A state funeral is a public funeral ceremony, observing the strict rules of protocol, held to honour people of national significance. State funerals usually include much pomp and ceremony as well as religious overtones and distinctive elements of military tradition. Generally, state funerals are held in order to involve the general public in a national day of mourning after the family of the deceased gives consent. A state funeral will often generate mass publicity from both national and global media outlets.
Etiquette is a code of behavior that delineates expectations for social behavior according to contemporary conventional norms within a society, social class, or group.
A national day of mourning is a day marked by mourning and memorial activities observed among the majority of a country's populace. They are designated by the national government. Such days include those marking the death or funeral of a renowned individual or individuals from that country or elsewhere, or the anniversary of such a death or deaths. Flying a flag of that country and/or military flag at half-staff is a common symbol.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1954 until his death in 1970. Nasser led the 1952 overthrow of the monarchy and introduced far-reaching land reforms the following year. Following a 1954 attempt on his life by a Muslim Brotherhood member, he cracked down on the organization, put President Mohamed Naguib under house arrest and assumed executive office. He was formally elected president in June 1956.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, also known as Mohammad Reza Shah, was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979. Mohammad Reza Shah took the title Shahanshah on 26 October 1967. He was the second and last monarch of the House of Pahlavi. Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi held several other titles, including that of Aryamehr and Bozorg Arteshtaran ("Commander-in-Chief"). His dream of what he referred to as a "Great Civilisation" in Iran led to a rapid industrial and military modernisation, as well as economic and social reforms.
Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat was the third President of Egypt, serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981. Sadat was a senior member of the Free Officers who overthrew King Farouk in the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, and a close confidant of President Gamal Abdel Nasser, under whom he served as Vice President twice and whom he succeeded as President in 1970.
Justice George Kingsley Acquah was the twenty-third Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Ghana(the eleventh since independence). He was appointed as Chief Justice on 4 July 2003 and was the incumbent until his death.
Maulvi Dr. Abdul Wahab Adam was an Islamic scholar, Ameer (head) and Missionary-in-Charge of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community of Ghana. He was a member of Ghana's National Peace Council and the National Reconciliation Commission that was set up in 2002.
Dr. Ebenezer Ako-Adjei was a nationalist politician from Ghana and one of the founding fathers of Ghana alongside J. B. Danquah, Edward Akufo-Addo and others. Ako-Adjei is considered to be one of the "Big Six", who were arguably some of the most famous people in Ghana's fight for independence from British rule. He was also a founding member of the United Gold Coast Convention, the political party that initially spearheaded the surge for independence.
Michael Kijana Wamalwa was a Kenyan politician and, at the time of his death, served as the eighth Vice-President of Kenya.
Lucy Muthoni Kibaki was the wife of former Kenyan President Mwai Kibaki and was First Lady of Kenya from 2002 to 2013.
Chris Hani, born Martin Thembisile Hani, was the leader of the South African Communist Party and chief of staff of uMkhonto we Sizwe, the armed wing of the African National Congress (ANC). He was a fierce opponent of the apartheid government, and was assassinated on 10 April 1993.
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the country's first black head of state and the first elected in a fully representative democratic election. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid by tackling institutionalised racism and fostering racial reconciliation. Ideologically an African nationalist and socialist, he served as President of the African National Congress (ANC) party from 1991 to 1997.
Govan Archibald Mvuyelwa Mbeki was a South African politician and son of Chief Sikelewu Mbeki and Johanna Mahala and also the father of the former South African president Thabo Mbeki and political economist Moeletsi Mbeki. He was a leader of the South African Communist Party and the African National Congress. After the Rivonia Trial, he was imprisoned (1963–1987) on charges of terrorism and treason, together with Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, Raymond Mhlaba, Ahmed Kathrada and other eminent ANC leaders, for their role in the ANC's armed wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK). He was sometimes mentioned by his nickname "Oom Gov".
Levy Patrick Mwanawasa was the third Republican President of Zambia. He ruled the country from January 2002 until his death in August 2008.
Frederick Jacob Titus Chiluba was a Zambian politician who was the second President of Zambia from 1991 to 2002. Chiluba, a trade union leader, won the country's multi-party presidential election in 1991 as the candidate of the Movement for Multi-party Democracy (MMD), defeating long-time President Kenneth Kaunda. He was re-elected in 1996. As he was unable to run for a third term in 2001, former Vice President Levy Mwanawasa instead ran as the MMD candidate and succeeded him. After leaving office, Chiluba was the subject of a long investigation and trial regarding alleged corruption; he was eventually acquitted in 2009.
Betty Kaunda, born Beatrice Kaweche Banda, was the wife of Zambia's first president Kenneth Kaunda, and the First Lady of Zambia from 1964 to 1991. She was locally called Mother of Zambia. Betty was born on 17 November 1928 to Kaweche Banda and Milika Sakala Banda at Mpika. She had her early education at Mbereshi Girls, underwent training at Mindolo Ecumenical Foundation’s Women’s programme and worked as a teacher in Mufulira. Betty was married to Dr. Kenneth Kaunda in 1946, who was involved in freedom struggle at the time and later went on to become the first President of independent Zambia in 1964. Betty was the strength behind Dr. Kuanda all through their 66 years of relationship.
