Three wise monkeys

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The three wise monkeys at the Tosho-gu shrine in Nikko, Japan The Three Wise Monkeys, Nikko Tosho-gu; April 2018.jpg
The three wise monkeys at the Tōshō-gū shrine in Nikkō, Japan
Representation of Mahatma Gandhi's smaller statue of the three monkeys Bapu, Ketan and Bandar, at the Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India Gandhiji's Three Monkeys.JPG
Representation of Mahatma Gandhi's smaller statue of the three monkeys Bapu, Ketan and Bandar, at the Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

The three wise monkeys are a Japanese pictorial maxim, embodying the proverbial principle "see no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil". [1] The three monkeys are Mizaru, who sees no evil, covering his eyes; Kikazaru, who hears no evil, covering his ears; and Iwazaru, who speaks no evil, covering his mouth. [2]

Contents

Lafcadio Hearn refers to them as the three mystic apes. [3]

There are various meanings ascribed to the monkeys and the proverb including associations with being of good mind, speech and action. The phrase is often used to refer to those who deal with impropriety by turning a blind eye. [4]

Outside Japan the monkeys' names are sometimes given as Mizaru, Mikazaru [5] and Mazaru, [6] as the last two names were corrupted from the Japanese originals. [7] [8] The monkeys are Japanese macaques, a common species in Japan.

Origin

Koshin scroll with the three monkeys Koshinscroll.jpg
Kōshin scroll with the three monkeys
A World War II poster directed at participants in the Manhattan Project Oak Ridge Wise Monkeys.jpg
A World War II poster directed at participants in the Manhattan Project

The source that popularized this pictorial maxim is a 17th-century carving over a door of the famous Tōshō-gū shrine in Nikkō, Japan. The carvings at Tōshō-gū Shrine were carved by Hidari Jingoro, and believed to have incorporated Confucius’s Code of Conduct, using the monkey as a way to depict man’s life cycle. There are a total of eight panels, and the iconic three wise monkeys picture comes from panel 2. The philosophy, however, probably originally came to Japan with a Tendai-Buddhist legend, from China in the 8th century (Nara Period). It has been suggested that the figures represent the three dogmas of the so-called middle school of the sect.

In Chinese, a similar phrase exists in the late Analects of Confucius from 2nd to 4th century B.C.: "Look not at what is contrary to propriety; listen not to what is contrary to propriety; speak not what is contrary to propriety; make no movement which is contrary to propriety" (非禮勿視,非禮勿聽,非禮勿言,非禮勿動). [9] It may be this phrase that inspired the pictorial maxim after it was brought into Japan.

It is through the Kōshin rite of folk religion that the most significant examples are presented. The Kōshin belief or practice is a Japanese folk religion with Chinese Taoism origins and ancient Shinto influence. It was founded by Tendai Buddhist monks in the late 10th century. A considerable number of stone monuments can be found all over the eastern part of Japan around Tokyo. During the later part of the Muromachi period, it was customary to display stone pillars depicting the three monkeys during the observance of Kōshin.

Though the teaching had nothing to do with monkeys, the concept of the three monkeys originated from a simple play on words. The saying in Japanese is mizaru, kikazaru, iwazaru (見ざる, 聞かざる, 言わざる) "see not, hear not, speak not", where the -zaru is a negative conjugation on the three verbs, matching zaru, the modified form of saru () "monkey" used in compounds. Thus the saying (which does not include any specific reference to "evil") can also be interpreted as referring to three monkeys.

The shrine at Nikko is a Shinto shrine, and the monkey is an extremely important being in the Shinto religion. The monkey is believed to be the messenger of the Hie Shinto shrines, which also have connections with Tendai Buddhism. There are even important festivals that are celebrated during the year of the Monkey (occurring every twelve years) and a special festival is celebrated every sixteenth year of the Kōshin.

