of the Wall Street Journal Technology Innovation Awards in recognition for their surgical technique training videos. [56] The Virtual Surgery Simulator was recognized in 2013 by the National Training Simulation Association (NTSA), a subsidiary of the National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA), receiving an award in the "training" category. [57]

In 2009, the documentary Smile Pinki , which was sponsored by Smile Train and directed by Megan Mylan, won the 2008 Oscar for Best Documentary (Short Subject). [58] The film shows the story of a poor girl in rural India whose life is transformed when she receives free surgery to correct her cleft lip. Free copies of the film are available through Smile Train's website. [59] In 2013, the documentary Dzachuka’s Smile, which was co-produced by China Central Television Documentary Channel (CCTV) and Smile Train, received the Gold Panda Award for Best Documentary in Society for Asian Production at the 2013 Sichuan TV Festival. The documentary follows the Lamu Sisters’ efforts to help children with clefts living on the Dzachuka Plateau. [60]

In 2016, World Journal of Surgery published the comprehensive independent study "Economic Valuation of the Global Burden of Cleft Disease Averted by a Large Cleft Charity", which was conducted using data from 547,769 Smile Train patient records of primary cleft procedures (58 percent cleft lip repairs, 42 percent cleft palate repairs). The study measured the economic impact of cleft repair surgery over a ten-year period (2001–2011) and "[quantified] the burden of disease averted through the global surgical work of a large cleft charity". It concluded that for each $250 cleft repair surgery, as much as $50,000 is returned to the local economy as patients contribute to productivity. The total economic impact achieved as a result of their cleft repair surgeries in 83 countries between 2001 and 2011 amounts to as much as $27 billion. [61] [62]

Criticism

In 2008, Charity Watch criticized then-president Brian Mullaney's $420,209 salary and questioned the 2007 company's tax form, which said Mullaney's salary came from temporary restricted funds designed to go toward overhead. [63]

In 2009, Givewell could not assess the impact of Smile Train's activities based on the charity's 2008 tax form and other publicly accessible information. [64]

Smile Train Canada's charity status was revoked on July 4, 2015 after 6 years of operation by Canada's Charities Directorate for failure to allocate donations towards charity purposes, failure to carry out its charity work, failure to file accurate information and other serious deficiencies. [65]

Key personnel

The organizations key personnel are: [66]

Financials

Smile Train complies with the 20 Standards for Charity Accountability established by the Better Business Bureau Wise Giving Alliance. [68] The alliance was developed to "assist donors in making sound giving decisions and to foster public confidence in charitable organizations". [69]

According to Smile Train's 2012 annual report, management and general expenses account for $1.9 million (1.2%) of total expenses. [70] $132.4 million (81.8%) went to program services and $27.6 million (17%) to fundraising. [70] Total support and revenue for 2012 was $175 million. [70]

See also

Related Research Articles

Cleft lip and cleft palate

Cleft lip and cleft palate, also known as orofacial cleft, is a group of conditions that includes cleft lip, cleft palate, and both together. A cleft lip contains an opening in the upper lip that may extend into the nose. The opening may be on one side, both sides, or in the middle. A cleft palate occurs when the roof of the mouth contains an opening into the nose. These disorders can result in feeding problems, speech problems, hearing problems, and frequent ear infections. Less than half the time the condition is associated with other disorders.

Orthognathic surgery

Orthognathic surgery ; also known as corrective jaw surgery or simply jaw surgery, is surgery designed to correct conditions of the jaw and face related to structure, growth, sleep apnea, TMJ disorders, malocclusion problems owing to skeletal disharmonies, or other orthodontic problems that cannot be easily treated with braces. Originally coined by Harold Hargis, this surgery is also used to treat congenital conditions such as cleft palate. Typically during oral surgery, bone is cut, moved, modified, and realigned to correct a dentofacial deformity. The word "osteotomy" means the division, or excision of bone. The dental osteotomy allows surgeons to visualize the jawbone, and work accordingly.

Shriners Hospitals for Children

Shriners Hospitals for Children is a network of 22 non-profit medical facilities across North America. Children with orthopaedic conditions, burns, spinal cord injuries, and cleft lip and palate are eligible for care and receive all services in a family-centered environment, regardless of the patients' ability to pay. Care for children is usually provided until age 18, although, in some cases it may be extended to age 21.

Operation Smile is a nonprofit medical service organization founded in 1982 by Dr. William P. Magee, Jr. and his wife Kathy Magee. It is headquartered in Virginia Beach, Virginia.