In 1952 Eva Perón died at age 33. She held the title of Spiritual Leader of the Nation of Argentina, granted by the Congress of Argentina. Nearly three million people covered the funeral of Evita in the streets of Buenos Aires. A radio broadcast interrupted the broadcasting schedule, with the announcer reading, "The Press Secretary's Office of the Presidency of the Nation fulfills its very sad duty to inform the people of the Republic that at 20:25 hours Mrs. Eva Perón, Spiritual Leader of the Nation, died." Eva Perón was granted a state funeral and a full Roman Catholic requiem mass.On Saturday 9 August, the body was then transferred to the Congress Building for an additional day to be publicly viewed. The next day, after a final Sunday mass, the coffin was laid atop on a gun carriage pulled by CGT officials. Following next was Juan Perón, his cabinet, Eva's family and friends, the delegates and representatives of the Partido Peronista Femenino, then workers, nurses and students of the Eva Perón Foundation. Her coffin was showered with carnations, orchids, chrysanthemums, wallflowers and roses thrown from the nearby balconies as the procession passed through the streets.
Juan Perón died at age 78 on 1 July 1974, after his health progressively deteriorated. His wife and vicepresident, Isabel Martínez de Perón, gave the announcement: "with great sorrow I must convey to the people of Argentina the death of this true apostle of peace and nonviolence." After several days of national mourning, in which the body laid in state at the Argentine National Congress for hundreds of thousands of people, the remains were moved to a crypt in the Quinta de Olivos Presidential. On 17 November 1974 the remains of Evita. While the body was in Congress, over 135,000 people filed past the coffin, while a million Argentines had to bid their farewell to their leader from the outside. Two thousand foreign journalists reported the details of the funeral.
Raul Alfonsín died at age 82 on 31 March 2009 after a long battle against lung cancer and. in his last days, broncoaspirativa pneumonia. Argentina's government declared three days of national mourning for the death and his remains were veiled from the early hours of April 1, 2009 in the Blue Room of the National Congress, which was attended also by authorities and politicians of different parties an estimated 80,000 people had to wait in line for five to six hours. Among the political authorities who attended the event were former presidents Carlos Menem, Eduardo Duhalde, Fernando De la Rua and Nestor Kirchner, President Cristina Fernandez was unable to attend because they were in the G-20 London but sent its condolences. The next day they were taken to a military gun carriage escorted by the Mounted Grenadiers Regiment at Recoleta Cemetery in Buenos Aires. The remains of former President rested temporarily in the vault of the fallen in the Revolution of the Park until 16 May were transferred to a single monument in the cemetery in a place built of gray and beige marble, where there is a cross on top and a bright stained glass by entering a glimmer.
Argentina's former President and Secretary General of UNASUR, Néstor Kirchner, died of heart failure on the morning of 27 October 2010 at the Jose Formenti hospital in El Calafate, Santa Cruz Province at the age of 60. [ vague ] His wife, President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, was present with him when he died. He was also expected to run for president in 2011.Although there was some effort made to revive him, it did not do so
A state funeral was held on November 3, 2010 in Bridgetown for former Barbados Prime Minister David Thompson.
State funerals were held for the President-elect of Brazil, Tancredo Neves, who died before taking office. The former Vice President of Brazil, José Alencar, was also buried with a head of state's honor, after his passing due to cancer. Other than heads of state, personalities such as the Formula 1 racing champion Ayrton Senna, dead in 1994 after a crash during a race, and the architect Oscar Niemeyer, who died in 2012 at the age of 104, among others.
In Canada, state funerals are public events held to commemorate the memory of present and former governors general, present and former prime ministers, sitting members of the Ministry (the Privy Council) and other prominent Canadians at the discretion of the Prime Minister. With ceremonial, military, and religious elements incorporated, state funerals are offered and executed by the Government of Canada which provides a dignified manner for the Canadian people to mourn a national public figure.
In 2006, the House of Commons voted unanimously, on a motion introduced by the NDP, to hold a state funeral when the last Canadian veteran of the First World War died. However, John Babcock, after becoming the last surviving veteran, stated that he did not feel the need to be honoured in such a way.
In August 2011, in a rare circumstance, Prime Minister Stephen Harper offered a state funeral for his political adversary and Leader of the Opposition, Jack Layton. Layton died of cancer three months after his New Democratic Party became the official opposition, for the first time in his party's history.
In 2014, former finance minister Jim Flaherty received a state funeral after his death.
Crispin Sorhaindo, former President of Dominica, was given a state funeral on January 18, 2010 in Roseau.
On November 16, 2016, the state funeral of former President of Ecuador Sixto Durán Ballén was held in Quito.
On March 16, 2012, a state funeral was held in St. George's for former Grenadian Prime Minister George Ignatius Brizan.
Legendary reggae singer Bob Marley received a state funeral in Jamaica on 21 May 1981, which combined elements of Ethiopian Orthodoxyand Rastafari tradition.