"The Three Mystic Apes" (Sambiki Saru) were described as "the attendants of Saruta Hito no Mikoto or Kōshin, the God of the Roads". [10] The Kōshin festival was held on the 60th day of the calendar. It has been suggested that during the Kōshin festival, according to old beliefs, one's bad deeds might be reported to heaven "unless avoidance actions were taken…". It has been theorized that the three Mystic Apes, Not Seeing, Hearing, or Speaking, may have been the "things that one has done wrong in the last 59 days".

According to other accounts, the monkeys caused the Sanshi and Ten-Tei not to see, say or hear the bad deeds of a person. The Sanshi (三尸) are the Three Corpses living in everyone's body. The Sanshi keep track of the good deeds and particularly the bad deeds of the person they inhabit. Every 60 days, on the night called Kōshin-Machi (庚申待), if the person sleeps, the Sanshi will leave the body and go to Ten-Tei (天帝), the Heavenly God, to report about the deeds of that person. Ten-Tei will then decide to punish bad people, making them ill, shortening their time alive, and in extreme cases putting an end to their lives. Those believers of Kōshin who have reason to fear will try to stay awake during Kōshin nights. This is the only way to prevent the Sanshi from leaving their body and reporting to Ten-Tei.

An ancient representation of the "no see, no hear, no say, no do" can be found in four golden figurines in the Zelnik Istvan Southeast Asian Gold Museum. These golden statues date from the 6th to 8th century. The figures look like tribal human people with not very precise body carvings and strong phallic symbols. [11] This set indicates that the philosophy comes from very ancient roots.

Meaning of the proverb

Three wise monkeys on the beach in Barcelona Three Wise Monkeys (2010).jpg
Three wise monkeys on the beach in Barcelona

Just as there is disagreement about the origin of the phrase, there are differing explanations of the meaning of "see no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil".

Variations

Sometimes there is a fourth monkey depicted, Shizaru, who symbolizes the principle of "do no evil", which fits with the full quote from Analects of Confucius. The monkey may be shown crossing his arms or covering his genitals. Yet another variation has the fourth monkey hold its nose to avoid a stench and has been dubbed "smell no evil" accordingly. [4]

Sculpture of four monkeys, the fourth monkey is covering his genitals Four wise monkeys.jpg
Sculpture of four monkeys, the fourth monkey is covering his genitals

The opposite version of the three wise monkeys can also be found. In this case, one monkey holds its hands to its eyes to focus vision, the second monkey cups its hands around its ears to improve hearing, and the third monkey holds its hands to its mouth like a bullhorn. Another modern interpretation is "Hear, see, and speak out loud for what you stand for".

Three wise monkeys variation : "Hear, see, speak only good" Three wise monkeys crafted in Japan.jpg
Three wise monkeys variation : "Hear, see, speak only good"

Rajneesh movement

According to Osho Rajneesh, the monkey symbolism originated in ancient Hindu tradition and Buddhist monks spread this symbolism across Asia. The original Hindu and Buddhist version has four monkeys and the fourth monkey covers his genitals. The Buddhist version means this as "Don't do anything evil".

In Hindu original version the meaning of the fourth monkey is totally different from the popular Buddhist version. It means, "Hide your pleasures. Hide your enjoyment, don't show it to anybody." [13]

Osho Rajneesh gave his own meaning regarding this. The first monkey denotes 'Don't listen to the truth because it will disturb all your consoling lies'. The second monkey denotes 'Don't look at the truth; otherwise your God will be dead and your heaven and hell will disappear'. The third monkey denotes 'Don't speak the truth, otherwise you will be condemned, crucified, poisoned, tortured by the whole crowd, the unconscious people. The fourth monkey denotes "Keep your pleasures, your joys, hidden. Don't let anybody know that you are a cheerful man, a blissful man, an ecstatic man, because that will destroy your very life. It is dangerous". [14]

Cultural influences

Brass casting Three wise monkeys figure.JPG
Brass casting

The three wise monkeys, and the associated proverb, are known throughout Asia and outside Asia. They have been a motif in pictures, such as the ukiyo-e (Japanese woodblock printings) by Keisai Eisen, and are frequently represented in modern culture.

Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi gifts replica of Mahatma Gandhi's three wise monkeys to the U.S. President Donald Trump President Trump and the First Lady in India (49584141701).jpg
Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi gifts replica of Mahatma Gandhi's three wise monkeys to the U.S. President Donald Trump

Mahatma Gandhi's one notable exception to his lifestyle of non-possession was a small statue of the three monkeys - Bapu, Ketan and Bandar. Today, a larger representation of the three monkeys is prominently displayed at the Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, where Gandhi lived from 1915 to 1930 and from where he departed on his famous salt march. Gandhi's statue also inspired a 2008 artwork by Subodh Gupta, Gandhi's Three Monkeys . [15]

The three monkeys are depicted in the trial scene in the 1968 Planet of the Apes . An example of semiotics, as the judges mimic the see no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil monkeys. [16]

In a spoof of this saying, Bob Dole quipped about a meeting of former US Presidents: "Carter, Ford and Nixon: see no evil, hear no evil and evil." [17]

The maxim inspired an award-winning 2008 Turkish film by director Nuri Bilge Ceylan called Three Monkeys (Üç Maymun).

Unicode characters

Unicode provides emoji representations of the monkeys in the Emoticons block as follows: [18]

See also

Notes

  1. Wolfgang Mieder. 1981. "The Proverbial Three Wise Monkeys," Midwestern Journal of Language and Folklore, 7: 5- 38.
  2. Oldest reference to the correct monkey names in English. Source:
    • Japan Society of London (1893). Transactions and proceedings of the Japan Society, London, Volume 1. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner and Co. p. 98.
  3. Lafcadio Hearn (1894). Glimpses of unfamiliar Japan, volume 2, p. 127.
  4. 1 2 Pornpimol Kanchanalak (21 April 2011). "Searching for the fourth monkey in a corrupted world". The Nation. Thailand. Archived from the original on 28 August 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  5. Oldest references (1926–1984) for Mikazaru in Google Books
  6. Oldest reference of the incorrect Mazaru in Google Books. Source:
  7. Worth, Fred L. (1974). The Trivia Encyclopedia. Brooke House. p.  262. ISBN   978-0-912588-12-4.
  8. Shipley, Joseph Twadell (2001). The Origins of English Words: A Discursive Dictionary of Indo-European Roots. Johns Hopkins University Press. p.  249. ISBN   978-0-8018-6784-2.
  9. Original text: 論語 (in Chinese), Analects (in English)
  10. Joly, Henri L. (1908). "Legend in Japanese Art". London, New York: J. Lane. p. 10. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  11. Cultures and Civilisations in Southeast Asia. Private museum in Budapest, Hungary.[ failed verification ]
  12. Tom Oleson (29 October 2011). "How about monkey see, monkey DON'T do next time?". Winnipeg Free Press. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  13. Osho, Chandra Mohan Jain. "I Celebrate Myself: God Is No Where: Life Is Now Here" (PDF).
  14. Osho on zen. "I celebrate myself: God is no where, Life is now here". Chapter 1: The grand Rebellion. Question 1.
  15. "QMA unveils Gandhi's 'Three Monkeys' at Katara". Qatar Tribune . 28 May 2012. Archived from the original on 6 June 2012. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
  16. "Planet of the Apes (1968)" . Retrieved 4 April 2018 via www.imdb.com.
  17. "Liberties;Let Dole Be Dole". New York Times . 7 March 1996. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  18. Unicode 6.0.0 characters in Emoticons block: SEE-NO-EVIL MONKEY ‹🙈›, HEAR-NO-EVIL MONKEY ‹🙉› and SPEAK-NO-EVIL MONKEY ‹🙊›.

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