ReSurge International, formerly known as Interplast, is the first international humanitarian organization to provide free reconstructive surgery in developing countries, primarily to children with cleft lip and palate and burn scar contractures.

Smile Foundation of Bali

The Smile Foundation of Bali is a non-profit organisation in Bali that helps people with craniofacial disabilities obtain health care. Senyum means smile in Indonesian and yayasan means 'foundation' or 'institute'.

Smile Angel Foundation

Smile Angel Foundation is a Beijing-based charity founded in 2006 by Li Yapeng and Faye Wong to help Chinese children born with clefts. It is affiliated with the Red Cross Society of China. The foundation is named after the couple's daughter, Li Yan, who was born in the same year with severe clefts and underwent corrective surgery in the United States.

<i>Smile Pinki</i>

Smile Pinki (2008) is a 39-minute documentary directed by Megan Mylan. The film shows the story of a poor girl in rural India whose life is transformed when she receives free surgery to correct her cleft lip. The documentary was made in Hindi and Bhojpuri, and won the 81st Academy Award for Best Documentary.

CURE International is a Christian nonprofit organization based in Spring Lake, Michigan. CURE's efforts are focused on providing medical care to children suffering primarily from orthopedic and neurological conditions. The organization's stated mission is "healing the sick and proclaiming the kingdom of God." The organization operates hospitals in Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Niger, the Philippines, Uganda and Zambia. The organization also runs a specialty program for hydrocephalus in an additional 7 countries including Bangladesh, Mali and Indonesia.

S. M. Balaji

S. M. Balaji is a dental and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon from Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. He is a dental scientist who specialises in repair of cleft palate, rhinoplasty, ear reconstruction, jaw reconstruction, facial asymmetry correction, dental implantology, maxillofacial surgery and Craniofacial surgery.

Megan Mylan is an American documentary film director, known for her films Lost Boys of Sudan and the 2008 Oscar-winning Smile Pinki.

Maxillary hypoplasia

Maxillary hypoplasia, or maxillary deficiency, is an underdevelopment of the bones of the upper jaw. It is associated with Crouzon syndrome, Angelman syndrome, as well as fetal alcohol syndrome. It can also be associated with cleft lip and cleft palate. Some people could develop it due to poor dental extractions.

Yanhee International Hospital is a multi-service general hospital in Bangkok, Thailand, that specializes in a range of medical and cosmetic services. Yanhee comprises a 15-story hospital building with a 400-bed capacity, 150 full-time doctors, 120 part-time health professionals, and 800 nurses. Additionally, Yanhee operates 95 outpatient examination rooms, 12 major and 30 minor operating rooms, an 18-bed Intensive Care Unit, emergency rooms, delivery rooms, a diagnostic laboratory and a nursery.

In the Philippines, the Kapampangan Development Foundation (KDF) is an organization of Kapampangans living outside the region. It was founded in 1987 by 35 people who were inspired by President Corazon Aquino; in 2012, 11 of its founders remained. The KDF has created a rural-industrialization program known as RICH and has provided social and health services to poor residents of Pampanga through its HELP program, with assistance from international and non-governmental organizations and government agencies.

Renae Ayris

Renae Ayris is an Australian dancer, model and beauty pageant titleholder who was crowned Miss Universe Australia 2012 and placed 3rd Runner-Up at the Miss Universe 2012 pageant. In 2014 she appeared in the starring role of Shannon Noll's music video for his single We Only Live Once

Operation Smile China Medical Mission (OSCMM) is a non-profit organisation that provides reconstructive surgery for the underprivileged children with cleft lips and / or palates in China.

BioDigital

BioDigital is a New York-based biomedical visualization company that is often referred to as being "Google Earth for the Human Body". BioDigital offers an interactive, 3D software platform that enables individuals and business to explore and visualize health information. Their flagship product, the BioDigital Human, is a "searchable, customizable map of the human body".

Overseas Plastic Surgery Appeal

The Overseas Plastic Surgery Appeal is a registered charity in the UK, that exists to provide free facial surgery for poor children and young adults in Pakistan. The OPSA team operate on facial abnormalities including cleft lip and palate.

Alliance for Smiles

Alliance for Smiles (AfS) is a nonprofit organization founded in 2004 in San Francisco. They provide free surgical repairs for cleft lip and cleft palate, with missions mostly in the continents of Asia and Africa. They also work to develop treatment centers where continuous follow-up care can be provided.

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