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|Three Gorges Reservoir Region|
|Location||Chongqing municipality, Hubei province|
|Primary inflows||Yangtze River|
|Primary outflows||Yangtze River|
|Surface area||1,084 km2 (419 sq mi)|
Three Gorges Reservoir Region, including 25 county-level divisions of Chongqing municipality and Hubei province, is the region directly or indirectly involved in the submersion of the water storage of the reservoir region of the Three Gorges Dam.
Chongqing, formerly romanized as Chungking, is a major city in southwest China. Administratively, it is one of China's four municipalities under the direct administration of central government, and the only such municipality in China located far away from the coast.
Hubei is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the Central China region. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Dongting Lake. The provincial capital is Wuhan, a major transportation thoroughfare and the political, cultural, and economic hub of Central China.
The Three Gorges Dam is a hydroelectric gravity dam that spans the Yangtze River by the town of Sandouping, in Yiling District, Yichang, Hubei province, China. The Three Gorges Dam has been the world's largest power station in terms of installed capacity (22,500 MW) since 2012. In 2014, the dam generated 98.8 terawatt-hours (TWh) and had the world record, but was surpassed by the Itaipú Dam, which set the new world record in 2016, producing 103.1 TWh.
The Three Gorges Reservoir Region is located in the upstream of the Yangtze River at the boundary of Chongqing municipality and Hubei province with the area of 59900 km² and with the population of 16 million. The Three Gorges Reservoir Region stretches along the Yangtze River from Jiangjin District of Chongqing to Yichang City of Hubei, which is very narrow and where the geography is complex. The mountainous areas represent 74% of the region only with 4.3% plain area in the river valley and 21.7% hilly area. The climate of the reservoir region of the Three Gorges Project is the subtropical monsoon climate. Its location is in the transfer between the northern temperate zone and the subtropical zone, where it is hot and it rains a lot with the annual rainfall of about 1100 mm. The valley of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region below 500 m has an annual temperature 17–19 °C and, with the frost-free period annually lasts 300–340 days. The annual runoff flow at the site of the dam of the Three Gorges Project is 451 billion m³ with the annual sediment discharge of 530 million tons.
Jiangjin, one of the districts in the southwest of Chongqing, China, lies along the upper reaches of Yangtze River, and has a history extending back more than 1500 years. The district covers 3200 square kilometres and has a population of 1,460,000, and borders the provinces of Sichuan to the southwest and Guizhou to the south. The county seat and central town of Jiangjin is 50 km (31 mi) away by highway, 65 km (40 mi) away by railway and 72 km (45 mi) away by waterway from Yuzhong of central Chongqing.
Yichang is a prefecture-level city located in western Hubei province, China. It is the second largest city in the province after the capital, Wuhan. The Three Gorges Dam is located within its administrative area, in Yiling District. As of the 2010 census, its population was 4,059,686 inhabitants whom 1,350,150 lived in the built-up area made of Yiling, Xiling, Wujiagang and Dianjun urban districts as Xiaoting District is not urbanized yet.
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea. Usually, the term monsoon is used to refer to the rainy phase of a seasonally changing pattern, although technically there is also a dry phase. The term is sometimes incorrectly used for locally heavy but short-term rains, although these rains meet the dictionary definition of monsoon.
The Three Gorges abounds in water resources, ecological resources, tourism resources, and the resources of some ores, which have a great potential for exploration. The Yangtze River flows through the Three Gorges Reservoir Region with the good conditions for water transportation and the water-resources development. The potential installed capacity of hydropower can be about 30,000 MW in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region where the water resources are the most abundant for the whole main stream of the Yangtze River. Since the conditions of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region for the development of the water resources are good with a short distance to the load center, there is great potential for development of the water resources. The agricultural resources of the Three Gorges Region are abundant, which are superior for the agriculture, forestry, livestock, sideline production and fishery. The Three Gorges Reservoir Region is proper for the growth of the various plants of both the warm temperate zone and the temperate zone. Dozens of ores have been explored and investigated in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, such as gold, silver, copper, iron, uranium, sulfur, potassium, natural gas and halite.
Hydropower or water power is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes. Since ancient times, hydropower from many kinds of watermills has been used as a renewable energy source for irrigation and the operation of various mechanical devices, such as gristmills, sawmills, textile mills, trip hammers, dock cranes, domestic lifts, and ore mills. A trompe, which produces compressed air from falling water, is sometimes used to power other machinery at a distance.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit. The ores are extracted from the earth through mining; they are then refined to extract the valuable element, or elements.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally. In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions. Gold often occurs in free elemental (native) form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, and in alluvial deposits. It occurs in a solid solution series with the native element silver and also naturally alloyed with copper and palladium. Less commonly, it occurs in minerals as gold compounds, often with tellurium.
