Three Pagodas Fault

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Map of the tectonic setting of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake showing the fault lines across the Tenasserim Hills Tectonics Sumatra quake.gif
Map of the tectonic setting of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake showing the fault lines across the Tenasserim Hills

The Three Pagodas Fault is a right-lateral displacement strike-slip fault between Burma and Thailand named after the Three Pagodas Pass. It developed as a consequence of the collision between the Indian and the Eurasian Plate. [1] The Three Pagodas Fault Zone (TPFZ) is a roughly 50 km wide zone separating the westernmost range of the Tenasserim Hills from the Tenasserim coast in Myanmar. The whole area is marked by a great number of fault traces and homoclinal ridges of Paleozoic limestone. [2]

Thailand Constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia

Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a country at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 (198,120 sq mi) and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th largest country by total area and the 21st-most-populous country. The capital and largest city is Bangkok, a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar. Its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, and Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. Although nominally a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, the most recent coup in 2014 established a de facto military dictatorship.

Three Pagodas Pass mountain pass

Three Pagodas Pass is a pass in the Tenasserim Hills on the border between Thailand and Myanmar (Burma), at an elevation of 282 metres (925 ft). The pass links the town of Sangkhla Buri in the north of Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand, to the town of Payathonsu in the south of Kayin State, Myanmar.

Indian Plate A major tectonic plate once part of the supercontinent Gondwana

The Indian Plate or India Plate is a major tectonic plate straddling the equator in the eastern hemisphere. Originally a part of the ancient continent of Gondwana, India broke away from the other fragments of Gondwana 100 million years ago and began moving north. Once fused with the adjacent Australia to form a single Indo-Australian Plate, recent studies suggest that India and Australia have been separate plates for at least 3 million years and likely longer. The Indian plate includes most of South Asia—i.e. the Indian subcontinent—and a portion of the basin under the Indian Ocean, including parts of South China and western Indonesia, and extending up to but not including Ladakh, Kohistan and Balochistan.

The Three Pagodas Fault Zone accommodates the southeastward extrusion of Indochina, with stresses twisting clockwise. Together with the Wang Chao Fault and the Mae Ping Fault, [3] it runs parallel to the Red River Fault. There is a fear that a future earthquake caused by the TPFZ and the Sri Sawat Fault Zone (SSFZ) could damage the large dams in Kanchanaburi Province in the future and that it could cause widespread damage to Bangkok. There was already a severe earthquake in the area about 2,500 years ago. [4]

Indochina Geographical term referring to Southeast Asia

Indochina, originally Indo-China, is a geographical term originating in the early nineteenth century and referring to the continental portion of the region now known as Southeast Asia. The name refers to the lands historically within the cultural influence of India and China, and physically bound by the Indian Subcontinent in the west and China in the north. It corresponds to the present-day areas of Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam, and (variably) peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. The term was later adopted as the name of the colony of French Indochina, and the entire area of Indochina is now usually referred to as the Indochinese Peninsula or Mainland Southeast Asia.

Red River Fault

The Red River Fault or Song Hong Fault is a major fault in Yunnan, China and Vietnam which accommodates continental China's southward movement It is coupled with that of the Sagaing Fault in Burma, which accommodates the Indian plate's northward movement, with the land (Indochina) in between faulted and twisted clockwise. It was responsible for the 1970 Tonghai earthquake.

Earthquake Shaking of the surface of the earth caused by a sudden release of energy in the crust

An earthquake is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes can range in size from those that are so weak that they cannot be felt to those violent enough to toss people around and destroy whole cities. The seismicity, or seismic activity, of an area is the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time. The word tremor is also used for non-earthquake seismic rumbling.

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