Three-pass protocol

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In cryptography, a three-pass protocol for sending messages is a framework which allows one party to securely send a message to a second party without the need to exchange or distribute encryption keys. Such message protocols should not be confused with various other algorithms which use 3 passes for authentication.

Cryptography practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties

Cryptography or cryptology is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties called adversaries. More generally, cryptography is about constructing and analyzing protocols that prevent third parties or the public from reading private messages; various aspects in information security such as data confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation are central to modern cryptography. Modern cryptography exists at the intersection of the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, electrical engineering, communication science, and physics. Applications of cryptography include electronic commerce, chip-based payment cards, digital currencies, computer passwords, and military communications.

In cryptography, a key is a piece of information that determines the functional output of a cryptographic algorithm. For encryption algorithms, a key specifies the transformation of plaintext into ciphertext, and vice versa for decryption algorithms. Keys also specify transformations in other cryptographic algorithms, such as digital signature schemes and message authentication codes.

Authentication act of confirming the truth of an attribute of a datum or entity

Authentication is the act of proving an assertion, such as the identity of a computer system user. In contrast with identification, the act of indicating a person or thing's identity, authentication is the process of verifying that identity. It might involve validating personal identity documents, verifying the authenticity of a website with a digital certificate, determining the age of an artifact by carbon dating, or ensuring that a product or document is not counterfeit.

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It is called a three-pass protocol because the sender and the receiver exchange three encrypted messages. The first three-pass protocol was developed by Adi Shamir circa 1980, and is described in more detail in a later section. The basic concept of the three-pass protocol is that each party has a private encryption key and a private decryption key. The two parties use their keys independently, first to encrypt the message, and then to decrypt the message.

Adi Shamir cryptographer

Adi Shamir is an Israeli cryptographer. He is a co-inventor of the Rivest–Shamir–Adleman (RSA) algorithm, a co-inventor of the Feige–Fiat–Shamir identification scheme, one of the inventors of differential cryptanalysis and has made numerous contributions to the fields of cryptography and computer science.

The protocol uses an encryption function E and a decryption function D. The encryption function uses an encryption key e to change a plaintext message m into an encrypted message, or ciphertext, E(e,m). Corresponding to each encryption key e there is a decryption key d which allows the message to be recovered using the decryption function, D(d,E(e,m))=m. Sometimes the encryption function and decryption function are the same.

In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot. Encryption does not itself prevent interference, but denies the intelligible content to a would-be interceptor. In an encryption scheme, the intended information or message, referred to as plaintext, is encrypted using an encryption algorithm – a cipher – generating ciphertext that can be read only if decrypted. For technical reasons, an encryption scheme usually uses a pseudo-random encryption key generated by an algorithm. It is in principle possible to decrypt the message without possessing the key, but, for a well-designed encryption scheme, considerable computational resources and skills are required. An authorized recipient can easily decrypt the message with the key provided by the originator to recipients but not to unauthorized users.

In cryptography, plaintext usually means unencrypted information pending input into cryptographic algorithms, usually encryption algorithms. Cleartext usually refers to data that is transmitted or stored unencrypted.

Ciphertext encrypted information

In cryptography, ciphertext or cyphertext is the result of encryption performed on plaintext using an algorithm, called a cipher. Ciphertext is also known as encrypted or encoded information because it contains a form of the original plaintext that is unreadable by a human or computer without the proper cipher to decrypt it. Decryption, the inverse of encryption, is the process of turning ciphertext into readable plaintext. Ciphertext is not to be confused with codetext because the latter is a result of a code, not a cipher.

In order for the encryption function and decryption function to be suitable for the three-pass protocol they must have the property that for any message m, any encryption key e with corresponding decryption key d and any independent encryption key k,  D(d,E(k,E(e,m))) = E(k,m). In other words, it must be possible to remove the first encryption with the key e even though a second encryption with the key k has been performed. This will always be possible with a commutative encryption. A commutative encryption is an encryption that is order-independent, i.e. it satisfies E(a,E(b,m))=E(b,E(a,m)) for all encryption keys a and b and all messages m. Commutative encryptions satisfy D(d,E(k,E(e,m))) = D(d,E(e,E(k,m))) = E(k,m).

The three-pass protocol works as follows:

  1. The sender chooses a private encryption key s and a corresponding decryption key t. The sender encrypts the message m with the key s and sends the encrypted message E(s,m) to the receiver.
  2. The receiver chooses a private encryption key r and a corresponding decryption key q and super-encrypts the first message E(s,m) with the key r and sends the doubly encrypted message E(r,E(s,m)) back to the sender.
  3. The sender decrypts the second message with the key t. Because of the commutativity property described above D(t,E(r,E(s,m)))=E(r,m) which is the message encrypted with only the receiver's private key. The sender sends this to the receiver.

The receiver can now decrypt the message using the key q, namely D(q,E(r,m))=m the original message.

Notice that all of the operations involving the sender's private keys s and t are performed by the sender, and all of the operations involving the receiver's private keys r and q are performed by the receiver, so that neither party needs to know the other party's keys.

