Thymidine kinase

Last updated
Thymidine kinase
2B8T.png
Crystal structure of a tetramer of thymidine kinase from U. urealyticum (where the monomers are color cyan, green, red, and magenta respectively) in complex with thymidine (space-filling model, carbon = white, oxygen = red, nitrogen = blue). [1]
Identifiers
EC number 2.7.1.21
CAS number 9002-06-6
Databases
IntEnz IntEnz view
BRENDA BRENDA entry
ExPASy NiceZyme view
KEGG KEGG entry
MetaCyc metabolic pathway
PRIAM profile
PDB structures RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum
Gene Ontology AmiGO / QuickGO
Thymidine kinase
Identifiers
SymbolTK
Pfam PF00265
Pfam clan CL0023
InterPro IPR001267
PROSITE PDOC00524
Thymidine kinase 1, soluble
Identifiers
Symbol TK1
NCBI gene 7083
HGNC 11830
OMIM 188300
RefSeq NM_003258
UniProt P04183
Other data
EC number 2.7.1.21
Locus Chr. 17 q23.2-25.3
Thymidine kinase 2, mitochondrial
Identifiers
Symbol TK2
NCBI gene 7084
HGNC 11831
OMIM 188250
RefSeq NM_004614
UniProt O00142
Other data
EC number 2.7.1.21
Locus Chr. 16

Thymidine kinase is an enzyme, a phosphotransferase (a kinase): 2'-deoxythymidine kinase, ATP-thymidine 5'-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.21. [2] [3] It can be found in most living cells. It is present in two forms in mammalian cells, TK1 and TK2. Certain viruses also have genetic information for expression of viral thymidine kinases. Thymidine kinase catalyzes the reaction:

Contents

Thd + ATP → TMP + ADP

where Thd is (deoxy)thymidine, ATP is adenosine triphosphate, TMP is (deoxy)thymidine monophosphate and ADP is adenosine diphosphate. Thymidine kinases have a key function in the synthesis of DNA and therefore in cell division, as they are part of the unique reaction chain to introduce thymidine into the DNA. Thymidine is present in the body fluids as a result of degradation of DNA from food and from dead cells. Thymidine kinase is required for the action of many antiviral drugs. It is used to select hybridoma cell lines in production of monoclonal antibodies. In clinical chemistry it is used as a proliferation marker in the diagnosis, control of treatment and follow-up of malignant disease, mainly of hematological malignancies.

History

The incorporation of thymidine in DNA was demonstrated around 1950. [4] Somewhat later, it was shown that this incorporation was preceded by phosphorylation, [5] and, around 1960, the enzyme responsible was purified and characterized. [6] [7]

Classification

Two different classes of thymidine kinases have been identified [8] [9] and are included in this super family: one family groups together thymidine kinase from herpesvirus as well as cellular thymidylate kinases, the second family groups TK from various sources that include, vertebrates, bacteria, the bacteriophage T4, poxviruses, African swine fever virus (ASFV) and Fish lymphocystis disease virus (FLDV). The major capsid protein of insect iridescent viruses also belongs to this family. The Prosite pattern recognizes only the cellular type of thymidine kinases.

Isozymes

Mammals have two isoenzymes, that are chemically very different, TK1 and TK2. The former was first found in fetal tissue, the second was found to be more abundant in adult tissue, and initially they were termed fetal and adult thymidine kinase. Soon it was shown that TK1 is present in the cytoplasm only in anticipation of cell division (cell cycle-dependent), [10] [11] whereas TK2 is located in mitochondria and is cell cycle-independent. [12] [13] The two isoenzymes have different reaction kinetics and are inhibited by different inhibitors.

The viral thymidine kinases differ completely from the mammalian enzymes both structurally and biochemically and are inhibited by inhibitors that do not inhibit the mammalian enzymes. [14] [15] [16] The genes of the two human isoenzymes were localized in the mid-1970s. [17] [18] The gene for TK1 was cloned and sequenced. [19] The corresponding protein has a molecular weight of about 25 kD. Normally, it occurs in tissue as a dimer with a molecular weight of around 50 kD. It can be activated by ATP. After activation, is a tetramer with a molecular weight around 100 kD. [20] However, the form of enzyme present in the circulation does not correspond to the protein as encoded by the gene: the main fraction of the active enzyme in the circulation has a molecular weight of 730 kD and is probably bound in a complex to other proteins. This complex is more stable and has a higher specific activity than any of the lower molecular weight forms. [21] [22]

Recombinant TK1 cannot be activated and converted to a tetramer in this way, showing that the enzyme occurring in cells has been modified after synthesis. [20] [23] [24]

TK1 is synthesized by the cell during the S phase of cell division. After cell division is completed, TK1 is degraded intracellularly and does not pass to body fluids after normal cell division. [25] [26] [27] [28] There is a feed-back regulation of the action of thymidine kinase in the cell: thymidine triphosphate (TTP), the product of the further phosphorylation of thymidine, acts as an inhibitor to thymidine kinase. [23] This serves to maintain a balanced amount of TTP available for nucleic acid synthesis, not oversaturating the system. 5'-Aminothymidine, a non-toxic analogue of thymidine, interferes with this regulatory mechanism and thereby increases the cytotoxicity of thymidine analogues used as antineoplastic drugs. [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] The reaction kinetics of thymidine and thymidine analogues phosphorylation is complicated and only partly known. The overall phosphorylation of thymidine to thymidine triphosphate does not follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and the various phosphates of thymidine and uridine interfere with the phosphorylation of each other. [36] The kinetics of TK from different species differ from each other's and also the different forms from a given species (monomer, dimer, tetramer and serum form) have different kinetic characteristics.

Genes for virus specific thymidine kinases have been identified in Herpes simplex virus, Varicella zoster virus and Epstein-Barr virus. [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43]

2'-Desoxythymidin.svg + ATP ---> 2'-Desoxythymidinmonophosphat.svg + ADP

Thymidine reacts with ATP to give thymidine monophosphate and ADP.

Function

Thymidine monophosphate, the product of the reaction catalyzed by thymidine kinase, is in turn phosphorylated to thymidine diphosphate by the enzyme thymidylate kinase and further to thymidine triphosphate by the enzyme nucleoside diphosphate kinase. The triphosphate is included in a DNA molecule, a reaction catalyzed by a DNA polymerase and a complementary DNA molecule (or an RNA molecule in the case of reverse transcriptase, an enzyme present in retrovirus).

Thymidine monophosphate is also produced by the cell in a different reaction by methylation of deoxyuridine monophosphate, a product of other metabolic pathways unrelated to thymidine, by the enzyme thymidylate synthase. The second route is sufficient to supply thymidine monophosphate for DNA repair. When a cell prepares to divide, a complete new set-up of DNA is required, and the requirement for building blocks, including thymidine triphosphate, increases. Cells prepare for cell division by making some of the enzymes required during the division. They are not normally present in the cells and are downregulated and degraded afterwards. Such enzymes are called salvage enzymes. Thymidine kinase 1 is such a salvage enzyme, whereas thymidine kinase 2 and thymidylate synthase are not cell cycle-dependent. [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] [54]

Deficiency

Thymidine kinase 2 is used by the cells for synthesis of mitochondrial DNA. Mutations in the gene for TK2 lead to a myopathic form of mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome. Another reason for TK 2 deficiency may be oxidative stress induced S-glutathionylation and proteolytic degradation of mitochondrial thymidine kinase 2. [55] No syndrome caused by TK1 deficiency is known, probably as a defective TK1 gene would lead to fetal death.

Thymidine kinase during development

The formation of tetramer after modification of thymidine kinase 1 after synthesis enhances the enzyme activity. It has been suggested that this is a mechanism for regulation of the enzyme activity. The formation of tetramers is observed after the Dictyostelium development stage. Its use for fine regulation of DNA synthesis is suggested to have been established in warm blooded animals after they branched out from the vertebrates. [56] Also the development of thymidine kinase like enzymes in the development has been studied. [57]

Species distribution

Thymidine kinase is present in animals, [58] [59] [60] [61] [62] [63] [64] plants, [65] [66] some bacteria, archeans [67] [68] [69] and virus. The thymidine kinases from pox viruses, [8] [70] African swine fever virus, [9] Herpes simplex virus, [16] [37] [38] [39] [40] [71] [72] [73] Varicella zoster virus and [41] [74] [75] Epstein- Barr virus [42] have been identified and to a varying degree characterized. The enzyme form in virus is different from that in other organisms. [16] Thymidine kinase is not present in fungi. [68] [76] [77] [78]

Applications

Identification of dividing cells

The first indirect use of thymidine kinase in biochemical research was the identification of dividing cells by incorporation of radiolabeled thymidine and subsequent measurement of the radioactivity or autoradiography to identify the dividing cells. For this purpose tritiated thymidine is included in the growth medium. [79] In spite of errors in the technique, it is still used to determine the growth rate of malignant cells and to study the activation of lymphocytes in immunology.