On July 18, 2004, a state funeral was held for former Jamaican Prime Minister Hugh Shearer in Kingston.
Novelist Carlos Fuentes received a state funeral on May 16, 2012, with his funeral cortege briefly stopping traffic in Mexico City. The ceremony was held in the Palacio de Bellas Artes and was attended by President Felipe Calderón.
State funerals have also been held for former Mexican presidents. Traditionally, the final funeral services for a former Mexican president is held at either the Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral or Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe. The services are attended by the former president's family, the current President of Mexico, the Head of Government of the Federal District and their families, foreign heads of state or their representatives (usually a foreign ambassador, vice president, prime minister or premier), military officials, Senators and Deputies, and other dignitaries. The principal celebrant of the service is usually the Archbishop of Mexico City, and traditionally the President and the Head of Government of the Federal District deliver the final eulogies and remarks.
On the days leading to a Presidential state funeral, the Mexican flags are at half-mast, and the Olympic cauldron at Estadio Olimpico Universitario is lit until the funeral services have ended. The day of the Presidential funeral, if held in Mexico City, is usually the national day of mourning; there is no mail to be delivered on that day, all schools and colleges in Mexico City are closed, and all television and motion picture studios in Mexico City, and with them the studios of Televisa and TV Azteca affiliates across Mexico, are closed to audiences and tours. All business, including shopping centers and entertainment facilities, in Mexico City are closed; stores and theaters that are part of regional and national chains headquartered in Mexico City are closed.
The most recent Presidential funeral was that of Miguel de la Madrid, which was attended by thousands of dignitaries including President Calderon and Head of Government of the Federal District Marcelo Ebrard.
Sir William George Mallet GCSL GCMG CBE (July 24, 1923 – October 20, 2010) received a State Funeral on October 28, 2010 in the capital Castries. Mallet was a politician who held a number of high offices in Saint Lucia, one of the Windward Islands of the Lesser Antilles in the Eastern Caribbean. On June 1, 1996, "Sir George" was appointed to the office of Governor General of St Lucia.
On September 4, 2000, a state funeral was held in Nassau for former Bahamian Prime Minister Sir Lynden Pindling.On January 5, 2012, a state funeral was held in Nassau for former Bahamian Governor-General Sir Clifford Darling.
In the United States, state funerals are held in the nation's capital, Washington, D.C., and involve military spectacle, ceremonial pomp, and religious observance. As the highest possible honor bestowed upon a person posthumously, state funerals are an entitlement offered to a sitting or former President of the United States, a President-elect, as well as other people designated by the President.Administered by the Military District of Washington (MDW), state funerals are greatly influenced by protocol, steeped in tradition, and rich in history. However, the overall planning as well as the decision to hold a state funeral, is largely determined by the President before his death and the First Family.
State funerals have been held in Washington D.C. for William Henry Harrison (1841),Zachary Taylor (1850), Abraham Lincoln (1865), Thaddeus Stevens (1868), James A. Garfield (1881), William McKinley (1901), Warren G. Harding (1923), the Unknown Soldier of World War I (1921), William Howard Taft (1930), John J. Pershing (1948), the Unknown Soldiers of World War II and the Korean War (1958), John F. Kennedy (1963), Douglas MacArthur (1964), Herbert Hoover (1964), Dwight D. Eisenhower (1969), Lyndon B. Johnson (1973), Ronald Reagan (2004), Gerald Ford (2006-2007) and George H. W. Bush (2018).
In Australia, Commonwealth (federal) state funerals are generally offered to former or current governors-general, prime ministers and long-serving members of the Parliament of Australia. In rare occasions a Commonwealth state funeral is offered to people outside politics but who made a significant contribution to the nation, for example Sir Douglas Mawson was granted a Commonwealth state funeral in 1958.A Commonwealth state funeral was offered for Margaret Whitlam but the Whitlam family declined.
Military state funerals are offered to former senior officers of the Australian Defence Force, for example Field Marshal Sir Thomas Blamey, and sometimes given to governors-general, prime ministers, state governors and state premiers who had previous military service. The Unknown Soldier was given a Commonwealth military state funeral on 11 November 1993 before being interred in the Hall of Memory at the Australian War Memorial. In the early years of the 21st century, military state funerals were offered to the last few World War I veterans.
State funerals held in NSW are subject to a policy operated since 1966. Governors, Chief Justices, premiers, and long-term ministers are generally offered a state funeral. However the premier of NSW can offer such a service for those determined to be distinguished citizens of NSW. For example, soccer player Johnny Warren was given a state funeral in NSW. Where the family of the dead person does not wish to have a state funeral, the offer of a state memorial service will be considered.
Some former governors who had previous military service were given military state funerals, for example Rear Admiral Sir David Martin and Air Marshal Sir James Rowland.
On 27 November 2007, Bernie Banton, a campaigner for asbestos victims who worked for James Hardie, lost his battle with mesothelioma, an asbestos-related disease. His family was offered a state funeral by NSW premier Morris Iemma.