The natural sights along the Yangtze River in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region are superb, particularly the along 162-km main river between Sandouping of Yichang and Baidicheng Town of Fengjie, which are the famous sights of the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River and one of the tourist places of interest all over the world. In addition, there are a lot of cultural and historical sites, such as the Qu Yuan Temple of Zigui, the Zhaojun Home Village of Xingshan, the Shibao Stockade of Zhong County and the ghost town of Fengdu.
Sandouping is a town in Yiling District of Yichang prefecture-level city in the Chinese province of Hubei. It is located on the right (southern) bank of the Yangtze River, next to Yiling District's border with Zigui County to the west. Sandouping is best known as the location of the Three Gorges Dam, which is the world's largest electricity-generating plant of any kind.
Baidicheng or Baidi City is an ancient temple complex on a hill on the northern shore of the Yangtze River in China, 8 km east of the present day Fengjie County seat in Chongqing municipality.
Fengjie County is a county of Chongqing Municipality, China. It is on the Yangtze River; located within a couple hundreds kilometers upstream from the Three Gorges Dam, it is within the dam's affected area.
The Three Gorges Reservoir Region is an important part of the economic zone along the Yangtze River. The region is significant for both the promotion to the economic growth of the areas along the Yangtze River and the economic exchanges between the east of China and the west of China. The region is now and will be more and more superior for the economic progress of China with the gradual opening up to the world and the gradual economic promotion from the coastal areas to the river regions and the inland areas, especially with the construction of the Three Gorges Project. Furthermore, the Three Gorges Region is now and will be more and more significant for the economic progress of China.
The Three Gorges Region has made its economic aims as follows.
During the second phase of reservoir water storage, 25 county-level divisions were involved in the submersion of the reservoir water storage. But from 1992 up to 2002, they had changed a lot as follows.
The Yangtze River, which is 6,380 km (3,964 mi) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world. The river is the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country. It drains one-fifth of the land area of the People's Republic of China(PRC) and its river basin is home to nearly one-third of the country's population. The Yangtze is the sixth-largest river by discharge volume in the world.
Sichuan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south. Sichuan's capital city is Chengdu. The population of Sichuan stands at 81 million.
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Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture is located in the mountainous southwestern corner of Hubei province, People's Republic of China. It forms Hubei's southwestern "panhandle", bordering on Hunan in the south and Chongqing Municipality in the west and northwest. The Yangtze River crosses the prefecture's northeastern corner in Badong County.
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Xiling Gorge is a canyon (gorge) on the Yangtze River in Hubei province, China. It is the largest and most downstream—eastern of the famous Three Gorges.
Yangtze Normal University is a full-time, comprehensive university under the administration of the Chongqing Municipal Government of the People's Republic of China. The campus is in Fuling District, at the conjunction of the Yangtze and Wu Rivers, the historic capital of the ancient Ba Tribe. It is the only teachers college in the ecological and economic zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area and the minority area in Southeast Chongqing.
Liangjiang, officially known as Liangjiang New Area is a state-level new area situated in the municipality of Chongqing, China. The area covers 1,205 square kilometres combining part of Jiangbei District, Yubei District, and Beibei District.
Shizhu Tujia Autonomous County, or Shizhu County for short, is located in southeastern Chongqing, China. It is south of the Yangtze River, and borders the Chongqing divisions of Pengshui County to the south, Fengdu County to the southwest, Zhong County to the northwest and Wanzhou District to the north; to the east, it borders the Hubei county-level city of Lichuan. It's in the center zone of Three Gorges Reservoir Region, and the only autonomous county for ethnic minorities in this region.
The 2011 China floods are a series of floods from June to September 2011 that occurred in central and southern parts of the People's Republic of China. They were caused by heavy rain that inundated portions of 12 provinces, leaving other provinces still suffering a prolonged drought, a total of over 36 million people have been affected, killing at least 355 and with direct economic losses of nearly US$6.5 billion.
The Shanghai–Chengdu Expressway, commonly referred to as the Hurong Expressway is an east-west bound expressway that connects the eastern metropolis of Shanghai to Chengdu, the capital city of Sichuan. The expressway passes through six provinces and serves major cities such as Suzhou, Wuxi, Changzhou, Nanjing, Hefei, Wuhan, and Yichang. The eastern terminus of G42 is at the Wuning Road Interchange of Shanghai Middle Ring Road. At its western terminus, the expressway intersects the East 3rd Ring Road and connects East Erxianqiao Road in Chenghua District, Chengdu. The expressway spans 1,960 km (1,220 mi) in length.
The West Triangle Economic Zone is an economic zone designated by the Chinese government comprising Chengdu, Chongqing and Xi'an. Created as part of China's Western Development strategy, the West Triangle Economic Zone contributes nearly 40% of Western China's GDP. Furthermore, Chongqing is one of China's five National Central Cities, while both Chengdu and Xi'an are Regional Central Cities.
The economy of Chongqing, China, has developed rapidly during the 21st century. In 2011, Chongqing's gross domestic product exceeded 1 trillion Yuan. In 2013, the economy grew by 12.3%.