PET scan of active tumors

Fluorothymidine is a thymidine analog. Its uptake is regulated by thymidine kinase 1, and it is therefore taken up preferentially by rapidly proliferating tumor tissue. The fluorine isotope 18 is a positron emitter that is used in positron emission tomography (PET). The fluorine-18 radiolabeled fluorothymidine F-18 is therefore useful for PET imaging of active tumor proliferation, and compares favorably with the more commonly used marker fludeoxyglucose (18F). [80] [81] [82] [83] [84] [85] A standardized protocol that will help comparison of clinical studies has been suggested. [86]

Selection of hybridomas

Hybridomas are cells obtained by fusing tumor cells (which can divide infinitely) and immunoglobulin-producing lymphocytes (plasma cells). Hybridomas can be expanded to produce large quantities of immunoglobulins with a given unique specificity (monoclonal antibodies). One problem is to single out the hybridomas from the large excess of unfused cells after the cell fusion. One common way to solve this is to use thymidine kinase negative (TK−) tumor cell lines for the fusion. The thymidine kinase negative cells are obtained by growing the tumor cell line in the presence of thymidine analogs, that kill the thymidine kinase positive (TK+) cells. The negative cells can then be expanded and used for the fusion with TK+ plasma cells. After fusion, the cells are grown in a medium with methotrexate [87] or aminopterin [88] that inhibit the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase thus blocking the de novo synthesis of thymidine monophosphate. One such medium that is commonly used is HAT medium, which contains hypoxanthine, aminopterin and thymidine. The unfused cells from the thymidine kinase-deficient cell line die because they have no source of thymidine monophosphate. The lymphocytes eventually die because they are not "immortal." Only the hybridomas that have "immortality" from their cell line ancestor and thymidine kinase from the plasma cell survive. Those that produce the desired antibody are then selected and cultured to produce the monoclonal antibody. [89] [90] [91] [92] [93] Hybridoma cells can also be isolated using the same principle as described with respect to another gene the HGPRT, which synthesizes IMP necessary for GMP nucleotide synthesis in the salvage pathway.

Study of chromosome structure

Molecular combing of DNA fibers can be used to monitor the structure of chromosomes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This provides DNA replication profiles of individual molecules. This requires that the yeast strains express thymidine kinase, which wild type yeasts do not, being fungi (see occurrence). Therefore, a gene for thymidine kinase must be incorporated in the genome. [94]

Clinical chemistry

Thymidine kinase is a salvage enzyme that is only present in anticipation of cell division. The enzyme is not set free from cells undergoing normal division where the cells have a special mechanism to degrade the proteins no longer needed after the cell division. [10] In normal subjects, the amount of thymidine kinase in serum or plasma is therefore very low. Tumor cells release enzyme to the circulation, probably in connection with the disruption of dead or dying tumor cells. The thymidine kinase level in serum therefore serves as a measure of malignant proliferation, indirectly as a measure of the aggressivity of the tumor.

Therapeutic applications

Some drugs are specifically directed against dividing cells. They can be used against tumors and viral diseases (both against retrovirus and against other virus), as the diseased cells replicate much more frequently than normal cells and also against some non-malignant diseases related to excessively rapid cell replication (for instance psoriasis). It has been suggested that the antiviral and anti-cancer activity of thymidine analogues is, at least partly, achieved by down-regulation of mitochondrial thymidine kinase. [95]

Cytostatics

There are different classes of drugs directed against thymidine metabolism and thereby involving thymidine kinase that are used to control cancer associated cell division. [96] [97] [98] [99] [100] [101] Chain terminators are thymidine analogues that are included in the growing DNA chain, but modified so that the chain cannot be further elongated. As analogs of thymidine, this type of drugs are readily phosphorylated to 5'-monophosphates. The monophosphate is further phosphorylated to the corresponding triphosphate and incorporated in the growing DNA chain. The analog has been modified so that it does not have the hydroxyl group in the 3'-position that is required for continued chain growth. In zidovudine (AZT; ATC:J05AF01) the 3'-hydroxyl group has been replaced by an azido group, [36] [100] in stavudine (ATC: J05AF04) it has been removed without replacement. [102] [103] AZT is used as substrate in one of the methods for determination of thymidine kinase in serum. [104] This implies that AZT interferes with this method and may be a limitation: AZT is a standard component of HAART therapy in HIV infection. One common consequence of AIDS is lymphoma and the most important diagnostic application of thymidine kinase determination is for monitoring of lymphoma.

Other thymidine analogues, for instance Idoxuridine (ATC: J05AB02) act by blocking base pairing during subsequent replication cycles, thereby making the resulting DNA chain defective. [105] This may also be combined with radioactivity to achieve apoptosis of malignant cells. [106]

Antivirals

Some antiviral drugs, such as acyclovir (ATC: J05AB01) and ganciclovir (ATC: J05AB06) as well as other nucleoside analogs make use of the substrate specificity of viral thymidine kinase, as opposed to human thymidine kinases. [15] These drugs act as pro-drugs, which in themselves are not toxic, but are converted to toxic drugs by phosphorylation by viral thymidine kinase. Cells infected with the virus therefore produce highly toxic triphosphates that lead to cell death. Human thymidine kinase, in contrast, with its more narrow specificity, is unable to phosphorylate and activate the prodrug. In this way, only cells infected by the virus are susceptible to the drug. Such drugs are effective only against viruses from the herpes group with their specific thymidine kinase. [107] [108] In patients treated with this type of drugs, the development of antiviral drug resistance is frequently observed. Sequencing the thymidine kinase gene in Herpes simplex virus and Varicella zoster virus shows the rapid genetic variability and may facilitate the diagnosis of antiviral drug resistance. [16] [75]

After smallpox was declared eradicated by WHO in December 1979, vaccination programs were terminated. A re-emergence of the disease either by accident or as a result of biological warfare would meet an unprotected population and could result in an epidemic that could be difficult to control. Mass vaccination to combat a smallpox epidemic could be challenging because the only approved smallpox vaccine, Vaccinia Virus, can have severe side effects. Nevertheless, some governments stockpile Smallpox vaccine to insure against the possibility. However, the development of specific and effective antiviral drugs is prioritized. One possible approach would be to use the specificity of the thymidine kinase of poxvirus for the purpose, in a similar way that it is used for drugs against herpesvirus. One difficulty is that the poxvirus thymidine kinase belongs to the same family of thymidine kinases as the human thymidine kinases and thereby is more similar chemically. The structure of poxvirus thymidine kinases has therefore been determined to find potential antiviral drugs. [70] The search has, however, not yet resulted in a usable antiviral drug against poxviruses.

As a “suicide gene” in gene therapy

The herpesvirus thymidine kinase gene has also been used as a “suicide gene” as a safety system in gene therapy experiments, allowing cells expressing the gene to be killed using ganciclovir. This is desirable in case the recombinant gene causes a mutation leading to uncontrolled cell growth (insertional mutagenesis). The cytotoxic products produced by these modified cells may diffuse to neighboring cells, rendering them similarly susceptible to ganciclovir, a phenomenon known as the "bystander effect." This approach has been used to treat cancer in animal models, and is advantageous in that the tumor may be killed with as few as 10% of malignant cells expressing the gene. [109] [110] [111] [112] [113] [114] [115] [116] [117] [118] [119] [120] [121] [122] [123] A similar system has been tried using tomato thymidine kinase and AZT. [124] [125] In addition, thymidine kinase gene is used as a suicide gene to tackle dangerous graft-versus-host disease in hematopoietic stem cell transplant therapy named Zalmoxis that was conditionally approved in Europe in 2016 [126]

Tumor marker genes

A similar use of the thymidine kinase makes use of the presence in some tumor cells of substances not present in normal cells (tumor markers). Such tumor markers are, for instance, CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) and AFP (alpha fetoprotein). The genes for these tumor markers may be used as promoter genes for thymidine kinase. Thymidine kinase can then be activated in cells expressing the tumor marker but not in normal cells, such that treatment with ganciclovir kills only the tumor cells. [127] [128] [129] [130] [131] [132] Such gene therapy-based approaches are still experimental, however, as problems associated with targeting the gene transfer to the tumor cells have not yet been completely solved.

Neutron capture therapy for tumors

Incorporation of a thymidine analogue with boron has been suggested and tried in animal models for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors. A very extensive number of thymidine derivatives containing boron have been described. [133] [134] [135] [136] [137] [138] [139] [140] [141] [142] [143] [144] [145] [146] [147] [148] [149]

Antiparasitics

Introduction of a TK gene in a parasite genome makes it possible to incorporate BrdU and thereby makes the parasite sensitive to treatment with this drug has also been suggested and constitutes a sensitive indicator of replication of the parasite genome. [150]

Measurement

In serum and plasma

Thymidine kinase levels in serum or plasma have been mostly measured using enzyme activity assays. In commercial assays, this is done by incubation of a serum sample with a substrate analog and measurement of the amount of product formed. [71] [72] [73] [104] [151] [152] [153] [154] [155] [156] Direct determination of the thymidine kinase protein by immunoassay has also been used. [157] [158] [159] [160] [161] The amounts of thymidine kinase found by this method does not correlate well with the enzyme activities. One reason for this is that a large amount of serum TK1 identified by immunoassay is not enzymatically active. [22] [162] This is particularly the case with solid tumors where immunoassays may be more sensitive. [163] [164]

In tissue

Thymidine kinase has been determined in tissue samples after extraction of the tissue. No standard method for the extraction or for the assay has been developed and TK determination in extracts from cells and tissues have not been validated in relation to any specific clinical question, see however Romain et al. [165] and Arnér et al. [166] A method has been developed for specific determination of TK2 in cell extracts using the substrate analog 5-Bromovinyl 2'-deoxyuridine. [167] In the studies referred to below the methods used and the way the results are reported are so different that comparisons between different studies are not possible. The TK1 levels in fetal tissues during development are higher than those of the corresponding tissues later. [168] [169] [170] Certain non-malignant diseases also give rise to dramatic elevation of TK values in cells and tissue: in peripheric lymphocytes during monocytosis [171] and in bone marrow during pernicious anemia. [172] [173] As TK1 is present in cells during cell division, it is reasonable to assume that the TK activity in malignant tissue should be higher than in corresponding normal tissue. This is also confirmed in most studies.