Current and former Governors, Premiers, deputy premiers, speakers of the Legislative Assembly, chief justices of the Supreme Court, presidents of the Court of Appeal and current members of the Executive Council are automatically eligible for a state funeral.It is the prerogative of the premier of the day to offer a state funeral to other prominent Queenslanders. A state funeral was offered for TV celebrity Steve Irwin in September 2006 but his family declined the offer.
State funerals are generally offered to former governors, premiers and other senior public officials. At the discretion of the premier, a state funeral can be offered to other prominent Victorians, for example broadcaster Peter Evans (1985), Australian Rules football player Ted Whitten (1995), race-car driver Peter Brock (2006), actor Charles 'Bud' Tingwell (2009), and former Australian Rules football player and charity worker Jim Stynes (2012).Explorers Robert O'Hara Burke and William John Wills received Victoria's first (and Australia's first) state funeral on 21 January 1863.
State funerals are generally offered to former Governors, Premiers, Deputy Premiers, Speakers of the House of Assembly, Chief Justices and other senior public officials.
The offer of a state funeral is a decision of the Cabinet.
State funerals are generally offered to former Governors, Premiers, Deputy Premiers, Speakers of the House of Assembly, Chief Justices and other senior public officials.
The offer of a state funeral is at the discretion of the Chief Minister. People who have received state funerals include former chief minister Trevor Kaine, Supreme Court judge Terry Connolly and former chairman of the Canberra Commercial Development Authority Jim Pead.
Cambodia held state funerals for the following people:
According to the Act of State Funeral (1948), state funerals are declared by presidential order after a majority vote in the Legislative Yuan. The national flag shall be flown at half-mast on the day of the state funeral.
State funerals (or equivalent) were arranged for the following persons:
Prior to 1997, in British Hong Kong, Edward Youde was given Hong Kong's first state funeral in 1986.The casket was carried by ten guardsmen, draped in the Union Flag, and a 17-gun salute from HMS Tamar (shore station) was fired. The funeral was exceptionally well attended.
Since 1997, only three people from Hong Kong have been allowed to have the flag of the People's Republic of China draped on their coffin during their funeral:
Funerals using a SAR flag are not deemed state funerals in Hong Kong.
The government provides funerals for fallen uniform service members. Flags of the specific service or the SAR flag maybe used on the coffin. Hong Kong Police Band may lead the procession as part the funeral ceremony and escort maybe provided by Hong Kong Police to final resting place at Gallant Garden, a cemetery reserved for civil servants who died on duty.
In India, State funerals were initially reserved only for current and former Presidents, Prime Ministers, Union ministers and State Chief Ministers. And the decision to accord a state funeral rested initially with the union government. But laws have been changed such that the state government can now decide who will be given a state funeral, depending on the stature of the deceased. If the union government has decided for a state funeral then following procedures will be applied to all over India, else if the state government has declared a state funeral then it applies only to the state.
The government takes into consideration the contribution made by the person to the state in various fields like politics, literature, law, science and arts. The chief minister of the concerned state takes a decision after consultations with other cabinet ministers. Once a decision is taken on the issue, it is conveyed to senior police officials including the deputy commissioner, the police commissioner and the superintendent of police, who have to make all the arrangements for a state funeral.
During a State funeral,
State funerals were organized for the following individuals (listed by category roughly according to their standing in the Indian order of precedence):
Other Personalities who received a state funeral:
It is also to be noted that in the event of death of either the Head of the State or Head of the Government of a foreign country the Indian Mission accredited to that country may fly the national flag at half-mast. In the case of Pope John Paul II, India declared a three-day official mourning period.
A state funeral was arranged for the military ceremony on their deathbed on the respective date:
In Japan, before the Second World War, a state funeral was performed when an Imperial edict is issued. Since then, funerals of the Emperor and the other members of the Imperial Family were privately organized, and only certain portions of the funeral involved the state.
Traditionally, state funerals are reserved for all former Governors-General, as well as Prime Ministers who die in office, such as John Ballance in 1893, Joseph Ward in 1930and Michael Joseph Savage in 1940. The funeral of John Ballance occurred in Whanganui after a lying in state in the New Zealand Parliament and a rail journey from Wellington. It was a Masonic funeral carried out at the Whanganui cemetery where he was interred. Both funerals of Ward and Savage were held in Sacred Heart Cathedral adjacent to the New Zealand Parliament. In the case of Savage, his body lay in state in the Parliament building, where 50,000 people filed past it, before the Requiem Mass at the Cathedral. Others to receive state funerals include Sir Frederic Truby King (1937) who founded the Plunket Society, the unidentified victims of the Tangiwai rail disaster (1953), Victoria Cross recipient Jack Hinton (1997), the mountaineer Sir Edmund Hillary (2008) and the Unknown Warrior whose reinterment (from the Caterpillar Valley Cemetery on the Somme in France) took place on Armistice Day, 11 November 2004 and whose tomb at the New Zealand National War Memorial represents all New Zealand soldiers who died in war. The offer of a state funeral was refused by the family of former Prime Minister David Lange.
