The Three Pagodas Fault is a right-lateral displacement strike-slip fault between Burma and Thailand named after the Three Pagodas Pass. It developed as a consequence of the collision between the Indian and the Eurasian Plate.The Three Pagodas Fault Zone (TPFZ) is a roughly 50 km wide zone separating the westernmost range of the Tenasserim Hills from the Tenasserim coast in Myanmar. The whole area is marked by a great number of fault traces and homoclinal ridges of Paleozoic limestone.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a country at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 (198,120 sq mi) and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th largest country by total area and the 21st-most-populous country. The capital and largest city is Bangkok, a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar. Its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, and Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. Although nominally a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, the most recent coup in 2014 established a de facto military dictatorship.
Three Pagodas Pass is a pass in the Tenasserim Hills on the border between Thailand and Myanmar (Burma), at an elevation of 282 metres (925 ft). The pass links the town of Sangkhla Buri in the north of Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand, to the town of Payathonsu in the south of Kayin State, Myanmar.
The Indian Plate or India Plate is a major tectonic plate straddling the equator in the eastern hemisphere. Originally a part of the ancient continent of Gondwana, India broke away from the other fragments of Gondwanaand began moving north. Once fused with the adjacent Australia to form a single Indo-Australian Plate, recent studies suggest that India and Australia have been separate plates for at least 3 million years and likely longer. The Indian plate includes most of South Asia—i.e. the Indian subcontinent—and a portion of the basin under the Indian Ocean, including parts of South China and western Indonesia, and extending up to but not including Ladakh, Kohistan and Balochistan.
The Three Pagodas Fault Zone accommodates the southeastward extrusion of Indochina, with stresses twisting clockwise. Together with the Wang Chao Fault and the Mae Ping Fault,it runs parallel to the Red River Fault. There is a fear that a future earthquake caused by the TPFZ and the Sri Sawat Fault Zone (SSFZ) could damage the large dams in Kanchanaburi Province in the future and that it could cause widespread damage to Bangkok. There was already a severe earthquake in the area about 2,500 years ago.
Indochina, originally Indo-China, is a geographical term originating in the early nineteenth century and referring to the continental portion of the region now known as Southeast Asia. The name refers to the lands historically within the cultural influence of India and China, and physically bound by the Indian Subcontinent in the west and China in the north. It corresponds to the present-day areas of Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam, and (variably) peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. The term was later adopted as the name of the colony of French Indochina, and the entire area of Indochina is now usually referred to as the Indochinese Peninsula or Mainland Southeast Asia.
The Red River Fault or Song Hong Fault is a major fault in Yunnan, China and Vietnam which accommodates continental China's southward movement It is coupled with that of the Sagaing Fault in Burma, which accommodates the Indian plate's northward movement, with the land (Indochina) in between faulted and twisted clockwise. It was responsible for the 1970 Tonghai earthquake.
An earthquake is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes can range in size from those that are so weak that they cannot be felt to those violent enough to toss people around and destroy whole cities. The seismicity, or seismic activity, of an area is the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time. The word tremor is also used for non-earthquake seismic rumbling.
Central Thailand is a region of Thailand, covering the broad alluvial plain of the Chao Phraya River. It is separated from northeast Thailand (Isan) by the Phetchabun mountain range. The Tenasserim Hills separate it from Myanmar to the west. In the north it is bounded by the Phi Pan Nam Range, one of the hilly systems of northern Thailand. The area was the heartland of the Ayutthaya Kingdom, and is still the dominant area of Thailand, containing as it does, the world's most primate city, Bangkok.
Kanchanaburi is the largest of the western provinces (changwat) of Thailand. The neighboring provinces are Tak, Uthai Thani, Suphan Buri, Nakhon Pathom, and Ratchaburi. In the west it borders Kayin State, Mon State, and the Tanintharyi Region of Myanmar.
Ratchaburi Province or Rat Buri is one of the western provinces (changwat) of Thailand. Neighbouring provinces are Kanchanaburi, Nakhon Pathom, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram and Phetchaburi. In the west it borders the Tanintharyi Region of Myanmar.
Dawei is a city in south-eastern Myanmar and is the capital of the Tanintharyi Region, formerly known as the Tenasserim Division, about 614.3 km (381.7 mi) south of Yangon on the northern bank of the Dawei River. Population, 139,900. It is at 14.09°N 98.20°E. Dawei is a port at the head of the Dawei River estuary, 30 km (18.6 mi). from the Andaman Sea. As a result, the city is prone to flooding during the monsoon season. "Dawei" is also the name of one of Myanmar's 135 ethnic minorities.
The Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary is a protected area in Thailand in the northern part of Kanchanaburi Province and the southern part of Tak Province. It was declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1972, and a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1991 together with the adjoining Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary.