Immunohistochemical staining

Antibodies against thymidine kinase are available for immunohistochemical detection. [174] Staining for thymidine kinase was found to be a reliable technique for identification of patients with stage 2 breast carcinoma. The highest number of patients identified was obtained by combination of thymidine kinase and Ki-67 staining. [175] [176] The technique has also been validated for lung cancer, [175] [177] for colorectal carcinoma, [178] for lung cancer [179] and for renal cell carcinoma. [180]

Fluorescent staining

2'-deoxy-2',2'-difluoro-5-ethynyluridine (dF-EdU) binds to Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase but, because of sterical hindrance, not to human thymidine kinase. This reagent together with a fluorescent azide cause fluorescence of infected cells but not of uninfected cells. Therefore, this substrate analog makes it possible to specifically stain infected cells. [181]

See also

Related Research Articles

A suicide gene, in genetics, will cause a cell to kill itself through apoptosis. Activation of these genes can be due to many processes, but the main cellular "switch" to induce apoptosis is the p53 protein. Stimulation or introduction of suicide genes is a potential way of treating cancer or other proliferative diseases. Suicide genes form the basis of a strategy for making cancer cells more vulnerable, more sensitive to chemotherapy. The approach has been to attach parts of genes expressed in cancer cells to other genes for enzymes not found in mammals that can convert a harmless substance into one that is toxic to the tumor. Most suicide genes mediate this sensitivity by coding for viral or bacterial enzymes that convert an inactive drug into toxic antimetabolites that inhibit the synthesis of nucleic acid. Suicide genes must be introduced into the cells in ways that ensure their uptake and expression by as many cancer cells as possible, while limiting their expression by normal cells. Suicide gene therapy for cancer requires the vector to have the capacity to discriminate between target and non target cells, between the cancer cells and normal cells.

Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus Species of virus

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the ninth known human herpesvirus; its formal name according to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is Human gammaherpesvirus 8, or HHV-8 in short. Like other herpesviruses, its informal names are used interchangeably with its formal ICTV name. This virus causes Kaposi's sarcoma, a cancer commonly occurring in AIDS patients, as well as primary effusion lymphoma, HHV-8-associated multicentric Castleman's disease and KSHV inflammatory cytokine syndrome. It is one of seven currently known human cancer viruses, or oncoviruses. Even after so many years of discovery of KSHV/HHV8, there is no known cure for KSHV associated tumorigenesis.

An oncolytic virus is a virus that preferentially infects and kills cancer cells. As the infected cancer cells are destroyed by oncolysis, they release new infectious virus particles or virions to help destroy the remaining tumour. Oncolytic viruses are thought not only to cause direct destruction of the tumour cells, but also to stimulate host anti-tumour immune system responses.

ATM serine/threonine kinase mammalian protein found in Homo sapiens

ATM serine/threonine kinase, symbol ATM, is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks. It phosphorylates several key proteins that initiate activation of the DNA damage checkpoint, leading to cell cycle arrest, DNA repair or apoptosis. Several of these targets, including p53, CHK2, BRCA1, NBS1 and H2AX are tumor suppressors.

Virus latency ability of some viruses to lie dormant within a cell

Virus latency is the ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant (latent) within a cell, denoted as the lysogenic part of the viral life cycle. A latent viral infection is a type of persistent viral infection which is distinguished from a chronic viral infection. Latency is the phase in certain viruses' life cycles in which, after initial infection, proliferation of virus particles ceases. However, the viral genome is not eradicated. The virus can reactivate and begin producing large amounts of viral progeny without the host becoming reinfected by new outside virus, and stays within the host indefinitely.

Herpes simplex virus Species of virus

Herpes simplex virus1 and 2, also known by their taxonomical names Human alphaherpesvirus 1 and Human alphaherpesvirus 2, are two members of the human Herpesviridae family, a set of new viruses that produce viral infections in the majority of humans. Both HSV-1 and HSV-2 are common and contagious. They can be spread when an infected person begins shedding the virus.

Foscarnet chemical compound

Foscarnet (phosphonomethanoic acid), known by its brand name Foscavir, is an antiviral medication which is primarily used to treat viral infections involving the Herpesviridae family. It is classified as a pyrophosphate analog DNA polymerase inhibitor. Foscarnet is the conjugate base of a chemical compound with the formula HO2CPO3H2.

Viral vectors are tools commonly used by molecular biologists to deliver genetic material into cells. This process can be performed inside a living organism or in cell culture. Viruses have evolved specialized molecular mechanisms to efficiently transport their genomes inside the cells they infect. Delivery of genes, or other genetic material, by a vector is termed transduction and the infected cells are described as transduced. Molecular biologists first harnessed this machinery in the 1970s. Paul Berg used a modified SV40 virus containing DNA from the bacteriophage λ to infect monkey kidney cells maintained in culture.

Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Cell division protein kinase 6 (CDK6) is an enzyme encoded by the CDK6 gene. It is regulated by cyclins, more specifically by Cyclin D proteins and Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor proteins. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase, (CDK) family, which includes CDK4. CDK family members are highly similar to the gene products of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc28, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe cdc2, and are known to be important regulators of cell cycle progression in the point of regulation named R or restriction point.

Cyclin-dependent kinase 7 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Cyclin-dependent kinase 7, or cell division protein kinase 7, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK7 gene.

Thymidine kinase 1 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Thymidine kinase 1, soluble, is a human thymidine kinase.

Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Cell division protein kinase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK3 gene.

Thymidine kinase from herpesvirus InterPro Family

Thymidine kinase from herpesvirus is a sub-family of thymidine kinases.

JX-594 is an oncolytic virus originally constructed in Dr. Edmund Lattime's lab at Thomas Jefferson University and tested in clinical trials in melanoma patients; later licensed and further developed by SillaJen, Inc. Pexa-Vec is designed to target and destroy cancer cells.

Herpes simplex research includes all medical research that attempts to prevent, treat, or cure herpes, as well as fundamental research about the nature of herpes. Examples of particular herpes research include drug development, vaccines and genome editing. HSV-1 and HSV-2 are commonly thought of as oral and genital herpes respectively, but other members in the herpes family include chickenpox, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr (EBV). There are many more members that infect animals other than humans, some of which cause disease in companion animals or have economic impacts in the agriculture industry.

Trifluridine/tipiracil chemical compound

Trifluridine/tipiracil is a combination drug that is used as a third- or fourth-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer, after chemotherapy and targeted therapeutics have failed. It is a combination of two active pharmaceutical ingredients: trifluridine, a nucleoside analog, and tipiracil, a thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor. Tipiracil prevents rapid metabolism of trifluridine, increasing the bioavailability of trifluridine.

Oncolytic herpes virus

Many variants of herpes simplex virus have been considered for viral therapy of cancer; the early development of these was thoroughly reviewed in the journal Cancer Gene Therapy in 2002. This page describes the most notable variants—those tested in clinical trials: G207, HSV1716, NV1020 and Talimogene laherparepvec. These attenuated versions are constructed by deleting viral genes required for infecting or replicating inside normal cells but not cancer cells, such as ICP34.5, ICP6/UL39, and ICP47.

Thymidine kinase is an enzyme, a phosphotransferase : 2'-deoxythymidine kinase, ATP-thymidine 5'-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.21 that catalyzes the reaction:

Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has been researched as a viral vector in gene therapy for cancer treatment as an Oncolytic Virus. Currently there are not any FDA approved AAV cancer treatments, as the first FDA approved AAV treatment was approved December 2017. However, there are many Oncolytic AAV applications that are in development and have been researched.

HSV epigenetics is the epigenetic modification of herpes simplex virus (HSV) genetic code.

