Thymidine kinase 1

Last updated
TK1
Protein TK1 PDB 1w4r.png
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
Aliases TK1 , TK2, Thymidine kinase 1
External IDs OMIM: 188300 MGI: 98763 HomoloGene: 37749 GeneCards: TK1
Gene location (Human)
Ideogram human chromosome 17.svg
Chr. Chromosome 17 (human) [1]
Human chromosome 17 ideogram.svg
HSR 1996 II 3.5e.svg
Red rectangle 2x18.png
Band 17q25.3Start78,174,091 bp [1]
End78,187,233 bp [1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE TK1 202338 at fs.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_003258
NM_001346663
NM_001363848

NM_001271729
NM_009387

RefSeq (protein)

NP_001333592
NP_003249
NP_001350777

NP_001258658
NP_033413

Location (UCSC) Chr 17: 78.17 – 78.19 Mb Chr 11: 117.82 – 117.83 Mb
PubMed search [3] [4]
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Thymidine kinase 1, soluble (gene name TK1), is a human thymidine kinase. [5]

Contents

Two forms of this protein have been identified in animal cells, one in cytosol and one in mitochondria. Activity of the cytosolic enzyme is high in proliferating cells and peaks during the S-phase of the cell cycle; it is very low in resting cells.

Interactions

Thymidine kinase 1 has been shown to interact with P21. [6]

Interactive pathway map

Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [§ 1]

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|{{{bSize}}}px|alt=Fluorouracil (5-FU) Activity edit]]
Fluorouracil (5-FU) Activity edit
  1. The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: "FluoropyrimidineActivity_WP1601".

Thymidine Kinase 1 in Cancer

Thymidine kinase has been making a growing impact in the cancer research community. It has been found that elevated blood serum levels of TK-1 are associated the presence of many types of malignancy, furthermore, TK-1 has been found to be elevated in serum even before clinical symptoms appear. [7] This offers the potential for earlier therapy. Elevations in serum TK-1 have been found to correlate with the return of breast and other forms of cancer [8] TK-1 can be used to detect cancer earlier, determine what stage it is in, and detect recurrence. Thymidine Kinase 1 can be measured based on its enzyme activity [9] or using immunoassay. [10]

Related Research Articles

Thymidine kinase

Thymidine kinase is an enzyme, a phosphotransferase : 2'-deoxythymidine kinase, ATP-thymidine 5'-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.21. It can be found in most living cells. It is present in two forms in mammalian cells, TK1 and TK2. Certain viruses also have genetic information for expression of viral thymidine kinases. Thymidine kinase catalyzes the reaction:

Cyclin-dependent kinase 9

Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 or CDK9 is a cyclin-dependent kinase associated with P-TEFb.

MAPK7

Mitogen-activated protein kinase 7 also known as MAP kinase 7 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK7 gene.

Neutrophil cytosolic factor 1

Neutrophil cytosol factor 1, also known as p47phox, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NCF1 gene.

60S ribosomal protein L5

60S ribosomal protein L5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RPL5 gene.

ATF6

Activating transcription factor 6, also known as ATF6, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATF6 gene and is involved in the unfolded protein response.

FER (gene)

Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase FER is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FER gene.

SGK3

Serine/threonine-protein kinase Sgk3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SGK3 gene.

CKMT1B

Creatine kinase, mitochondrial 1B also known as CKMT1B is one of two genes which encode the ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase.

CKMT2

Creatine kinase S-type, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CKMT2 gene.

DGUOK

Deoxyguanosine kinase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DGUOK gene.

ITGB1BP1

Integrin beta-1-binding protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ITGB1BP1 gene.

NEK6

Serine/threonine-protein kinase Nek6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NEK6 gene.

ELK4

ETS domain-containing protein Elk-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ELK4 gene.

HAS1

Hyaluronan synthase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HAS1 gene.

Sp2 transcription factor

Transcription factor Sp2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SP2 gene.

PLK2

Serine/threonine-protein kinase PLK2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLK2 gene.

MAPKAPK5

MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPKAPK5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine kinase family. In response to cellular stress and proinflammatory cytokines, this kinase is activated through its phosphorylation by MAP kinases, including MAPK1/ERK, MAPK14/p38-alpha, and MAPK11/p38-beta. In vitro, this kinase phosphorylates heat shock protein HSP27 at its physiologically relevant sites. Two alternately-spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been reported.

GTF2F1

General transcription factor IIF subunit 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GTF2F1 gene.

Thymidine kinase is an enzyme, a phosphotransferase : 2'-deoxythymidine kinase, ATP-thymidine 5'-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.21 that catalyzes the reaction:

References

  1. 1 2 3 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000167900 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. 1 2 3 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000025574 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  5. "Entrez Gene: Thymidine kinase 1, soluble".
  6. Huang DY, Chang ZF (June 2001). "Interaction of human thymidine kinase 1 with p21(Waf1)". Biochem. J. 356 (Pt 3): 829–34. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3560829. PMC   1221910 . PMID   11389691.
  7. Alegre MM, Robison RA, O'Neill KL (May 2013). "Thymidine Kinase 1: A Universal Marker for Cancer". Cancer and Clinical Oncology. 2 (1). doi: 10.5539/cco.v2n1p159 .
  8. Alegre MM, Robison RA, O'Neill KL (2012). "Thymidine kinase 1 up-regulation is an early event in breast tumor formation". Journal of Oncology. 2012: 575647. doi:10.1155/2012/575647. PMC   3388419 . PMID   22778736.
  9. Munch-Petersen B (2005). "Differences in the kinetic properties of thymidine kinase isoenzymes in unstimulated and phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human lymphocytes". Mol. Cell. Biochem. 64 (2): 1013–19. doi:10.1007/BF00224774. PMID   6504022. S2CID   11326439.
  10. He Q, Zhang P, Zou L, et al. (2005). "Concentration of thymidine kinase 1 in serum (S-TK1) is a more sensitive proliferation marker in human solid tumors than its activity". Oncol. Rep. 14 (4): 1013–19. PMID   16142366.

Further reading