|Born||October 8, 1881|
|Died||June 9, 1976 94)(aged|
|Occupation||Army officer, consul-general, businessman, estate owner|
Thorleif Paus (8 October 1881 – 9 June 1976), also known as Thorleif de Paus or Thorleif von Paus, was a Norwegian businessman, consul-general in Vienna and estate owner.
Vienna is the federal capital and largest city of Austria, and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, and its cultural, economic, and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union. Until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, and before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC. The city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.
A member of the patrician Paus family, he was a son of the steel industrialist and banker Ole Paus and Birgitte Halvordine Schou, and grew up at Bygdøy in Oslo. His father was a first cousin of Henrik Ibsen, whereas his mother was a first cousin of the industrialist Halvor Schou. Prime Minister Sigurd Ibsen was Thorleif Paus' second cousin. He was the brother of the businessman Christopher Blom Paus (1878–1959) and the brother-in-law of the historian of nobility Otto von Munthe af Morgenstierne. His nephew was the steel industrialist Per Paus, who was married to Hedevig Wedel-Jarlsberg.
The Paus family is a Norwegian family that first appeared as members of the elite of 16th-century Oslo. Two brothers from Oslo who both became priests, Hans (1587–1648) and Peder Povelsson Paus (1590–1653), have long been known as the family's earliest certain ancestors. In his book Slekten Paus, genealogist S.H. Finne-Grønn traced the family two further generations back, to Hans Olufsson, a member of the royal clergy in Norway before and after the Reformation, who served as a canon at the royal chapel in Oslo, St Mary's Church, the seat of government of Norway at the time, and who belonged to the high nobility by virtue of his high ecclesiastical and governmental office. The name Paus is known in Oslo since the 14th century, notably as the name of the Lawspeaker of Oslo Nikolas Paus and as the name of one of medieval Oslo's "city farms" that was probably named after the lawspeaker or his family; while a relation between the older and the younger family of the name in Oslo is plausible, it has not been established. Regardless, the modern Paus family is likely the only surviving family to hail from the medieval city of Oslo which burned down in 1624 without being rebuilt, making it the family with the longest documented history in the Norwegian capital.
Ole Paus was a Norwegian iron and steel industrialist and Chairman of the commercial bank Den norske Creditbank. He was a first cousin of Henrik Ibsen.
Schou is a Norwegian family of Danish origin. Christian Julius Schou became owner of the Schou Brewery, which was owned by the family from 1821 to 1898. His son Halvor Schou became a leading industrialist and established Hjula Væverier, Norway's largest industrial company at the time. He also inherited the Schou Brewery, which had around thousand employees at that point in 1874. In 1855, he bought the Sinsen farm, and in the 1860s also the Løkenes farm in Aker, where he built the Esviken mansion, designed by Wilhelm von Hanno. His daughter Birgitte Halvordine Schou was married to the industrialist Einar Westye Egeberg, and their daughter Hermine (1881–1974) married Peder Anker Wedel-Jarlsberg.
In his first marriage, he was married to Ella Stein (1883–1971), who belonged to a bourgeois Viennese family of Jewish origin. In his second marriage, he was married to the former countess Ella Moltke, née Glückstadt (born 1899 in Copenhagen), a daughter of the prominent Danish Jewish businessman Valdemar Glückstadt and widow of count Erik Moltke of Nør. In his first marriage, he was the father of Helvig Paus (born 1909 in Vienna) and Major-General Ole Paus (born 1910 in Vienna). In his second marriage, he had a stepson, count Erik Moltke. He was the grandfather of the troubadour Ole Paus and the great-grandfather of the composer Marcus Paus.
Moltke is a noble family resident in Germany and Scandinavia, originally from Mecklenburg. Members of the family have been noted as statesmen and high military officers in Denmark and Germany.
Valdemar Josef Glückstadt was a Danish businessman and Consul-General.
Ole Otto Paus, né Ole von Paus, was a Norwegian General, diplomat and NATO official. He was head of the army group in the military intelligence service of the exile Norwegian High Command in London during the Second World War, and thus was one of the founders of the Norwegian Intelligence Service. He served as a military attaché in Stockholm and Helsingfors during the 1950s, and was commander-in-chief in Central Norway from 1964 to 1971. From 1971 to 1974 he was Land Deputy of the Allied Forces Northern Europe, i.e. the Norwegian representative in the NATO military command for Northern Europe. As such he was the highest-ranking Norwegian in the NATO command structure at the time.