References

  1. PDB: 2B8T ; Kosinska U, Carnrot C, Eriksson S, Wang L, Eklund H (December 2005). "Structure of the substrate complex of thymidine kinase from Ureaplasma urealyticum and investigations of possible drug targets for the enzyme". The FEBS Journal. 272 (24): 6365–72. doi:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2005.05030.x. PMID   16336273. S2CID   84259415.
  2. Kit S (December 1985). "Thymidine kinase". Microbiological Sciences. 2 (12): 369–75. PMID   3939993.
  3. Wintersberger E (February 1997). "Regulation and biological function of thymidine kinase". Biochemical Society Transactions. 25 (1): 303–8. doi:10.1042/bst0250303. PMID   9056888.
  4. Reichard P, Estborn B (February 1951). "Utilization of desoxyribosides in the synthesis of polynucleotides". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 188 (2): 839–46. PMID   14824173.
  5. Bessman MJ, Kornberg A, Lehman IR, Simms ES (July 1956). "Enzymic synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 21 (1): 197–8. doi:10.1016/0006-3002(56)90127-5. PMID   13363894.
  6. Bollum FJ, Potter VR (August 1958). "Incorporation of thymidine into deoxyribonucleic acid by enzymes from rat tissues". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 233 (2): 478–82. PMID   13563524.
  7. Weissman SM, Smellie RM, Paul J (December 1960). "Studies on the biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid by extracts of mammalian cells. IV. The phosphorylation of thymidine". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 45: 101–10. doi:10.1016/0006-3002(60)91430-x. PMID   13784139.
  8. 1 2 Boyle DB, Coupar BE, Gibbs AJ, Seigman LJ, Both GW (February 1987). "Fowlpox virus thymidine kinase: nucleotide sequence and relationships to other thymidine kinases". Virology. 156 (2): 355–65. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(87)90415-6. PMID   3027984.
  9. 1 2 Blasco R, López-Otín C, Muñóz M, Bockamp EO, Simón-Mateo C, Viñuela E (September 1990). "Sequence and evolutionary relationships of African swine fever virus thymidine kinase". Virology. 178 (1): 301–4. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(90)90409-k. PMID   2389555.
  10. 1 2 Littlefield JW (February 1966). "The periodic synthesis of thymidine kinase in mouse fibroblasts". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis. 114 (2): 398–403. doi:10.1016/0005-2787(66)90319-4. PMID   4223355.
  11. Bello LJ (December 1974). "Regulation of thymidine kinase synthesis in human cells". Experimental Cell Research. 89 (2): 263–74. doi:10.1016/0014-4827(74)90790-3. PMID   4457349.
  12. Berk AJ, Clayton DA (April 1973). "A genetically distinct thymidine kinase in mammalian mitochondria. Exclusive labeling of mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 248 (8): 2722–9. PMID   4735344.
  13. Berk AJ, Meyer BJ, Clayton DA (February 1973). "Mitochondrial-specific thymidine kinase". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 154 (2): 563–5. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(73)90009-x. PMID   4632422.
  14. Andrei G, Snoeck R (September 2011). "Emerging drugs for varicella-zoster virus infections". Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs. 16 (3): 507–35. doi:10.1517/14728214.2011.591786. PMID   21699441. S2CID   21397238.
  15. 1 2 Johnson VA, Hirsch MS (1990). "New developments in antiretroviral drug therapy for human immunodeficiency virus infections". AIDS Clinical Review: 235–72. PMID   1707295.
  16. 1 2 3 4 Schmidt S, Bohn-Wippert K, Schlattmann P, Zell R, Sauerbrei A (August 2015). "Sequence Analysis of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Thymidine Kinase and DNA Polymerase Genes from over 300 Clinical Isolates from 1973 to 2014 Finds Novel Mutations That May Be Relevant for Development of Antiviral Resistance". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 59 (8): 4938–45. doi:10.1128/AAC.00977-15. PMC   4505214 . PMID   26055375.
  17. Elsevier SM, Kucherlapati RS, Nichols EA, Creagan RP, Giles RE, Ruddle FH, et al. (October 1974). "Assignment of the gene for galactokinase to human chromosome 17 and its regional localisation to band q21-22". Nature. 251 (5476): 633–6. Bibcode:1974Natur.251..633E. doi:10.1038/251633a0. PMID   4371022. S2CID   4207771.
  18. Willecke K, Teber T, Kucherlapati RS, Ruddle FH (May 1977). "Human mitochondrial thymidine kinase is coded for by a gene on chromosome 16 of the nucleus". Somatic Cell Genetics. 3 (3): 237–45. doi:10.1007/bf01538743. PMID   605384. S2CID   22171412.
  19. Flemington E, Bradshaw HD, Traina-Dorge V, Slagel V, Deininger PL (1987). "Sequence, structure and promoter characterization of the human thymidine kinase gene". Gene. 52 (2–3): 267–77. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(87)90053-9. PMID   3301530.
  20. 1 2 Welin M, Kosinska U, Mikkelsen NE, Carnrot C, Zhu C, Wang L, et al. (December 2004). "Structures of thymidine kinase 1 of human and mycoplasmic origin". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 101 (52): 17970–5. Bibcode:2004PNAS..10117970W. doi:10.1073/pnas.0406332102. PMC   539776 . PMID   15611477.
  21. Karlström AR, Neumüller M, Gronowitz JS, Källander CF (January 1990). "Molecular forms in human serum of enzymes synthesizing DNA precursors and DNA". Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 92 (1): 23–35. doi:10.1007/BF00220716. PMID   2155379. S2CID   21351513.
  22. 1 2 Hanan S, Jagarlamudi KK, Liya W, Ellen H, Staffan E (June 2012). "Quaternary structures of recombinant, cellular, and serum forms of thymidine kinase 1 from dogs and humans". BMC Biochemistry. 13: 12. doi:10.1186/1471-2091-13-12. PMC   3411398 . PMID   22741536.
  23. 1 2 Munch-Petersen B, Cloos L, Jensen HK, Tyrsted G (1995). "Human thymidine kinase 1. Regulation in normal and malignant cells". Advances in Enzyme Regulation. 35: 69–89. doi:10.1016/0065-2571(94)00014-t. PMID   7572355.
  24. Li CL, Lu CY, Ke PY, Chang ZF (January 2004). "Perturbation of ATP-induced tetramerization of human cytosolic thymidine kinase by substitution of serine-13 with aspartic acid at the mitotic phosphorylation site". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 313 (3): 587–93. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2003.11.147. PMID   14697231.
  25. Zhu C, Harlow LS, Berenstein D, Munch-Petersen S, Munch-Petersen B (2006). "Effect of C-terminal of human cytosolic thymidine kinase (TK1) on in vitro stability and enzymatic properties". Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. 25 (9–11): 1185–8. doi:10.1080/15257770600894436. PMID   17065087. S2CID   26971963.
  26. Potter V (1963). "Feedback inhibition of thymidine kinase by thymidine triphosphate". Experimental Cell Research. 24: SUPPL9:259–62. doi:10.1016/0014-4827(63)90266-0. PMID   14046233.
  27. Severin ES, Itkes AV, Kartasheva ON, Tunitskaya VL, Turpaev KT, Kafiani CA (1985). "Regulation of 2-5 A phosphodiesterase activity by cAMP-dependent phosphorylation: mechanism and biological role". Advances in Enzyme Regulation. 23: 365–76. doi:10.1016/0065-2571(85)90056-1. PMID   3000146.
  28. Mikkelsen NE, Johansson K, Karlsson A, Knecht W, Andersen G, Piskur J, et al. (May 2003). "Structural basis for feedback inhibition of the deoxyribonucleoside salvage pathway: studies of the Drosophila deoxyribonucleoside kinase". Biochemistry. 42 (19): 5706–12. doi:10.1021/bi0340043. PMID   12741827.
  29. Fischer PH, Phillips AW (May 1984). "Antagonism of feedback inhibition. Stimulation of the phosphorylation of thymidine and 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine by 5-iodo-5'-amino-2',5'-dideoxyuridine". Molecular Pharmacology. 25 (3): 446–51. PMID   6727866.
  30. Fischer PH, Vazquez-Padua MA, Reznikoff CA (1986). "Perturbation of thymidine kinase regulation: a novel chemotherapeutic approach". Advances in Enzyme Regulation. 25: 21–34. doi:10.1016/0065-2571(86)90006-3. PMID   3812083.
  31. Fischer PH, Vazquez-Padua MA, Reznikoff CA, Ratschan WJ (September 1986). "Preferential stimulation of iododeoxyuridine phosphorylation by 5'-aminothymidine in human bladder cancer cells in vitro". Cancer Research. 46 (9): 4522–6. PMID   3731105.
  32. Fischer PH, Fang TT, Lin TS, Hampton A, Bruggink J (April 1988). "Structure-activity analysis of antagonism of the feedback inhibition of thymidine kinase". Biochemical Pharmacology. 37 (7): 1293–8. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(88)90785-x. PMID   3355601.
  33. Vazquez-Padua MA, Kunugi K, Fischer PH (January 1989). "Enzyme regulatory site-directed drugs: study of the interactions of 5'-amino-2', 5'-dideoxythymidine (5'-AdThd) and thymidine triphosphate with thymidine kinase and the relationship to the stimulation of thymidine uptake by 5'-AdThd in 647V cells". Molecular Pharmacology. 35 (1): 98–104. PMID   2536472.
  34. Vazquez-Padua MA, Fischer PH, Christian BJ, Reznikoff CA (May 1989). "Basis for the differential modulation of the uptake of 5-iododeoxyuridine by 5'-aminothymidine among various cell types". Cancer Research. 49 (9): 2415–21. PMID   2706629.