State funerals are infrequent in North Korea.Funerals, and who appears on official funeral committees, are considered important cues on power hierarchies of North Korean politics. According to a tradition inherited from the Soviet Union, the chairperson of the funeral committee of a deceased leader of North Korea is beyond all doubt the next leader. This held true when Kim Il-sung died in 1994 and was succeeded by Kim Jong-il, who in turn was succeeded by Kim Jong-un in 2011.
The Philippines held the state funerals for the following people:
A state funeral was arranged for the following people on their deathbed on the respective date:
Another type of funeral in Singapore is a state-assisted funeral. Similar to a state funeral, the deceased may or may not be entitled to a ceremonial gun carriage, though he/she does not lie in state in the Istana. Such funerals are accorded to:
State funerals in South Korea are a mix of the Western and Korean funeral traditions, these are modern adaptations of the rites held in the funerals of Emperors of Korea.
In Thailand, state funerals are mostly analogous to the royal funerals held for the monarch and members of the Royal Family. Royal ceremonies are also held for the cremation of the supreme patriarch and senior members of the Buddhist clergy. There is no official royal or state ceremony for deceased prime ministers or other senior government officials, but the king may sponsor funerals of such persons by royally attending the funeral, bestowing the use of a kot (funerary urn), royally bestowing bathing water for the body, and royally sponsoring cremations or burials.
A state funeral was arranged for the following people on their deathbed on the respective date:
In Vietnam, in a State Funeral, all national flags at governmental agencies worldwide, including public schools, hospitals, etc., will be tied to the pole by a black piece of cloth with the length equaling to the length of the flag, and the width equaling to one tenth of the flag, and the flag will be flown at half mast. Finally all entertainment are officially suspended within the days of the State Funeral.
A state funeral was held for President Heydar Aliyev in 2003. Former president Abulfaz Elchibey was also accorded a state funeral upon his death.
State funerals in Belgium need three conditions: playing the national anthem, the presence of the King or one of his representatives and the presence of the national flag on the coffin. State funerals were held for all the kings and queens of Belgium, for some royal family members and for former prime ministers.
On 29 August 1945, two years after the German occupation force in Denmark had dissolved the Danish army and navy, a state funeral was held for 106 killed members of the Danish resistance at their execution site which was thus inaugurated as the memorial cemetery that would later become Ryvangen Memorial Park. While flags were flying half-mast throughout Copenhagen 106 hearses drove from the Christiansborg Riding Grounds through the city to Ryvangen, where bishop Hans Fuglsang-Damgaard led the funeral with participation from the royal family, the government and representatives of the resistance movement.
A state funeral was held for the former President Václav Havel in 2011.
In Finland state funerals are primarily reserved for former presidents but the honour has been granted to long-serving prime ministers, speakers of the parliament, and other distinguished citizens as well. In the 1990s the criteria for awarding a state funeral were considerably specified, so as not to diminish the prestige of the affair.
79 people have been awarded the honour of state funeral, among them:
The state funerals (obsèques nationales) are awarded by decree of the President of the French Republic to especially eminent Frenchmen and women. It was held for writers Victor Hugo (1885), Maurice Barrès (1923), Paul Valéry (1945), Colette (1954) and Aimé Césaire (2008),Generals Jacques Leclerc (1947), Giraud (1949) et de Lattre de Tassigny (1952) and politicians Georges Coulon (1912), Albert Lebrun (1951), Léon Blum (1951), Édouard Herriot (1957) and Charles Aznavour (2018) An even higher honour is burial in the Panthéon de Paris.
In Italy state funerals are grantedby law to the Presidents of the constitutional entities, such has the Presidency, the Parliament, the Government and the Constitutional Court, even after their terms have expired, and to Ministers who died during their term in office. State Funerals can also be granted, by decree of the Council of Ministers, to people who gave particular services to the country; to citizens that brought honor to the nation; or to citizens who died in the line of duty, or were victims of either terrorism, or organized crime.
The official protocol provides for
For the funeral of the President or a former President the six members of the Carabinieri, who carry the coffin, belong to the special branch of the Corazzieri.
Public mourning, either national or local, is declared following the dispositions of the Prime Minister's decrees. The flags are flown at half-mast outside of public buildings, while inside they display two black ribbons, with the exceptions provided for military flags, when required by military protocol.The Ministry of Foreign Affairs gives instructions to the Italian embassies and consulates around the world, and can ask the foreign embassies and consulates in Italy to fly their flags at half-mast.
If the departed held a public office, the body can lie in state in the building of the office's institution. In other cases it is followed the will of the family, the traditions of the office or the local customs.The family of the departed chooses the place in which the funeral will take place, in consultations with the Government's Department of State Ceremonies.
Outside of the cases provided for by the protocol, for example during natural events that deeply impact the community, solemn funerals can be arrangedand the six people who carry the coffins are members of the Civil Protection.
State Funerals have been held for presidents, prime ministers and archbishops.
The last state funeral held for the President of Malta was that of Censu Tabone on March 2012.
The last state funeral held for the Prime Minister of Malta was that of Dom Mintoff on August 2012.
