Saint Sophia of Rome
Late gothic wooden sculpture of saints Sophia, Faith, Hope and Charity (Eschau, 1470)
|Venerated in||Roman Catholic Church; Eastern Orthodox Church|
|Feast||May 15 (in Germany, celebrated as Sophientag)|
|Attributes||palm, book, trough, and sword|
|Patronage||invoked against late frosts|
Saint Sophia of Rome is venerated as a Christian martyr. She is identified in hagiographical tradition with the figure of Sophia of Milan, the mother of Saints Faith, Hope and Charity, whose veneration is attested for the 6th century.
Christianity is a Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Most Christians get baptized, celebrate the Lord's Supper, pray the Lord's Prayer and other prayers, have clergy, and attend group worship services.
A martyr is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party. This refusal to comply with the presented demands results in the punishment or execution of the martyr by the oppressor. Originally applied only to those who suffered for their religious beliefs, the term has come to be used in connection with people killed for a political cause.
Saints Faith, Hope and Charity are a group of Christian martyred saints, venerated together with their mother, Sophia ("Wisdom").
However, there are conflicting hagiographical traditions; one tradition[ citation needed ] makes Sophia herself a martyr under the Diocletian Persecution (303/4). This conflicts with the much more widespread hagiographical tradition (BHL 2966, also extant in Greek, Armenian and Georgian versions) placing Sophia, the mother of Faith, Hope and Charity, in the time of Diocletian (early 2nd century) and reporting her dying not as a martyr but mourning for her martyred daughters. Her relics are said[ citation needed ] to have been translated to the convent at Eschau, Alsace in 778, and her cult spread to Germany from there. Acta Sanctorum reports that her feast day of 15 May is attested in German, Belgian and English breviaries of the 16th century.
The Bibliotheca Hagiographica Latina is a catalogue of Latin hagiographic materials, including ancient literary works on the saints' lives, the translations of their relics, and their miracles, arranged alphabetically by saint. It is usually abbreviated as BHL in scholarly literature. The listings include MSS, incipits, and printed editions. The first edition (1898-1901) and supplement (1911) were edited by the Bollandists, which included the Jesuit scholar Hippolyte Delehaye. The most recent supplement has been the product of a single editor Henryk Fros. The BHL along with the Bibliotheca Hagiographica Graeca and Bibliotheca Hagiographica Orientalis are the most useful tools in the research of literary documents concerning the saints.
Diocletian, born Diocles, was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305. Born to a family of low status in Dalmatia, Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become Roman cavalry commander to the Emperor Carus. After the deaths of Carus and his son Numerian on campaign in Persia, Diocletian was proclaimed emperor. The title was also claimed by Carus' surviving son, Carinus, but Diocletian defeated him in the Battle of the Margus.
Roman Catholic hagiography of the early modern period attempted to identify the Saint Sophia venerated in Germany with various records of martyrs named Sophia recorded in the early medieval period, among them a record from the time of Pope Sergius II (9th century) reporting an inscription mentioning a virgin martyr named Sophia at the high altar of the church of San Martino ai Monti.Saxer (2000) suggests that her veneration may indeed have originated in the later 6th century based on such inscriptions of the 4th to 6th centuries.
Pope Sergius II was Pope from January 844 to his death in 847.
San Martino ai Monti, officially known as Santi Silvestro e Martino ai Monti("SS Sylvester & Martin in the Mountains"), is a minor basilica in Rome, Italy, in the Rione Monti neighbourhood. It is located near the edge of the Parco del Colle Oppio, near the corner of Via Equizia and Viale del Monte Oppio, about five to six blocks south of Santa Maria Maggiore.
Based on her feast day on 15 May, she became one of the "Ice Saints", the saints whose feast days are traditionally associated with the last possibility of frost in Central Europe. She is known as kalte Sophie "cold Sophia" in Germany,and in Slovenia as poscana Zofka "pissing Sophia" or mokra Zofija "wet Sophia".
The Ice Saints is a name given to St. Mamertus, St. Pancras, and St. Servatius in Austrian, Belgian, Croatian, Czech, Dutch, French, German, Hungarian, North-Italian, Polish, Slovene and Swiss folklore. They are so named because their feast days fall on the days of May 11, May 12, and May 13 respectively, known as "the black-thorn winter".
Frost is a thin layer of ice on a solid surface, which forms from water vapor in an above freezing atmosphere coming in contact with a solid surface whose temperature is below freezing, and resulting in a phase change from water vapor to ice as the water vapor reaches the freezing point. In temperate climates, it most commonly appears on surfaces near the ground as fragile white crystals; in cold climates, it occurs in a greater variety of forms. The propagation of crystal formation occurs by the process of nucleation.
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.
Sisymbrium sophia , called the Sophienkraut in Germany, is named after her. She is depicted on a column in the nave of the cathedral of St. Stephen in Vienna; it dates from the 15th century.