  35. Vázquez-Padua MA (March 1994). "Modulation of thymidine kinase activity: a biochemical strategy to enhance the activation of antineoplastic drugs". Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal. 13 (1): 19–23. PMID   8016290.
  36. 1 2 Sun R, Wang L (October 2014). "Thymidine kinase 2 enzyme kinetics elucidate the mechanism of thymidine-induced mitochondrial DNA depletion". Biochemistry. 53 (39): 6142–50. doi:10.1021/bi5006877. PMID   25215937.
  37. 1 2 McKnight SL (December 1980). "The nucleotide sequence and transcript map of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene". Nucleic Acids Research. 8 (24): 5949–64. doi:10.1093/nar/8.24.5949. PMC   328064 . PMID   6258156.
  38. 1 2 Halliburton IW, Morse LS, Roizman B, Quinn KE (August 1980). "Mapping of the thymidine kinase genes of type 1 and type 2 herpes simplex viruses using intertypic recombinants". The Journal of General Virology. 49 (2): 235–53. doi:10.1099/0022-1317-49-2-235. PMID   6255066. S2CID   13276721.
  39. 1 2 McDougall JK, Masse TH, Galloway DA (March 1980). "Location and cloning of the herpes simplex virus type 2 thymidine kinase gene". Journal of Virology. 33 (3): 1221–4. doi:10.1128/JVI.33.3.1221-1224.1980. PMC   288658 . PMID   6245273.
  40. 1 2 Kit S, Kit M, Qavi H, Trkula D, Otsuka H (November 1983). "Nucleotide sequence of the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) thymidine kinase gene and predicted amino acid sequence of thymidine kinase polypeptide and its comparison with the HSV-1 thymidine kinase gene". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Structure and Expression. 741 (2): 158–70. doi:10.1016/0167-4781(83)90056-8. PMID   6317035.
  41. 1 2 Sawyer MH, Ostrove JM, Felser JM, Straus SE (February 1986). "Mapping of the varicella zoster virus deoxypyrimidine kinase gene and preliminary identification of its transcript". Virology. 149 (1): 1–9. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(86)90081-4. PMID   3004022.
  42. 1 2 Littler E, Zeuthen J, McBride AA, Trøst Sørensen E, Powell KL, Walsh-Arrand JE, Arrand JR (August 1986). "Identification of an Epstein-Barr virus-coded thymidine kinase". The EMBO Journal. 5 (8): 1959–66. doi:10.1002/j.1460-2075.1986.tb04450.x. PMC   1167064 . PMID   3019675.
  43. Kit S, Dubbs DR (April 1963). "Acquisition of thymidine kinase activity by herpes simplex-infected mouse fibroblast cells". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 11: 55–9. doi:10.1016/0006-291x(63)90027-5. PMID   14033128.
  44. Schlosser CA, Steglich C, deWet JR, Scheffler IE (February 1981). "Cell cycle-dependent regulation of thymidine kinase activity introduced into mouse LMTK- cells by DNA and chromatin-mediated gene transfer". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 78 (2): 1119–23. Bibcode:1981PNAS...78.1119S. doi:10.1073/pnas.78.2.1119. PMC   319958 . PMID   6940130.
  45. Coppock DL, Pardee AB (August 1987). "Control of thymidine kinase mRNA during the cell cycle". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 7 (8): 2925–32. doi:10.1128/MCB.7.8.2925. PMC   367911 . PMID   3670299.
  46. Stewart CJ, Ito M, Conrad SE (March 1987). "Evidence for transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of the cellular thymidine kinase gene". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 7 (3): 1156–63. doi:10.1128/MCB.7.3.1156. PMC   365188 . PMID   3561412.
  47. Piper AA, Tattersall MH, Fox RM (December 1980). "The activities of thymidine metabolising enzymes during the cell cycle of a human lymphocyte cell line LAZ-007 synchronised by centrifugal elutriation". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects. 633 (3): 400–9. doi:10.1016/0304-4165(80)90198-1. PMID   6260157.
  48. Pelka-Fleischer R, Ruppelt W, Wilmanns W, Sauer H, Schalhorn A (March 1987). "Relation between cell cycle stage and the activity of DNA-synthesizing enzymes in cultured human lymphoblasts: investigations on cell fractions enriched according to cell cycle stages by way of centrifugal elutriation". Leukemia. 1 (3): 182–7. PMID   3669741.
  49. Sherley JL, Kelly TJ (June 1988). "Regulation of human thymidine kinase during the cell cycle". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 263 (17): 8350–8. PMID   3372530.
  50. Gross MK, Kainz MS, Merrill GF (August 1987). "The chicken thymidine kinase gene is transcriptionally repressed during terminal differentiation: the associated decline in TK mRNA cannot account fully for the disappearance of TK enzyme activity". Developmental Biology. 122 (2): 439–51. doi:10.1016/0012-1606(87)90308-3. PMID   3596017.
  51. Kauffman MG, Kelly TJ (May 1991). "Cell cycle regulation of thymidine kinase: residues near the carboxyl terminus are essential for the specific degradation of the enzyme at mitosis". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 11 (5): 2538–46. doi:10.1128/MCB.11.5.2538. PMC   360023 . PMID   1708095.
  52. Sutterluety H, Bartl S, Karlseder J, Wintersberger E, Seiser C (June 1996). "Carboxy-terminal residues of mouse thymidine kinase are essential for rapid degradation in quiescent cells". Journal of Molecular Biology. 259 (3): 383–92. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1996.0327. PMID   8676376.
  53. McAllister KA, Yasseen AA, McKerr G, Downes CS, McKelvey-Martin VJ (2014). "FISH comets show that the salvage enzyme TK1 contributes to gene-specific DNA repair". Frontiers in Genetics. 5: 233. doi:10.3389/fgene.2014.00233. PMC   4126492 . PMID   25152750.
  54. Lee MH, Wang L, Chang ZF (April 2014). "The contribution of mitochondrial thymidylate synthesis in preventing the nuclear genome stress". Nucleic Acids Research. 42 (8): 4972–84. doi:10.1093/nar/gku152. PMC   4005647 . PMID   24561807.
  55. Sun R, Eriksson S, Wang L (July 2012). "Oxidative stress induced S-glutathionylation and proteolytic degradation of mitochondrial thymidine kinase 2". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 287 (29): 24304–12. doi:10.1074/jbc.M112.381996. PMC   3397856 . PMID   22661713.
  56. Mutahir Z, Clausen AR, Andersson KM, Wisen SM, Munch-Petersen B, Piškur J (March 2013). "Thymidine kinase 1 regulatory fine-tuning through tetramer formation". The FEBS Journal. 280 (6): 1531–41. doi:10.1111/febs.12154. PMID   23351158. S2CID   37549615.
  57. Konrad A, Lai J, Mutahir Z, Piškur J, Liberles DA (April 2014). "The phylogenetic distribution and evolution of enzymes within the thymidine kinase 2-like gene family in metazoa". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 78 (3–4): 202–16. Bibcode:2014JMolE..78..202K. doi:10.1007/s00239-014-9611-6. PMID   24500774. S2CID   12250075.
  58. Larsdotter S, Nostell K, von Euler H (August 2015). "Serum thymidine kinase activity in clinically healthy and diseased horses: a potential marker for lymphoma". Veterinary Journal. 205 (2): 313–6. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2015.01.019. PMID   25744802.
  59. Jagarlamudi KK, Westberg S, Rönnberg H, Eriksson S (October 2014). "Properties of cellular and serum forms of thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) in dogs with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and canine mammary tumors (CMTs): implications for TK1 as a proliferation biomarker". BMC Veterinary Research. 10: 228. doi:10.1186/s12917-014-0228-1. PMC   4195903 . PMID   25293656.
  60. Selting KA, Sharp CR, Ringold R, Knouse J (December 2015). "Serum thymidine kinase 1 and C-reactive protein as biomarkers for screening clinically healthy dogs for occult disease". Veterinary and Comparative Oncology. 13 (4): 373–84. doi:10.1111/vco.12052. PMID   23859156.
  61. Tawfeeq MM, Miura S, Horiuchi N, Kobayashi Y, Furuoka H, Inokuma H (2013). "Utility of serum thymidine kinase activity measurements for cases of bovine leukosis with difficult clinical diagnoses". The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science. 75 (9): 1167–72. doi:10.1292/jvms.12-0572. PMID   23628971.
  62. Sharif H, Hagman R, Wang L, Eriksson S (January 2013). "Elevation of serum thymidine kinase 1 in a bacterial infection: canine pyometra". Theriogenology. 79 (1): 17–23. doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2012.09.002. PMID   23102844.
  63. Taylor SS, Dodkin S, Papasouliotis K, Evans H, Graham PA, Belshaw Z, et al. (February 2013). "Serum thymidine kinase activity in clinically healthy and diseased cats: a potential biomarker for lymphoma". Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery. 15 (2): 142–7. doi:10.1177/1098612X12463928. PMID   23076596. S2CID   9465188.
  64. Elliott JW, Cripps P, Blackwood L (March 2013). "Thymidine kinase assay in canine lymphoma". Veterinary and Comparative Oncology. 11 (1): 1–13. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5829.2011.00296.x. PMID   22236202.
  65. Pedroza-García JA, Nájera-Martínez M, de la Paz Sanchez M, Plasencia J (February 2015). "Arabidopsis thaliana thymidine kinase 1a is ubiquitously expressed during development and contributes to confer tolerance to genotoxic stress". Plant Molecular Biology. 87 (3): 303–15. doi:10.1007/s11103-014-0277-7. PMID   25537647. S2CID   18112471.