The royal funerals of Prince Claus, Queen Juliana and Prince Bernhard are the only royal funerals that were denoted state funerals; previous royal funerals were considered private affairs.The only non-royal Dutchman who is considered to have received a state funeral was Joannes van Heutsz in 1927.
Since proclaiming independence in 1991, by law the presidents and prime ministers are entitled to a funeral with state honors, but by a decision of government its possible for other senior officials and distinguished persons with great merit for the state to be buried with state honors. The largest state funeral was held in 2004 for President Boris Trajkovski and the funeral was attended by 47 foreign delegations. Among others that are buried with state honors, are the first prime minister of independent Macedonia Nikola Kljusev and the famous singer Toše Proeski.
Poland held a state funeral for President of Poland Lech Kaczyński and his wife, Maria Kaczyńska, on April 18, 2010 after he and 95 others perished in a plane crash.
In Russia, during the time of the Soviet Union (1917-1991), the state funerals of the most senior political and military leaders were staged as massive events with millions of mourners all over the USSR. The ceremonies held after the deaths as Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin, Leonid Brezhnev, Yuri Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko all followed the same basic outline. They took place in Moscow, began with a public lying in state of the deceased in the House of the Unions and ended with an interment at the Red Square. The most notable examples of such state funerals during the Soviet period of Russian history are the ceremonies that were held for Lenin and Stalin, and for the death and funeral of Leonid Brezhnev.
In the second half of the 20th century, whenever a General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union died, the event would first be officially acknowledged by Soviet radio and television. After several days of national mourning, the deceased would be given a state funeral and then buried. Soviet state funerals were often attended by foreign heads of state, heads of government, foreign ministers and other dignitaries from abroad. Following the death of General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev in 1982, there were five days of national mourning. Following the death of General Secretary Yuri Andropov in 1984, a four-day period of nationwide mourning was announced.
The state funeral for a deceased General Secretary would be arranged, managed and prepared by a special committee of the Communist Party that would be formed for the occasion. As the funeral committee would normally be chaired by the deceased's successor, the preparations for Soviet state funerals were usually followed with great interest by foreign political scientists trying to gauge power shuffles within the Communist Party. The allocation of responsibilities during the funeral, appointment of pallbearers and positions within the order of precedence observed during the televised funeral ceremonies in Moscow could often be interpreted as a clue for the future position of Politburo members within the Party. When, after Brezhnev's death in 1982, Yuri Andropov was elected chairman of the committee in charge of Brezhnev's funeral, this was seen as a first sign by First World commentators that Andropov might be the most likely candidate for the position of General Secretary.Prior to interment, the body of the deceased General Secretary would lie in state in the Pillar Hall of the House of the Unions which was decorated by numerous red flags and other communist symbols. The mourners, which usually would be brought in by the thousands, shuffled up a marble staircase beneath chandeliers draped in black gauze. On the stage at the left side of the Pillar Hall, amid a veritable garden of flowers, a full orchestra in black tailcoats would play classical music. The deceased's embalmed body, dressed in a black suit, white shirt and a tie, would be displayed in an open coffin on a catafalque banked with carnations, red roses and tulips, facing the long queue of mourners. A small guard of honour would be in attendance in the background. At the right side of the hall there would be placed seats for guests of honour, with the front row reserved for the dead leader's family.
On the day of the funeral, final ceremonies would be held at the Pillar Hall during which the lid of the coffin would be temporarily closed. The coffin would then be carried out of the House of the Unions and placed on a gun carriage drawn by a military vehicle. A funeral parade would then convey the coffin from the House of the Unions to the Red Square. Two officers led the funeral parade, carrying a large portrait of the deceased, followed by a group of numerous soldiers carrying red floral wreaths. A group of general officers would come next, carrying the late leader's decorations and medals on small red cushions. Behind them, the coffin rested atop a gun carriage. Walking immediately behind were the members of the deceased's family. The Politburo leaders, wearing red armbands, came next and led the last group of official mourners. At Brezhnev's funeral, the escort of official mourners included forty-four persons.
As the coffin reached the middle of the Red Square, it would be removed from the carriage and placed on a red-draped bier facing the Lenin Mausoleum, with its lid removed. After a series of funeral speeches, which were delivered by military and political leaders (typically including the deceased's successor as General Secretary, as well as 'ordinary' workers) from the balcony of the Lenin Mausoleum, the coffin would be carried in a procession around the mausoleum to the Kremlin Wall Necropolis just behind it. There, with the most senior mourners looking on, the coffin would be placed on a red-draped bier and the mourners would pay last respects. The coffin's lid would then be closed for the final time and the body lowered into the ground by two men, with handfuls of earth thrown onto the coffin by the senior mourners. The grave would be filled in immediately afterward, while the mourners were still present to watch. Gun salutes would be fired, sirens sounded around the Kremlin and the Soviet national anthem be played. This marked the end of the interment. The senior mourners would then return to the balcony of the Lenin Mausoleum to review a parade on Red Square while the military band would play quick marches. This concluded the state funeral.