St. Stephen's Cathedral is the mother church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Vienna and the seat of the Archbishop of Vienna, Christoph Cardinal Schönborn, OP. The current Romanesque and Gothic form of the cathedral, seen today in the Stephansplatz, was largely initiated by Duke Rudolf IV (1339–1365) and stands on the ruins of two earlier churches, the first a parish church consecrated in 1147. The most important religious building in Vienna, St. Stephen's Cathedral has borne witness to many important events in Habsburg and Austrian history and has, with its multi-coloured tile roof, become one of the city's most recognizable symbols.
Vienna is the federal capital and largest city of Austria, and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, and its cultural, economic, and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union. Until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, and before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC. The city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.
Holy Wisdom is a concept in Christian theology.
The Chiesa di Santa Sofia is located in the Piazza of Anacapri, on the island of Capri, Italy. It dates to 1596 when it replaced Chiesa di Santa Maria di Costantinopoli as the parish church. Some of the building materials and fittings, such as the sacristy and oratorio, were originally in the Chiesa di San Carlo. The church chapels are dedicated to Sant'Antonio, Anacapri's patron saint, and the Madonna del Buon Consiglio. Architectural features include two bell towers and a baroque facade. The wedding of Guiliana DePandi and Bill Rancic occurred at the Chiesa di Santa Sofia.
The Sophienkirche was a church in Dresden.
Saint Arsatius or Arsacius is a saint of whose life virtually nothing is known. He is said to have been a bishop of Milan, who lived either around 400 or in the 6th century, and possibly a martyr, but there is no evidence. Because of the traditional connection with Milan, he is further supposed to have been a disciple of Saint Ambrose, who was also Bishop of Milan, but there is no evidence of this either.
Eutropius of Orange was bishop of Orange, France, during the 5th century and probably since 463, in succession to Justus.
Viktor of Xanten or Saint Viktor is a martyr and saint of the Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox Church. His presumed bones are kept in a shrine since the 12th century that today is embedded into the high altar of the Xanten Cathedral. His feast day is October 10.
Descurainia sophia is a member of the mustard family. Common names include flixweed, herb-Sophia and tansy mustard. It reproduces by seeds. It is a dominant weed in dark brown prairie and black prairie soils of southern Alberta. Its stem is erect, branched, and 4–30 in (10–76 cm) high. It was once given to patients suffering from dysentery and called by ancient herbalists Sophia Chirurgorum, "The Wisdom of Surgeons". It is the type species of the genus Descurainia and of the rejected genus Sophia Adans.
Floribert of Liège was a bishop of Liège, and a saint of the Catholic Church, celebrated on 27 April. He was the son of the French-born Hubert of Liège, also a saint, and succeeded on his death in 727.
Saint Germanus of Granfelden (* ca. 612 in Trier; † 675 near Moutier was the first abbot of Moutier-Grandval Abbey.
Saint Edistus is venerated as a martyr and saint by the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches. His legend states that he was martyred on the Via Laurentina and his passio places his martyrdom during the reign of Nero, on October 12, 60 AD.
Saint Quirinus of Neuss, sometimes called Quirinus of Rome is venerated as a martyr and saint of the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches. His cult was centered at Neuss in Germany, though he was a Roman martyr.
Saint Frederick of Hallum was a Premonstratensian priest and regular canon, founder and first abbot of Mariengaarde Abbey in Friesland in the Netherlands.
Saint Justus of Trieste is a Roman Catholic saint.
Saint Magnus of Anagni, also known as Magnus of Trani or Magnus of Fabrateria Vetus, is venerated as the patron saint of Anagni.
Saint Guarinus of Sitten was Bishop of Sion.
Procopius of Ustyug was a fool for Christ (yurodivy), a miracle worker, saint of Russian Orthodox Church, formerly a merchant from Lübeck. He was born in Germany, a Roman Catholic merchant who converted to Eastern Orthodox Christianity during his travels.
Gaubald was the first bishop of Regensburg after the foundation of the diocese of Regensburg. He has been beatified. His name is also spelled Gawibald, Geupald or Gaibald.
Ramwod or Ramwold was an abbot of St. Emmeram's Abbey in Regensburg. He is a patron figure of eye disease sufferers, since he suddenly became blind, remained so for two years, then regained his sight - he has been beatified and his feast day is 17 June.
Justin the Confessor was a Christian martyr in the Roman Empire. He is honoured as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church.
Wolfsindis of Reisbach is a regional saint of the Middle Ages in Lower Bavaria, who is revered as holy virgin and martyr. Her veneration dates back to the 7th or 8th century.
Ingenuinus or Ingenuin, also Jenewein, was the second historically confirmed bishop of Sabiona or Säben. He is venerated as a saint.
Saint Burchard of Meissen was the first Bishop of Meissen, from 968.
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