  66. Clausen AR, Girandon L, Ali A, Knecht W, Rozpedowska E, Sandrini MP, et al. (October 2012). "Two thymidine kinases and one multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase salvage DNA precursors in Arabidopsis thaliana". The FEBS Journal. 279 (20): 3889–97. doi:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2012.08747.x. PMID   22897443. S2CID   35388801.
  67. Timm J, Bosch-Navarrete C, Recio E, Nettleship JE, Rada H, González-Pacanowska D, Wilson KS (May 2015). "Structural and Kinetic Characterization of Thymidine Kinase from Leishmania major". PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 9 (5): e0003781. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003781. PMC   4433323 . PMID   25978379.
  68. 1 2 Grivell AR, Jackson JF (December 1968). "Thymidine kinase: evidence for its absence from Neurospora crassa and some other micro-organisms, and the relevance of this to the specific labelling of deoxyribonucleic acid". Journal of General Microbiology. 54 (2): 307–17. doi:10.1099/00221287-54-2-307. PMID   5729618.
  69. Tinta T, Christiansen LS, Konrad A, Liberles DA, Turk V, Munch-Petersen B, et al. (June 2012). "Deoxyribonucleoside kinases in two aquatic bacteria with high specificity for thymidine and deoxyadenosine". FEMS Microbiology Letters. 331 (2): 120–7. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2012.02565.x. PMID   22462611.
  70. 1 2 Black ME, Hruby DE (June 1990). "Quaternary structure of vaccinia virus thymidine kinase". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 169 (3): 1080–6. doi:10.1016/0006-291x(90)92005-k. PMID   2114104.
  71. 1 2 Gronowitz JS, Källander CF (August 1980). "Optimized assay for thymidine kinase and its application to the detection of antibodies against herpes simplex virus type 1- and 2-induced thymidine kinase". Infection and Immunity. 29 (2): 425–34. PMC   551136 . PMID   6260651.
  72. 1 2 Gronowitz JS, Källander FR, Diderholm H, Hagberg H, Pettersson U (January 1984). "Application of an in vitro assay for serum thymidine kinase: results on viral disease and malignancies in humans". International Journal of Cancer. 33 (1): 5–12. doi:10.1002/ijc.2910330103. PMID   6693195. S2CID   43720702.
  73. 1 2 Gronowitz JS, Källander CF (1983). "A sensitive assay for detection of deoxythymidine kinase and its application to herpesvirus diagnosis". Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 104: 235–45. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-68949-9_14. ISBN   978-3-642-68951-2. PMID   6307593.
  74. Källander CF, Gronowitz JS, Olding-Stenkvist E (February 1983). "Rapid diagnosis of varicella-zoster virus infection by detection of viral deoxythymidine kinase in serum and vesicle fluid". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 17 (2): 280–7. doi:10.1128/JCM.17.2.280-287.1983. PMC   272623 . PMID   6339548.
  75. 1 2 Brunnemann AK, Bohn-Wippert K, Zell R, Henke A, Walther M, Braum O, et al. (May 2015). "Drug resistance of clinical varicella-zoster virus strains confirmed by recombinant thymidine kinase expression and by targeted resistance mutagenesis of a cloned wild-type isolate". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 59 (5): 2726–34. doi:10.1128/AAC.05115-14. PMC   4394776 . PMID   25712361.
  76. Rhind N (2015). "Incorporation of thymidine analogs for studying replication kinetics in fission yeast". DNA Replication. Methods in Molecular Biology. 1300. pp. 99–104. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-2596-4_6. ISBN   978-1-4939-2595-7. PMC   5080975 . PMID   25916707.
  77. Rhind N (2009). "Incorporation of thymidine analogs for studying replication kinetics in fission yeast". DNA Replication. Methods in Molecular Biology. 521. pp. 509–15. doi:10.1007/978-1-60327-815-7_29. ISBN   978-1-60327-814-0. PMC   2861040 . PMID   19563126.
  78. Sivakumar S, Porter-Goff M, Patel PK, Benoit K, Rhind N (July 2004). "In vivo labeling of fission yeast DNA with thymidine and thymidine analogs". Methods. 33 (3): 213–9. doi:10.1016/j.ymeth.2003.11.016. PMC   5074384 . PMID   15157888.
  79. Johnson HA, Rubini JR, Cronkite EP, Bond VP (1960). "Labeling of human tumor cells in vivo by tritiated thymidine". Laboratory Investigation; A Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology. 9: 460–5. PMID   14407455.
  80. Barthel H, Cleij MC, Collingridge DR, Hutchinson OC, Osman S, He Q, et al. (July 2003). "3'-deoxy-3'-[18F]fluorothymidine as a new marker for monitoring tumor response to antiproliferative therapy in vivo with positron emission tomography". Cancer Research. 63 (13): 3791–8. PMID   12839975.
  81. Chao KS (December 2006). "Functional imaging for early prediction of response to chemoradiotherapy: 3'-deoxy-3'-18F-fluorothymidine positron emission tomography--a clinical application model of esophageal cancer". Seminars in Oncology. 33 (6 Suppl 11): S59-63. doi:10.1053/j.seminoncol.2006.10.011. PMID   17178290.
  82. Salskov A, Tammisetti VS, Grierson J, Vesselle H (November 2007). "FLT: measuring tumor cell proliferation in vivo with positron emission tomography and 3'-deoxy-3'-[18F]fluorothymidine". Seminars in Nuclear Medicine. 37 (6): 429–39. doi:10.1053/j.semnuclmed.2007.08.001. PMID   17920350. S2CID   10592042.
  83. de Langen AJ, Klabbers B, Lubberink M, Boellaard R, Spreeuwenberg MD, Slotman BJ, et al. (March 2009). "Reproducibility of quantitative 18F-3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine measurements using positron emission tomography". European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. 36 (3): 389–95. doi:10.1007/s00259-008-0960-5. PMID   18931838. S2CID   23952279.
  84. Shields AF, Lawhorn-Crews JM, Briston DA, Zalzala S, Gadgeel S, Douglas KA, et al. (July 2008). "Analysis and reproducibility of 3'-Deoxy-3'-[18F]fluorothymidine positron emission tomography imaging in patients with non-small cell lung cancer". Clinical Cancer Research. 14 (14): 4463–8. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-5243. PMC   3826917 . PMID   18628460.
  85. Lamarca A, Asselin MC, Manoharan P, McNamara MG, Trigonis I, Hubner R, et al. (March 2016). "18F-FLT PET imaging of cellular proliferation in pancreatic cancer". Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology. 99: 158–69. doi:10.1016/j.critrevonc.2015.12.014. PMID   26778585.
  86. Peck M, Pollack HA, Friesen A, Muzi M, Shoner SC, Shankland EG, et al. (March 2015). "Applications of PET imaging with the proliferation marker [18F]-FLT". The Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. 59 (1): 95–104. PMC   4415691 . PMID   25737423.
  87. "Methotrexate". PubChem. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  88. "Aminopterin". PubChem. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  89. Köhler G, Milstein C (August 1975). "Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity". Nature. 256 (5517): 495–7. Bibcode:1975Natur.256..495K. doi:10.1038/256495a0. PMID   1172191. S2CID   4161444.
  90. Köhler G, Howe SC, Milstein C (April 1976). "Fusion between immunoglobulin-secreting and nonsecreting myeloma cell lines". European Journal of Immunology. 6 (4): 292–5. doi:10.1002/eji.1830060411. PMID   825374.
  91. Köhler G, Milstein C (July 1976). "Derivation of specific antibody-producing tissue culture and tumor lines by cell fusion". European Journal of Immunology. 6 (7): 511–9. doi:10.1002/eji.1830060713. PMID   825377.
  92. Köhler G, Pearson T, Milstein C (May 1977). "Fusion of T and B cells". Somatic Cell Genetics. 3 (3): 303–12. doi:10.1007/BF01538748. PMID   305123. S2CID   36092417.
  93. Milstein C, Adetugbo K, Cowan NJ, Kohler G, Secher DS (May 1978). "Expression of antibody genes in tissue culture: structural mutants and hybrid cells". National Cancer Institute Monograph (48): 321–30. PMID   107455.
  94. Gallo D, Wang G, Yip CM, Brown GW (February 2016). "Analysis of Replicating Yeast Chromosomes by DNA Combing". Cold Spring Harbor Protocols. 2016 (2): pdb.prot085118. doi:10.1101/pdb.prot085118. PMID   26832684.
  95. Sun R, Eriksson S, Wang L (July 2014). "Down-regulation of mitochondrial thymidine kinase 2 and deoxyguanosine kinase by didanosine: implication for mitochondrial toxicities of anti-HIV nucleoside analogs". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 450 (2): 1021–6. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.06.098. PMID   24976398.
  96. Hirsch MS (May 1990). "Chemotherapy of human immunodeficiency virus infections: current practice and future prospects". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 161 (5): 845–57. doi:10.1093/infdis/161.5.845. PMID   1691243.
  97. Lin TS, Neenan JP, Cheng YC, Prusoff WH (April 1976). "Synthesis and antiviral activity of 5- and 5'-substituted thymidine analogs". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 19 (4): 495–8. doi:10.1021/jm00226a009. PMID   177781.
  98. Helgstrand E, Oberg B (1980). "Enzymatic targets in virus chemotherapy". Virus Chemotherapy. Antibiotics and Chemotherapy. 27. pp. 22–69. doi:10.1159/000385389. ISBN   978-3-8055-0263-4. PMID   6996606.
  99. Shannon WM, Schabel FM (1980). "Antiviral agents as adjuncts in cancer chemotherapy". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 11 (2): 263–390. doi:10.1016/0163-7258(80)90034-0. PMID   7001501.