With small deviations, the described protocol was roughly the same for the state funerals of Lenin, Stalin, Brezhnev, Yuri Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko. Lenin and Stalin were placed inside the Lenin Mausoleum while the others were interred in individual graves in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis located behind the mausoleum along the actual Kremlin wall. Stalin's body would lie beside Lenin's in the mausoleum until being moved to the Kremlin Wall Necropolis several years after his death.
In April 2007, Russian Federation's first President Boris Yeltsin was buried in state funeral after church ceremony at Novodevichy Cemetery. He was the first Russian leader and head of state in 113 years to be buried in a church ceremony, after Emperor Alexander III of Russia.
A state funeral was held for the former President Michal Kováč in 2016.
In 1960, the funeral procession of Henri Guisan gathered more than 120'000 people in Lausanne.
A state or ceremonial funeral consists of a military procession where the coffin is borne on a gun carriage from the private resting chapel to Westminster Hall. In a state funeral the gun carriage is pulled by members of the Royal Navy. In a royal ceremonial funeral, the gun carriage is pulled by horses, as opposed to servicemen. The body usually lies in state in Westminster Hall for three days. This is then followed by a funeral service at Westminster Abbey or St. Paul's Cathedral. Many of the features of a state funeral are shared by other types of funerals—a royal ceremonial funeral (for example, that of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother and Diana, Princess of Wales) often has a lying in state and Westminster Abbey service. The real distinction between a state funeral and a royal ceremonial funeral is that a state funeral requires a motion or vote in Parliament. State funerals are usually reserved for sovereigns, though on rare occasions, they may be granted to distinguished citizens with exceptional contributions to the country. Other members of the royal family, or occasionally politicians, typically receive ceremonial funerals instead.
The most recent state funeral was that of Sir Winston Churchill in 1965. Although technically following her divorce from the Prince of Wales in 1996, Diana, Princess of Wales was no longer a member of the Royal Family, and as such not entitled to a state or ceremonial funeral, the large outpouring of public grief following her death led then-Prime Minister Tony Blair to recommend a ceremonial funeral because she was the mother of Princes William and Harry, who were then respectively second and third in the line of succession to the British throne. Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother and Margaret, Baroness Thatcher also received ceremonial funerals.
A massive state funeral was held for the late President Josip Broz Tito on 8 May 1980 in Belgrade, the capital city of the SFR Yugoslavia. It was the largest funeral of a statesman in the 20th century, with 129 delegations from all around the world.Tito's funeral drew many statesmen to Belgrade. Notably absent statesmen from funeral were Jimmy Carter and Fidel Castro. His death came in the moment when Soviet invasion of Afghanistan ended American-Soviet détente. Yugoslavia, although a communist state, was non-aligned during the Cold War and fearful that the nation might be invaded like Czechoslovakia and Afghanistan. After learning that Chinese Premier Hua Guofeng would lead the delegation of China, ailing Leonid Brezhnev decided to lead the Soviet delegation. In order to avoid meeting with Leonid Brezhnev and the middle of electoral campaign for the 1980 United States Presidential election, Carter opted to send his mother Lilian Carter and Vice President Walter Mondale as heads of the US delegation. After realizing that leaders of all Warsaw Pact nations would attend the funeral, Carter's decision was criticized by Presidential candidate George H. W. Bush as sign that the United States "inferentially slams Yugoslavs at time that country has pulled away from Soviet Union". Carter visited Yugoslavia later in June 1980 and made a visit to Tito's grave.
Helmut Schmidt, Chancellor of West Germany was the most active statesman, meeting with Brezhnev, Erich Honecker and Edward Gierek. British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher sought to rally world leaders in order to harshly condemn the Soviet invasion. While she was in Belgrade, she held talks with Kenneth Kaunda, Schmidt, Francesco Cossiga and Nicolae Ceaușescu. Brezhnev met with Kim Il-sung and Honecker. James Callaghan, President of the British Labour Party explained his presence in Belgrade as attempt to warm relations between his party and Yugoslav communists, severed more than a decade ago after dissident Milovan Đilas was welcomed by Jennie Lee, Minister for the Arts under Harold Wilson. Mondale avoided Soviets, ignoring Brezhnev while passing close to him. Soviet and Chinese delegations also avoided each other.
Tito was interred on May 8 twice. First interment was for cameras and dignitaries. Grave was shallow with only 200 kg replica of sarcophagus. Second interment was held privately during the night. His coffin was removed, shallow grave was deepened. Coffin was enclosed with copper mask and interred again into much deeper grave which was sealed with cement and topped with a 9-ton sarcophagus. Communist officials were afraid that someone might steal the corpse, similarly to what happened to Charlie Chaplin. However, the 9 ton sarcophagus had to be put in place with a crane, which would make funeral unattractive.
Kim Jong-pil was a South Korean politician and founder of the Korean Central Intelligence Agency, who served as Prime Minister twice, from 1971–1975 during president Park Chung-hee (1961–1979) and from 1998–2000 during president Kim Dae-jung (1998–2002).
A military funeral is a memorial or burial rite given by a country's military for a soldier, sailor, marine or airman who died in battle, a veteran, or other prominent military figures or heads of state. A military funeral may feature guards of honor, the firing of volley shots as a salute, drumming and other military elements, with a flag draping over the coffin.