Shamir three-pass protocol

The first three-pass protocol was the Shamir three-pass protocol developed circa in 1980. It is also called the Shamir No-Key Protocol because the sender and the receiver do not exchange any keys, however the protocol requires the sender and receiver to have two private keys for encrypting and decrypting messages. The Shamir algorithm uses exponentiation modulo a large prime as both the encryption and decryption functions. That is E(e,m) = me mod p and D(d,m) = md mod p where p is a large prime. For any encryption exponent e in the range 1..p-1 with gcd(e,p-1) = 1. The corresponding decryption exponent d is chosen such that de ≡ 1 (mod p-1). It follows from Fermat's Little Theorem that D(d,E(e,m)) = mde mod p = m.

Exponentiation Mathematical operation

Exponentiation is a mathematical operation, written as bn, involving two numbers, the baseb and the exponent or powern. When n is a positive integer, exponentiation corresponds to repeated multiplication of the base: that is, bn is the product of multiplying n bases:

Prime number Integer greater than 1 that has no positive integer divisors other than itself and 1

A prime number is a natural number greater than 1 that cannot be formed by multiplying two smaller natural numbers. A natural number greater than 1 that is not prime is called a composite number. For example, 5 is prime because the only ways of writing it as a product, 1 × 5 or 5 × 1, involve 5 itself. However, 6 is composite because it is the product of two numbers that are both smaller than 6. Primes are central in number theory because of the fundamental theorem of arithmetic: every natural number greater than 1 is either a prime itself or can be factorized as a product of primes that is unique up to their order.

The Shamir protocol has the desired commutativity property since E(a,E(b,m)) = mab mod p = mba mod p = E(b,E(a,m)).

Massey–Omura cryptosystem

The Massey–Omura Cryptosystem was proposed by James Massey and Jim K. Omura in 1982 as a possible improvement over the Shamir protocol. The Massey–Omura method uses exponentiation in the Galois field GF(2n) as both the encryption and decryption functions. That is E(e,m)=me and D(d,m)=md where the calculations are carried out in the Galois field. For any encryption exponent e with 0<e<2n-1 and gcd(e,2n-1)=1 the corresponding decryption exponent is d such that de ≡ 1 (mod 2n-1). Since the multiplicative group of the Galois field GF(2n) has order 2n-1 Lagrange's theorem implies that mde=m for all m in GF(2n)* .

James Lee Massey was an information theorist and cryptographer, Professor Emeritus of Digital Technology at ETH Zurich. His notable work includes the application of the Berlekamp–Massey algorithm to linear codes, the design of the block ciphers IDEA and SAFER, and the Massey-Omura cryptosystem.

Jimmy K. Omura is an electrical engineer and information theorist.

In mathematics, a finite field or Galois field is a field that contains a finite number of elements. As with any field, a finite field is a set on which the operations of multiplication, addition, subtraction and division are defined and satisfy certain basic rules. The most common examples of finite fields are given by the integers mod p when p is a prime number.

Each element of the Galois field GF(2n) is represented as a binary vector over a normal basis in which each basis vector is the square of the preceding one. That is, the basis vectors are v1, v2, v4, v8, ... where v is a field element of maximum order. By using this representation, exponentiations by powers of 2 can be accomplished by cyclic shifts. This means that raising m to an arbitrary power can be accomplished with at most n shifts and n multiplications. Moreover, several multiplications can be performed in parallel. This allows faster hardware realizations at the cost of having to implement several multipliers.

In mathematics, specifically the algebraic theory of fields, a normal basis is a special kind of basis for Galois extensions of finite degree, characterised as forming a single orbit for the Galois group. The normal basis theorem states that any finite Galois extension of fields has a normal basis. In algebraic number theory, the study of the more refined question of the existence of a normal integral basis is part of Galois module theory.

Order (group theory) cardinality of a group, or where the element a of a group is the smallest positive integer m such that am = e

In group theory, a branch of mathematics, the term order is used in three different senses:

Circular shift

In combinatorial mathematics, a circular shift is the operation of rearranging the entries in a tuple, either by moving the final entry to the first position, while shifting all other entries to the next position, or by performing the inverse operation. A circular shift is a special kind of cyclic permutation, which in turn is a special kind of permutation. Formally, a circular shift is a permutation σ of the n entries in the tuple such that either

Security

A necessary condition for a three-pass algorithm to be secure is that an attacker cannot determine any information about the message m from the three transmitted messages E(s,m), E(r,E(s,m)) and E(r,m).

For the encryption functions used in the Shamir algorithm and the Massey–Omura algorithm described above, the security relies on the difficulty of computing discrete logarithms in a finite field. If an attacker could compute discrete logarithms in GF(p) for the Shamir method or GF(2n) for the Massey–Omura method then the protocol could be broken. The key s could be computed from the messages mr and mrs. When s is known, it is easy to compute the decryption exponent t. Then the attacker could compute m by raising the intercepted message ms to the t power. K. Sakurai and H. Shizuya show that under certain assumptions breaking Massey–Omura cryptosystem is equivalent to the Diffie–Hellman assumption.

Authentication

The three-pass protocol as described above does not provide any authentication. Hence, without any additional authentication the protocol is susceptible to a man-in-the-middle attack if the opponent has the ability to create false messages, or to intercept and replace the genuine transmitted messages.

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