He graduated from the Norwegian Military Academy and became a second lieutenant in the cavalry in 1902; he was promoted to first lieutenant in 1909. He served as a consular secretary (deputy head of mission) and commercial attaché at the Swedish-Norwegian and subsequently at the Norwegian Consulate-General in Vienna 1902–1910, and as Norwegian vice consul and acting consul-general between 1910 and 1917. During his tenure Norway had no legation or embassy in Vienna, and the consul-general was the highest-ranking representative of Norway residing in Austria-Hungary; in 1906 Thor von Ditten became Norwegian minister to Berlin with secondary accreditations to multiple countries including Italy and Austria-Hungary. From 1906 to 1918, Paus operated his own business as an agent in Vienna, representing large Norwegian industrial companies, mainly Norsk Hydro, in Austria-Hungary. As consul he became the only Scandinavian to witness the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo in 1914.
The Norwegian Military Academy (Krigsskolen), in Oslo, educates officers of the Norwegian Army and serves as the King's Royal Guard. The academy was established in 1750, and is the oldest institution for higher education in Norway. The current commandant is Colonel Erlend Bekkestad.
Second lieutenant is a junior commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces, comparable to NATO OF-1a rank.
Cavalry or horsemen are soldiers or warriors who fight mounted on horseback. Cavalry were historically the most mobile of the combat arms. An individual soldier in the cavalry is known by a number of designations such as cavalryman, horseman, dragoon, or trooper. The designation of cavalry was not usually given to any military forces that used other animals, such as camels, mules or elephants. Infantry who moved on horseback, but dismounted to fight on foot, were known in the 17th and early 18th centuries as dragoons, a class of mounted infantry which later evolved into cavalry proper while retaining their historic title.
He returned to Norway in 1918 and continued his business as Thorleif Paus A/S in Oslo. He also became the owner of two factories in Ålesund. He lived in Scania, Sweden from 1935 to 1964, where he owned Kvesarum Castle from 1936 and the large estate Ejratal from 1948. He also inherited the manor house Magleås outside Copenhagen from his relative, count Christopher (de) Paus in 1943, but sold the property to the Catholic Church in Denmark a few years later. During the Second World War he received many Norwegian refugees at his castle Kvesarum, and there was built a Norwegian refugee camp near the castle. He moved to Copenhagen in 1964.
Ålesund is a town and municipality in Møre og Romsdal County, Norway. It is part of the traditional district of Sunnmøre and the centre of the Ålesund Region. It is a sea port and is noted for its concentration of Art Nouveau architecture. The town of Ålesund is the administrative centre of Ålesund Municipality, as well as the principal shipping town of the Sunnmøre district.
Scania, also known as Skåne, is the southernmost province (landskap) of Sweden. Within Scania, there are 33 municipalities that are autonomous within the Scania Regional Council. Scania's largest city is Malmö, which is also the third largest in Sweden, as well as the fifth largest in Scandinavia.
Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, and is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres (173,860 sq mi), Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million of which 2.4 million has a foreign background. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre (57/sq mi). The highest concentration is in the southern half of the country.
In Austria-Hungary, his name was usually and officially spelled Thorleif von Paus (commonly abbreviated to v. Paus).He also sometimes used the spelling Thorleif de Paus. The spelling von Paus was regarded as a rendering of the name in a German/Austro-Hungarian linguistic and cultural context, and not a native form of the name, which he continued to spell simply as Thorleif Paus within Scandinavia. In Austria-Hungary, he received the Order of the Iron Crown, one of the country's highest orders and which previously conferred automatic ennoblement.
The Austrian Imperial Order of the Iron Crown was one of the highest orders of merit of Austria and Austria-Hungary until 1918. It was re-established in 1815 by Emperor Franz I of Austria. The original Order of the Iron Crown had previously been an order of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy.