  100. 1 2 Sakamoto K, Yokogawa T, Ueno H, Oguchi K, Kazuno H, Ishida K, et al. (2015). "Crucial roles of thymidine kinase 1 and deoxyUTPase in incorporating the antineoplastic nucleosides trifluridine and 2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine into DNA". International Journal of Oncology. 46 (6): 2327–34. doi:10.3892/ijo.2015.2974. PMC   4441292 . PMID   25901475.
  101. Sun R, Eriksson S, Wang L (November 2014). "Zidovudine induces downregulation of mitochondrial deoxynucleoside kinases: implications for mitochondrial toxicity of antiviral nucleoside analogs". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 58 (11): 6758–66. doi:10.1128/AAC.03613-14. PMC   4249380 . PMID   25182642.
  102. Hamamoto Y, Nakashima H, Matsui T, Matsuda A, Ueda T, Yamamoto N (June 1987). "Inhibitory effect of 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxynucleosides on infectivity, cytopathic effects, and replication of human immunodeficiency virus". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 31 (6): 907–10. doi:10.1128/aac.31.6.907. PMC   284209 . PMID   3039911.
  103. Baba M, Pauwels R, Herdewijn P, De Clercq E, Desmyter J, Vandeputte M (January 1987). "Both 2',3'-dideoxythymidine and its 2',3'-unsaturated derivative (2',3'-dideoxythymidinene) are potent and selective inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus replication in vitro". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 142 (1): 128–34. doi:10.1016/0006-291x(87)90460-8. PMID   3028398.
  104. 1 2 Ohrvik A, Lindh M, Einarsson R, Grassi J, Eriksson S (September 2004). "Sensitive nonradiometric method for determining thymidine kinase 1 activity". Clinical Chemistry. 50 (9): 1597–606. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2003.030379. PMID   15247154.
  105. Prusoff WH (March 1959). "Synthesis and biological activities of iododeoxyuridine, an analog of thymidine". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 32 (1): 295–6. doi:10.1016/0006-3002(59)90597-9. PMID   13628760.
  106. Morgenroth A, Deisenhofer S, Glatting G, Kunkel FH, Dinger C, Zlatopolskiy B, et al. (November 2008). "Preferential tumor targeting and selective tumor cell cytotoxicity of 5-[131/125I]iodo-4'-thio-2'-deoxyuridine". Clinical Cancer Research. 14 (22): 7311–9. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-0907. PMID   19010846. S2CID   37766626.
  107. Mar EC, Chiou JF, Cheng YC, Huang ES (March 1985). "Inhibition of cellular DNA polymerase alpha and human cytomegalovirus-induced DNA polymerase by the triphosphates of 9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl)guanine and 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine". Journal of Virology. 53 (3): 776–80. doi:10.1128/JVI.53.3.776-780.1985. PMC   254706 . PMID   2983088.
  108. Weinschenk L, Schols D, Balzarini J, Meier C (August 2015). "Nucleoside Diphosphate Prodrugs: Nonsymmetric DiPPro-Nucleotides". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 58 (15): 6114–30. doi:10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b00737. PMID   26125628.
  109. Nicholas TW, Read SB, Burrows FJ, Kruse CA (April 2003). "Suicide gene therapy with Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase and ganciclovir is enhanced with connexins to improve gap junctions and bystander effects". Histology and Histopathology. 18 (2): 495–507. doi:10.14670/HH-18.495. PMID   12647801.
  110. Preuss E, Muik A, Weber K, Otte J, von Laer D, Fehse B (November 2011). "Cancer suicide gene therapy with TK.007: superior killing efficiency and bystander effect". Journal of Molecular Medicine. 89 (11): 1113–24. doi:10.1007/s00109-011-0777-8. PMID   21698427. S2CID   22554802.
  111. Jones BS, Lamb LS, Goldman F, Di Stasi A (2014). "Improving the safety of cell therapy products by suicide gene transfer". Frontiers in Pharmacology. 5: 254. doi:10.3389/fphar.2014.00254. PMC   4245885 . PMID   25505885.
  112. Rasekhian M, Teimoori-Toolabi L, Amini S, Azadmanesh K (2015). "An Enterovirus-Like RNA Construct for Colon Cancer Suicide Gene Therapy". Iranian Biomedical Journal. 19 (3): 124–32. doi:10.7508/ibj.2015.03.001. PMC   4571007 . PMID   26025964.
  113. Karjoo Z, Chen X, Hatefi A (April 2016). "Progress and problems with the use of suicide genes for targeted cancer therapy". Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 99 (Pt A): 113–128. doi:10.1016/j.addr.2015.05.009. PMC   4758904 . PMID   26004498.
  114. Greco R, Oliveira G, Stanghellini MT, Vago L, Bondanza A, Peccatori J, et al. (2015). "Improving the safety of cell therapy with the TK-suicide gene". Frontiers in Pharmacology. 6: 95. doi:10.3389/fphar.2015.00095. PMC   4419602 . PMID   25999859.
  115. Zhang TY, Huang B, Wu HB, Wu JH, Li LM, Li YX, et al. (July 2015). "Synergistic effects of co-administration of suicide gene expressing mesenchymal stem cells and prodrug-encapsulated liposome on aggressive lung melanoma metastases in mice". Journal of Controlled Release. 209: 260–71. doi:10.1016/j.jconrel.2015.05.007. PMID   25966361.
  116. Chao CN, Huang YL, Lin MC, Fang CY, Shen CH, Chen PL, et al. (January 2015). "Inhibition of human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma growth by JC polyomavirus-like particles delivering a suicide gene". Journal of Translational Medicine. 13: 29. doi:10.1186/s12967-015-0389-0. PMC   4312600 . PMID   25623859.
  117. Fang CY, Tsai YD, Lin MC, Wang M, Chen PL, Chao CN, et al. (June 2015). "Inhibition of human bladder cancer growth by a suicide gene delivered by JC polyomavirus virus-like particles in a mouse model". The Journal of Urology. 193 (6): 2100–6. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2015.01.084. PMID   25623749.
  118. Wu JX, Liu SH, Nemunaitis JJ, Brunicardi FC (April 2015). "Liposomal insulin promoter-thymidine kinase gene therapy followed by ganciclovir effectively ablates human pancreatic cancer in mice". Cancer Letters. 359 (2): 206–10. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2015.01.002. PMC   4336837 . PMID   25596375.
  119. Hsu C, Abad JD, Morgan RA (September 2013). "Characterization of human T lymphocytes engineered to express interleukin-15 and herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase". The Journal of Surgical Research. 184 (1): 282–9. doi:10.1016/j.jss.2013.03.054. PMC   3759574 . PMID   23582229.
  120. Mutahir Z, Larsen NB, Christiansen LS, Andersson KM, Rico R, Wisen SM, et al. (December 2011). "Characterization of oligomeric and kinetic properties of tomato thymidine kinase 1". Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. 30 (12): 1223–6. doi:10.1080/15257770.2011.597629. PMID   22132978. S2CID   29527107.
  121. Kotini AG, de Stanchina E, Themeli M, Sadelain M, Papapetrou EP (February 2016). "Escape Mutations, Ganciclovir Resistance, and Teratoma Formation in Human iPSCs Expressing an HSVtk Suicide Gene". Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids. 5: e284. doi:10.1038/mtna.2015.57. PMC   4884789 . PMID   26836371.
  122. Cong X, Lei JL, Xia SL, Wang YM, Li Y, Li S, et al. (January 2016). "Pathogenicity and immunogenicity of a gE/gI/TK gene-deleted pseudorabies virus variant in susceptible animals". Veterinary Microbiology. 182: 170–7. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.11.022. PMID   26711045.
  123. Ji N, Weng D, Liu C, Gu Z, Chen S, Guo Y, et al. (January 2016). "Adenovirus-mediated delivery of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase administration improves outcome of recurrent high-grade glioma". Oncotarget. 7 (4): 4369–78. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.6737. PMC   4826211 . PMID   26716896.
  124. Christiansen LS, Egeblad L, Munch-Petersen B, Piškur J, Knecht W (June 2015). "New Variants of Tomato Thymidine Kinase 1 Selected for Increased Sensitivity of E. coli KY895 towards Azidothymidine". Cancers. 7 (2): 966–80. doi:10.3390/cancers7020819. PMC   4491694 . PMID   26061968.
  125. Stedt H, Samaranayake H, Kurkipuro J, Wirth G, Christiansen LS, Vuorio T, et al. (April 2015). "Tomato thymidine kinase-based suicide gene therapy for malignant glioma--an alternative for Herpes Simplex virus-1 thymidine kinase". Cancer Gene Therapy. 22 (3): 130–7. doi:10.1038/cgt.2014.76. PMID   25613481. S2CID   5086235.
  126. "Summary of the European public assessment report (EPAR) for Zalmoxis". 2016.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  127. Hart IR (February 1996). "Tissue specific promoters in targeting systemically delivered gene therapy". Seminars in Oncology. 23 (1): 154–8. PMID   8607025.
  128. Wills KN, Huang WM, Harris MP, Machemer T, Maneval DC, Gregory RJ (September 1995). "Gene therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: chemosensitivity conferred by adenovirus-mediated transfer of the HSV-1 thymidine kinase gene". Cancer Gene Therapy. 2 (3): 191–7. PMID   8528962.
  129. Ido A, Nakata K, Kato Y, Nakao K, Murata K, Fujita M, et al. (July 1995). "Gene therapy for hepatoma cells using a retrovirus vector carrying herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene under the control of human alpha-fetoprotein gene promoter". Cancer Research. 55 (14): 3105–9. PMID   7541712.