Võ Văn Kiệt was a Vietnamese politician who served as the Prime Minister of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam from 1991 to 1997. He was a well regarded Vietnamese revolutionary and political leader. He was a revolutionary veteran fighter in the long war against the French colonialists and then South Vietnamese and American forces in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War. In the difficult years following the war, he was one of the most prominent political leaders that led the innovation policy in Vietnam. He served as Prime Minister of Vietnam from 8 August 1991 to 25 September 1997, the period experienced the communist nation's return to the world arena after decades of war and isolation.
Lying in state is the tradition in which the body of a dead official is placed in a state building, either outside or inside a coffin, to allow the public to pay their respects. It traditionally takes place in the principal government building of a country, state, or city. While the practice differs among countries, a viewing in a location other than the principal government building may be referred to as lying in repose.
Half-mast refers to a flag flying on a ship and half-staff refers to a flag flying below the summit on a pole on land or on a building. In many countries this is seen as a symbol of respect, mourning, distress, or, in some cases, a salute. Flags are said to be half-mast if flown from ships and half-staff if on land, although this distinction is mainly observed in the United States – places like Canada and the United Kingdom do not have ‘half-staff’ in their vocabulary and rely solely on using the term ‘half-mast’ when ordering flags to fly lowered.
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Yon Hyong-muk, also spelt Yong Hyong-muk, was a long-serving politician in North Korea and at the height of his career the most powerful person in that country outside the Kim family. He was Prime Minister of North Korea from 1988 to 1992.
Eternal leaders of North Korea refers to the practice of granting posthumous titles to deceased leaders of North Korea. The phrase "Eternal Leaders of Juche Korea" was established by a line in the preamble to the Constitution, as amended on 30 June 2016, and in subsequent revisions.
Jo Myong-rok was a North Korean military officer who held the military rank Chasu. In 1998, he was appointed First Vice-Chairman of the National Defence Commission of North Korea, Director of the Korean People's Army General Political Bureau. Previously, he was the commander of the air defence forces.
Marshal Oh Jin-Woo was a soldier and politician of North Korea. He was the Minister of Armed Forces for many years until his death in February 1995. Oh was the third most powerful person in North Korea, after Kim Il-Sung and Kim Jong-Il. Very little is known about him except for the fact that he served with Kim Il-sung's partisan unit and eventually rose through the ranks of the North Korean Army. He distinguished himself during the Korean War and was a trusted adviser of the North Korean leader until his death, also being his chief guard in 1945.
In the United Kingdom, a state funeral is usually reserved for a monarch and the Earl Marshal is in charge. The last such funeral was held in 1952 for King George VI. In addition, very exceptionally, a state funeral may be held to honour a highly distinguished figure, with the approval of the monarch and with Parliament's approval. This last happened in 1965 for Sir Winston Churchill.
On 10 November 1982, Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev, the third General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) and the fifth leader of the Soviet Union, died aged 75, a month before his 76th birthday after suffering a heart attack following years of serious ailments. His death was officially acknowledged on 11 November simultaneously by Soviet radio and television. After five days of national mourning, Brezhnev was given a state funeral and then buried in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis. Yuri Andropov, Brezhnev's eventual successor as general secretary, was chairman of the committee in charge of managing Brezhnev's funeral, held on 15 November 1982, five days after his death.
The death of Kim Jong-il was reported by North Korean state television news on 19 December 2011. The presenter Ri Chun-hee announced that he had died on 17 December at 8:30 am of a massive heart attack while travelling by train to an area outside Pyongyang. Reportedly, he had received medical treatment for cardiac and cerebrovascular diseases. During the trip though, he was said to have had an advanced acute myocardial infarction, complicated with a serious heart shock. However, it was reported by South Korean media in December 2012 that he had died in a fit of rage over construction faults at a crucial power plant project.
Kim Il-sung died on the afternoon of 8 July 1994 at age 82. North Korea's government did not report the death for more than 34 hours after it occurred. An official mourning period was declared from 8–17 July, during which the national flag was flown at half mast throughout the country, and all forms of amusement and dancing were prohibited.
Kang Min-chol is a North Korean politician. He is Minister of Mining Industries in the Cabinet of North Korea, and an alternate member of the politburo of the Central Committee of the Workers' Party of Korea (WPK). He was a delegate to the 12th session of the Supreme People’s Assembly.
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Boris Yeltsin, the first President of Russia, died of cardiac arrest on April 23, 2007, twelve days after being admitted to the Central Clinical Hospital in Moscow. Yeltsin was the first Russian head of state to be buried in a church ceremony since Emperor Alexander III, 113 years prior.
Thai funerals usually follow Buddhist funerary rites, with variations in practice depending on the culture of the region. People of certain religious and ethnic groups also have their own specific practices. Thai Buddhist funerals generally consist of a bathing ceremony shortly after death, daily chanting by Buddhist monks, and a cremation ceremony. Cremation is practised by most peoples throughout the country, with the major exceptions being ethnic Chinese, Muslims and Christians.