Henrik Johan Ibsen was a Norwegian playwright, theatre director, and poet. As one of the founders of Modernism in theatre, Ibsen is often referred to as "the father of realism" and one of the most influential playwrights of his time. His major works include Brand, Peer Gynt, An Enemy of the People, Emperor and Galilean, A Doll's House, Hedda Gabler, Ghosts, The Wild Duck, When We Dead Awaken, Pillars of Society, The Lady from the Sea, Rosmersholm, The Master Builder, and John Gabriel Borkman. He is the most frequently performed dramatist in the world after Shakespeare, and by the early 20th century A Doll's House became the world's most performed play.
The July Crisis was a series of interrelated diplomatic and military escalations among the major powers of Europe in the summer of 1914 that was the penultimate cause of World War I. The crisis began on June 28, 1914, when Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb, assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne. A complex web of alliances, coupled with miscalculations by many leaders that war was in their best interests or that a general war would not occur, resulted in a general outbreak of hostilities among almost every major European nation in early August 1914; every major European nation was involved by May 1915.
Christopher Tostrup Paus, Count of Paus, usually known as Christopher Paus and also known as Christopher de Paus, was a Norwegian land owner, heir to the timber giant Tostrup & Mathiesen, papal chamberlain and count, known as philanthropist, art collector and socialite in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He gave large donations to museums in Scandinavia and to the Catholic Church. In the Acta Apostolicae Sedis and the Annuario Pontificio, his name is spelled (conte) Cristoforo de Paus.
Christian Cornelius Paus was a Norwegian lawyer, civil servant and politician. He was Governor of Bratsberg and a Member of the Norwegian Parliament.
Events in the year 1879 in Norway.
Thorleif Brinck Lund was a Norwegian stage and film actor of the silent film era.
Jonas Gustaf Samuel Aspelin was a Swedish-Norwegian mining engineer, entrepreneur, wholesaler and consul.
Ole Paus was a Norwegian ship's captain, shipowner and land owner, who belonged to the patriciate of the port town of Skien from the late 18th century. From 1799, he owned the estate Rising in Gjerpen. He is noted as the stepfather of Knud Ibsen as well as the uncle of Marichen Altenburg, the parents of playwright Henrik Ibsen. Many of his descendants, including singer Ole Paus, were named for him.
Christopher Blom Paus was a Norwegian shipowner, merchant and banker. Born into the patriciate of the port town of Skien, he was the son of shipowner Ole Paus and Johanne Plesner. He was the uncle of playwright Henrik Ibsen, as he was both the half brother of Ibsen's father Knud Ibsen and the first cousin of Ibsen's mother Marichen Altenburg. He was the brother of judge, Bratsberg governor and Member of Parliament Christian Cornelius Paus and lawyer Henrik Johan Paus. Christopher Blom Paus owned the house at Snipetorp where the Ibsen family lived from Henrik's confirmation in 1843 to 1865.
Plesner is a Norwegian family of Danish extraction, noted for its association with playwright Henrik Ibsen. Many descendants of the family have occupied prominent positions in Norwegian society.
Marcus Nicolay Paus is a Norwegian composer and one of the most performed contemporary Norwegian composers. He is noted as a representative of a reorientation toward tradition, tonality and melody, and his works have been lauded by critics in Norway and abroad. His work includes chamber music, choral works, solo works, concerts, orchestral works, operas and symphonies, as well as works for theatre, film and television. In 2010, he was artistic director of the Oslo Opera Festival. Marcus Paus has several times collaborated with his famous father, Ole Paus.
Esviken is a villa surrounded by an elaborate garden. It is located on a former farm on Leangbukta bay between Vettre and Konglungen in Asker, Norway.
Bredo Otto Anton von Munthe af Morgenstierne was a Danish historian of nobility and history of architecture.
Kvesarum Castle or Qvesarum Castle is a castle and an estate in Södra Rörum in Hörby Municipality, Scania, Sweden.
Christopher "Kiff" Lintrup Paus CBE was a British diplomat, who served at the British Embassy in Oslo for several decades, as commercial counsellor and as the British consul in Oslo and head of the British consular service in Norway. He wrote several published reports on industrial and economic affairs in Norway.
Robert Paus Platt OBE was a British diplomat. He served as an under-secretary in the mandatory government of the British Mandate of Palestine and was among the 91 victims of the King David Hotel bombing.