Thymidine kinase 1

Last updated
TK1
Protein TK1 PDB 1w4r.png
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
Aliases TK1 , TK2, Thymidine kinase 1
External IDs OMIM: 188300 MGI: 98763 HomoloGene: 37749 GeneCards: TK1
Gene location (Human)
Ideogram human chromosome 17.svg
Chr. Chromosome 17 (human) [1]
Human chromosome 17 ideogram.svg
HSR 1996 II 3.5e.svg
Red rectangle 2x18.png
Band 17q25.3Start78,174,091 bp [1]
End78,187,233 bp [1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE TK1 202338 at fs.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_003258
NM_001346663
NM_001363848

NM_001271729
NM_009387

RefSeq (protein)

NP_001333592
NP_003249
NP_001350777

NP_001258658
NP_033413

Location (UCSC) Chr 17: 78.17 – 78.19 Mb Chr 11: 117.82 – 117.83 Mb
PubMed search [3] [4]
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Thymidine kinase 1, soluble (gene name TK1), is a human thymidine kinase. [5]

Contents

Two forms of this protein have been identified in animal cells, one in cytosol and one in mitochondria. Activity of the cytosolic enzyme is high in proliferating cells and peaks during the S-phase of the cell cycle; it is very low in resting cells.

Interactions

Thymidine kinase 1 has been shown to interact with P21. [6]

Interactive pathway map

Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [§ 1]

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Thymidine kinase 1 go to articlego to articlego to articlego to pathway articlego to pathway articlego to articlego to articlego to articlego to articlego to articlego to articlego to articlego to articlego to articlego to PubChem Compoundgo to articlego to articlego to articlego to articlego to articlego to articlego to articlego to articlego to articlego to articlego to articlego to articlego to articlego to articlego to articlego to articlego to articlego to articlego to pathway articlego to pathway articlego to articlego to articlego to articlego to articlego to articlego to WikiPathwaysgo to articlego to articlego to articlego to articlego to articlego to articlego to articlego to articlego to article
|{{{bSize}}}px|alt=Fluorouracil (5-FU) Activity edit]]
Fluorouracil (5-FU) Activity edit
  1. The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: "FluoropyrimidineActivity_WP1601".

Thymidine Kinase 1 in Cancer

Thymidine kinase has been making a growing impact in the cancer research community. It has been found that elevated blood serum levels of TK-1 are associated the presence of many types of malignancy, furthermore, TK-1 has been found to be elevated in serum even before clinical symptoms appear. [7] This offers the potential for earlier therapy. Elevations in serum TK-1 have been found to correlate with the return of breast and other forms of cancer [8] TK-1 can be used to detect cancer earlier, determine what stage it is in, and detect recurrence. Thymidine Kinase 1 can be measured based on its enzyme activity [9] or using immunoassay. [10]

Related Research Articles

Thymidine kinase InterPro Family

Thymidine kinase is an enzyme, a phosphotransferase : 2'-deoxythymidine kinase, ATP-thymidine 5'-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.21. It can be found in most living cells. It is present in two forms in mammalian cells, TK1 and TK2. Certain viruses also have genetic information for expression of viral thymidine kinases. Thymidine kinase catalyzes the reaction:

PRKCD protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Protein kinase C delta type is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKCD gene.

Neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Neutrophil cytosol factor 1, also known as p47phox, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NCF1 gene.

ATF6 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Activating transcription factor 6, also known as ATF6, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATF6 gene and is involved in the unfolded protein response.

ECGF1 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

TYMP is a gene that encodes for the enzyme thymidine phosphorylase. The TYMP gene is also known as ECGF1 and MNGIE due to its role in MNGIE syndrome.

PRKCH protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Protein kinase C eta type is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKCH gene.

RPS6KA5 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Ribosomal protein S6 kinase alpha-5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RPS6KA5 gene.

ABL2 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Tyrosine-protein kinase ABL2 also known as Abelson-related gene (Arg) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ABL2 gene.

TUBA1B protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Tubulin alpha-1B chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TUBA1B gene.

SGK3 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Serine/threonine-protein kinase Sgk3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SGK3 gene.

SULT1E1 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Estrogen sulfotransferase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SULT1E1 gene.

CKMT1B protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Creatine kinase, mitochondrial 1B also known as CKMT1B is one of two genes which encode the ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase.

CKS1B protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Cyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CKS1B gene.

CKMT2 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Creatine kinase S-type, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CKMT2 gene.

RNF7 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

RING-box protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RNF7 gene.

DGUOK protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Deoxyguanosine kinase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DGUOK gene.

NEK6 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Serine/threonine-protein kinase Nek6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NEK6 gene.

ELK4 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

ETS domain-containing protein Elk-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ELK4 gene.

MAPKAPK5 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPKAPK5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine kinase family. In response to cellular stress and proinflammatory cytokines, this kinase is activated through its phosphorylation by MAP kinases, including MAPK1/ERK, MAPK14/p38-alpha, and MAPK11/p38-beta. In vitro, this kinase phosphorylates heat shock protein HSP27 at its physiologically relevant sites. Two alternately-spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been reported.

Thymidine kinase is an enzyme, a phosphotransferase : 2'-deoxythymidine kinase, ATP-thymidine 5'-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.21 that catalyzes the reaction:

References

  1. 1 2 3 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000167900 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. 1 2 3 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000025574 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  5. "Entrez Gene: Thymidine kinase 1, soluble".
  6. Huang DY, Chang ZF (June 2001). "Interaction of human thymidine kinase 1 with p21(Waf1)". Biochem. J. 356 (Pt 3): 829–34. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3560829. PMC   1221910 . PMID   11389691.
  7. Alegre MM, Robison RA, O'Neill KL (May 2013). "Thymidine Kinase 1: A Universal Marker for Cancer". Cancer and Clinical Oncology. 2 (1). doi:10.5539/cco.v2n1p159.
  8. Alegre MM, Robison RA, O'Neill KL (2012). "Thymidine kinase 1 up-regulation is an early event in breast tumor formation". Journal of Oncology. 2012: 575647. doi:10.1155/2012/575647. PMC   3388419 . PMID   22778736.
  9. Munch-Petersen B (2005). "Differences in the kinetic properties of thymidine kinase isoenzymes in unstimulated and phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human lymphocytes". Mol. Cell. Biochem. 64 (2): 1013–19. PMID   6504022.
  10. He Q, Zhang P, Zou L, et al. (2005). "Concentration of thymidine kinase 1 in serum (S-TK1) is a more sensitive proliferation marker in human solid tumors than its activity". Oncol. Rep. 14 (4): 1013–19. PMID   16142366.

Further reading