Sangkhla Buri is a district (amphoe) in Kanchanaburi Province in western Thailand.
Western Thailand is a region of Thailand bordering Myanmar on the west, Southern Thailand on the south, and central Thailand on the east.
Tanintharyi or Taninthayi is a small town in Taninthayi Township, Myeik District, in the Tanintharyi Region of south-western Myanmar. It is the administrative seat for the township. The town is located on the Great Tenasserim River which eventually enters the sea at Myeik. The town is located at the confluence of this river and a tributary known as the "Little Tenasserim River" which runs south.
Tenasserim Hills or Tenasserim Range is the geographical name of a roughly 1,700 km long mountain chain, part of the Indo-Malayan mountain system in Southeast Asia.
Myanmar–Thailand relations refers to the current and historical relations between Myanmar and Thailand. Myanmar has an embassy in Bangkok. Thailand has an embassy in Yangon. Relations between Burma and Thailand focus mainly on economic issues and trade. There is sporadic conflict with Thailand over the alignment of the border.
Khao Laem National Park is a park of about 1,500 square kilometers in western Thailand, located in the northern area of the Tenasserim Hills, Kanchanaburi Province. It is a part of the Western Forest Complex, a system of protected wilderness in the Dawna-Tenasserim Hills area of western Thailand.
Mae Chan Fault is an east-west strike fault in Northern Thailand that leads into Western Laos. It was responsible for a 6.3 magnitude quake in Laos on May 16, 2007, that caused property damage as far as Chiang Rai in Thailand. A part of it stretches from Mae Chan to Mae Ai for 40 km along the highway, then goes through Fang, Chiang Dao, Mae Rim and San Kamphaeng districts of Chiang Mai, to Mae Tha district of Lamphun. A Japanese study found it is capable of producing a 7.0 magnitude quake., is considered as one of two the most "worrying" faults in Thailand.
The 2011 Burma earthquake occurred with a magnitude 6.9 on 24 March that had its epicenter in the east of Shan State in Burma (Myanmar) with a hypocenter 10 km deep. It had two aftershocks, one of magnitude 4.8, another at magnitude 5.4, and two subsequent shocks at magnitude 5.0 and 6.2. The quake's epicentre was 70 miles (110 km) from the northern Thai city of Chiang Rai, north of Mae Sai and southeast of Kentung.
The Burmese–Siamese War (1765–1767) was the second military conflict between the Konbaung dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) and the Ban Phlu Luang Dynasty of Siam (Thailand), and the war that ended the four-century-old Siamese kingdom. Nonetheless, the Burmese were soon forced to give up their hard-won gains when the Chinese invasions of their homeland forced a complete withdrawal by the end of 1767. A new Siamese dynasty, to which the current Thai monarchy traces its origins, emerged to reunify Siam by 1770.
The 2012 Shwebo earthquake occurred at 07:42 local time on 11 November in Myanmar. It had a magnitude of 6.8 on the moment magnitude scale and a maximum perceived intensity of VIII (Severe) on the Mercalli intensity scale. The epicenter was near the town of Male, 52 km NNE of the city of Shwebo, 64 km west of Mogok and 120 km north of Mandalay. Significant damage and possible casualties have been reported from near the epicenter, with up to 26 people dead and many more injured. Part of a bridge under construction fell into the Irrawaddy River near Shwebo and a gold mine collapsed at Sintku. An aftershock with a magnitude of 5.8 followed at 17:24 local time.
Bong Ti is a village and tambon (subdistrict) of Sai Yok District, in Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand. The tambon contains four villages.
Ban Kao is a village and tambon (sub-district) of Mueang Kanchanaburi District, in Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand. In 2005 it had a population of 12,657 people. The tambon contains 15 villages.
Phu Nam Ron is a pass across the Tenasserim Hills on the border between Thailand and Myanmar, at an elevation of 350 metres (1,150 ft). The border checkpoint on the Thai side is located in Ban Kao Subdistrict, Mueang Kanchanaburi District, Kanchanaburi Province.
Laytongku or Lay Tong Ku in S'gaw Karen: Letawkho, is a Karen village on the south-western tip of Tambon Mae Chan Subdistrict of Umphang District in Thailand's Tak Province and the extreme north-western tip of Kanchanaburi Province. It is located in a valley of the Dawna Range, within the area of Thungyai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary and Umphang Wildlife Sanctuary. It is inhabited by an (orthodox) animist Talaku, 'S'gaw Karen', or (Telekhon) Karen Hill Tribe and is the location of the centuries long site of the principal animist shrine (sanctuary) for the Talaku (Telekhon) Karen faith.
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