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|Thyestes verrucosus, natural size. The Origin of Vertebrates by Walter Holbrook Gaskell 1908, Fig. 13, from Woodward)|
Thyestiida is an order of bony-armored jawless fish in the extinct vertebrate class Osteostraci.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata. Vertebrates represent the overwhelming majority of the phylum Chordata, with currently about 69,276 species described. Vertebrates include the jawless fishes and jawed vertebrates, which include the cartilaginous fishes and the bony fishes.
The class Osteostraci is an extinct taxon of bony-armored jawless fish, termed "ostracoderms", that lived in what is now North America, Europe and Russia from the Middle Silurian to Late Devonian.
|Cladogram, according to Sansom, 2009|
Agnatha is a superclass of jawless fish in the phylum Chordata, subphylum Vertebrata, consisting of both present (cyclostomes) and extinct species. The group is sister to all vertebrates with jaws, known as gnathostomes.
Gnathostomata are the jawed vertebrates. The term derives from Greek: γνάθος "jaw" + στόμα "mouth". Gnathostome diversity comprises roughly 60,000 species, which accounts for 99% of all living vertebrates. In addition to opposing jaws, living gnathostomes have teeth, paired appendages, and a horizontal semicircular canal of the inner ear, along with physiological and cellular anatomical characters such as the myelin sheathes of neurons. Another is an adaptive immune system that uses V(D)J recombination to create antigen recognition sites, rather than using genetic recombination in the variable lymphocyte receptor gene.
Cephalaspidomorphs are a group of jawless fishes named for Cephalaspis of the osteostracans. Most biologists regard this taxon as extinct, but the name is sometimes used in the classification of lampreys, because lampreys were once thought to be related to cephalaspids. If lampreys are included, they would extend the known range of the group from the Silurian and Devonian periods to the present day.
Anaspida is an extinct group of primitive jawless vertebrates that lived primarily during the Silurian period, and became extinct soon after the start of the Devonian. They were classically regarded as the ancestors of lampreys. Anaspids were small marine agnathans that lacked a heavy bony shield and paired fins, but have a striking highly hypocercal tail. They first appeared in the early Silurian, and flourished until the early Devonian, when they disappear from the fossil record.
Hyperoartia or Petromyzontida is a disputed group of vertebrates that includes the modern lampreys and their fossil relatives. Examples of hyperoartians from early in their fossil record are Endeiolepis and Euphanerops, fish-like animals with hypocercal tails that lived during the Late Devonian Period. Some paleontologists still place these forms among the "ostracoderms" of the class Anaspida, but this is increasingly considered an artificial arrangement based on ancestral traits.
The Rhipidistia, also known as dipnotetrapodomorphs are a clade of lobe-finned fishes which include the tetrapods and lungfishes. Rhipidistia formerly referred to a subgroup of Sarcopterygii consisting of the Porolepiformes and Osteolepiformes, a definition that is now obsolete. However as cladistic understanding of the vertebrates has improved over the last few decades a monophyletic Rhipidistia is now understood to include the whole of Tetrapoda and the lungfishes.
Cyclostomata is a group of agnathans that comprises the living jawless fishes: the lampreys and hagfishes. Both groups have jawless mouths with horny epidermal structures that function as teeth, and branchial arches that are internally positioned instead of external as in jawed fishes. The name Cyclostomata means "round mouths".It was named by Joan Crockford Beattie
Cephalaspis is a probably monotypic genus of extinct osteostracan agnathan vertebrate. It was a trout-sized detritivorous fish that lived in estuaries of the early Devonian.
Boreaspis is an extinct genus of osteostracan agnathan vertebrate that lived in the Devonian period.
Pituriaspis doylei(Doyle's pituri shield) was one of two known species of jawless fish belonging to the Class Pituriaspida, and is the better known of the two. The species lived in estuaries during the Givetian epoch of the Middle Devonian, 390 million years ago in what is now the Georgina Basin of Western Queensland, Australia.
Psarolepis is a genus of extinct lobe-finned fish which lived around 397 to 418 million years ago. Fossils of Psarolepis have been found mainly in South China and described by paleontologist Xiaobo Yu in 1998. It is not known certainly in which group Psarolepis belongs, but paleontologists agree that it probably is a basal genus and seems to be close to the common ancestor of lobe-finned and ray-finned fishes. In 2001, paleontologist John A. Long compared Psarolepis with Onychodontiform fishes and refer to their relationships.
Cornuata is an extinct taxon of jawless fish that lived in the Early Silurian to Late Devonian.
Benneviaspidida is an order of osteostracan jawless fishes which lived in the Early Devonian. The fishes in order Benneviaspidida have a flat headshield and are dorsoventrally depressed. The first canal to lateral sensory field bifurcates near the orbit.
Auchenaspis salteri is an extinct species of armored jawless fish of the order Thyestiida from the Late Silurian of England. In England, A. salteri's fossils are found in extreme abundance in the Lower Old Red Sandstone strata in Ledbury, Herefordshire.
The evolution of fish began about 530 million years ago during the Cambrian explosion. It was during this time that the early chordates developed the skull and the vertebral column, leading to the first craniates and vertebrates. The first fish lineages belong to the Agnatha, or jawless fish. Early examples include Haikouichthys. During the late Cambrian, eel-like jawless fish called the conodonts, and small mostly armoured fish known as ostracoderms, first appeared. Most jawless fish are now extinct; but the extant lampreys may approximate ancient pre-jawed fish. Lampreys belong to the Cyclostomata, which includes the extant hagfish, and this group may have split early on from other agnathans.
This list of fossil fish species is a list of taxa of fish that have been described during the year 2012. The list only includes taxa at the level of genus or species.
Janaspis is an extinct genus of osteostracan, that lived in the early Devonian period in Britain. It is characterised by a number of features of its armoured headshield, including the presence of raised rims around its eyes, the shape of its lateral and median fields, its prominent dorsal spine, fairly long cornual processes and ornamentation. Janaspis was fairly small compared with other osteostracans, with a headshield measuring less than 60mm.
Zenaspididae is an extinct family of jawless fish in the order Zenaspida.
Ateleaspididae is a prehistoric jawless fish family in the class Osteostraci.
Fossilworks is a portal which provides query, download, and analysis tools to facilitate access to the Paleobiology Database, a large relational database assembled by hundreds of paleontologists from around the world.
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