  130. Kanai F, Shiratori Y, Yoshida Y, Wakimoto H, Hamada H, Kanegae Y, et al. (June 1996). "Gene therapy for alpha-fetoprotein-producing human hepatoma cells by adenovirus-mediated transfer of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene". Hepatology. 23 (6): 1359–68. doi:10.1002/hep.510230611. PMID   8675152. S2CID   24945709.
  131. Garver RI, Goldsmith KT, Rodu B, Hu PC, Sorscher EJ, Curiel DT (January 1994). "Strategy for achieving selective killing of carcinomas". Gene Therapy. 1 (1): 46–50. PMID   7584059.
  132. Hart IR (1996). "Transcriptionally targeted gene therapy". Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 213 (3): 19–25. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-80071-9_2. ISBN   978-3-642-80073-3. PMID   8815006.
  133. Byun Y, Thirumamagal BT, Yang W, Eriksson S, Barth RF, Tjarks W (September 2006). "Preparation and biological evaluation of 10B-enriched 3-[5-{2-(2,3-dihydroxyprop-1-yl)-o-carboran-1-yl}pentan-1-yl]thymidine (N5-2OH), a new boron delivery agent for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 49 (18): 5513–23. doi:10.1021/jm060413w. PMID   16942024.
  134. Thirumamagal BT, Johnsamuel J, Cosquer GY, Byun Y, Yan J, Narayanasamy S, et al. (2006). "Boronated thymidine analogues for boron neutron capture therapy". Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. 25 (8): 861–6. doi:10.1080/15257770600793844. PMID   16901817. S2CID   41765189.
  135. Narayanasamy S, Thirumamagal BT, Johnsamuel J, Byun Y, Al-Madhoun AS, Usova E, et al. (October 2006). "Hydrophilically enhanced 3-carboranyl thymidine analogues (3CTAs) for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 14 (20): 6886–99. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2006.06.039. PMID   16831554.
  136. Byun Y, Narayanasamy S, Johnsamuel J, Bandyopadhyaya AK, Tiwari R, Al-Madhoun AS, et al. (March 2006). "3-Carboranyl thymidine analogues (3CTAs) and other boronated nucleosides for boron neutron capture therapy". Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 6 (2): 127–44. doi:10.2174/187152006776119171. PMID   16529536.
  137. Byun Y, Yan J, Al-Madhoun AS, Johnsamuel J, Yang W, Barth RF, et al. (February 2005). "Synthesis and biological evaluation of neutral and zwitterionic 3-carboranyl thymidine analogues for boron neutron capture therapy". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 48 (4): 1188–98. doi:10.1021/jm0491896. PMID   15715485.
  138. Barth RF, Yang W, Al-Madhoun AS, Johnsamuel J, Byun Y, Chandra S, et al. (September 2004). "Boron-containing nucleosides as potential delivery agents for neutron capture therapy of brain tumors". Cancer Research. 64 (17): 6287–95. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-0437. PMID   15342417. S2CID   30489989.
  139. Al-Madhoun AS, Johnsamuel J, Barth RF, Tjarks W, Eriksson S (September 2004). "Evaluation of human thymidine kinase 1 substrates as new candidates for boron neutron capture therapy". Cancer Research. 64 (17): 6280–6. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-0197. PMID   15342416. S2CID   15932412.
  140. Johnsamuel J, Lakhi N, Al-Madhoun AS, Byun Y, Yan J, Eriksson S, Tjarks W (September 2004). "Synthesis of ethyleneoxide modified 3-carboranyl thymidine analogues and evaluation of their biochemical, physicochemical, and structural properties". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 12 (18): 4769–81. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2004.07.032. PMID   15336255.
  141. Byun Y, Yan J, Al-Madhoun AS, Johnsamuel J, Yang W, Barth RF, et al. (November 2004). "The synthesis and biochemical evaluation of thymidine analogues substituted with nido carborane at the N-3 position". Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 61 (5): 1125–30. doi:10.1016/j.apradiso.2004.05.023. PMID   15308203.
  142. Yan J, Naeslund C, Al-Madhoun AS, Wang J, Ji W, Cosquer GY, et al. (August 2002). "Synthesis and biological evaluation of 3'-carboranyl thymidine analogues". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 12 (16): 2209–12. doi:10.1016/s0960-894x(02)00357-8. PMID   12127539.
  143. Barth RF, Yang W, Wu G, Swindall M, Byun Y, Narayanasamy S, et al. (November 2008). "Thymidine kinase 1 as a molecular target for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 105 (45): 17493–7. Bibcode:2008PNAS..10517493B. doi:10.1073/pnas.0809569105. PMC   2582264 . PMID   18981415.
  144. Agarwal HK, McElroy CA, Sjuvarsson E, Eriksson S, Darby MV, Tjarks W (February 2013). "Synthesis of N3-substituted carboranyl thymidine bioconjugates and their evaluation as substrates of recombinant human thymidine kinase 1". European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 60: 456–68. doi:10.1016/j.ejmech.2012.11.041. PMC   3587680 . PMID   23318906.
  145. Hasabelnaby S, Goudah A, Agarwal HK, abd Alla MS, Tjarks W (September 2012). "Synthesis, chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis, and aqueous solubility of amino acid ester prodrugs of 3-carboranyl thymidine analogs for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors". European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 55: 325–34. doi:10.1016/j.ejmech.2012.07.033. PMC   3432695 . PMID   22889558.
  146. Sjuvarsson E, Damaraju VL, Mowles D, Sawyer MB, Tiwari R, Agarwal HK, et al. (November 2013). "Cellular influx, efflux, and anabolism of 3-carboranyl thymidine analogs: potential boron delivery agents for neutron capture therapy". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 347 (2): 388–97. doi:10.1124/jpet.113.207464. PMC   3807065 . PMID   24006340.
  147. Agarwal HK, Khalil A, Ishita K, Yang W, Nakkula RJ, Wu LC, et al. (July 2015). "Synthesis and evaluation of thymidine kinase 1-targeting carboranyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogs for boron neutron capture therapy of cancer". European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 100: 197–209. doi:10.1016/j.ejmech.2015.05.042. PMC   4501388 . PMID   26087030.
  148. Barth RF, Yang W, Nakkula RJ, Byun Y, Tjarks W, Wu LC, et al. (December 2015). "Evaluation of TK1 targeting carboranyl thymidine analogs as potential delivery agents for neutron capture therapy of brain tumors". Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 106: 251–5. doi:10.1016/j.apradiso.2015.06.031. PMC   4685942 . PMID   26282567.
  149. Khalil A, Ishita K, Ali T, Tjarks W (April 2013). "N3-substituted thymidine bioconjugates for cancer therapy and imaging". Future Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (6): 677–92. doi:10.4155/fmc.13.31. PMC   3816973 . PMID   23617430.
  150. Merrick CJ (December 2015). "Transfection with thymidine kinase permits bromodeoxyuridine labelling of DNA replication in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum". Malaria Journal. 14 (1): 490. doi:10.1186/s12936-015-1014-7. PMC   4668656 . PMID   26630917.
  151. WOapplication 2006000246,"A method and kit for determination of thymidine kinase activity and use thereof",published 2006-02-24, assigned to Gronowitz JS
  152. von Euler HP, Ohrvik AB, Eriksson SK (February 2006). "A non-radiometric method for measuring serum thymidine kinase activity in malignant lymphoma in dogs". Research in Veterinary Science. 80 (1): 17–24. doi:10.1016/j.rvsc.2005.05.001. PMID   16140350.
  153. Pagaduan JV, Ramsden M, O'Neill K, Woolley AT (March 2015). "Microchip immunoaffinity electrophoresis of antibody-thymidine kinase 1 complex". Electrophoresis. 36 (5): 813–7. doi:10.1002/elps.201400436. PMC   4346389 . PMID   25486911.
  154. Stålhandske P, Wang L, Westberg S, von Euler H, Groth E, Gustafsson SA, et al. (January 2013). "Homogeneous assay for real-time and simultaneous detection of thymidine kinase 1 and deoxycytidine kinase activities". Analytical Biochemistry. 432 (2): 155–64. doi:10.1016/j.ab.2012.08.004. PMID   22902741.
  155. Sharif H, von Euler H, Westberg S, He E, Wang L, Eriksson S (October 2012). "A sensitive and kinetically defined radiochemical assay for canine and human serum thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) to monitor canine malignant lymphoma". Veterinary Journal. 194 (1): 40–7. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2012.03.006. PMID   22516918.
  156. Nisman B, Allweis T, Kadouri L, Mali B, Hamburger T, Baras M, et al. (February 2013). "Comparison of diagnostic and prognostic performance of two assays measuring thymidine kinase 1 activity in serum of breast cancer patients". Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. 51 (2): 439–47. doi:10.1515/cclm-2012-0162. PMID   23093267. S2CID   7615993.
  157. Chen ZH, Huang SQ, Wang Y, Yang AZ, Wen J, Xu XH, et al. (2011). "Serological thymidine kinase 1 is a biomarker for early detection of tumours--a health screening study on 35,365 people, using a sensitive chemiluminescent dot blot assay". Sensors. 11 (12): 11064–80. doi:10.3390/s111211064. PMC   3251970 . PMID   22247653.
  158. He Q, Zou L, Zhang PA, Lui JX, Skog S, Fornander T (2000). "The clinical significance of thymidine kinase 1 measurement in serum of breast cancer patients using anti-TK1 antibody". The International Journal of Biological Markers. 15 (2): 139–46. doi:10.1177/172460080001500203. PMID   10883887. S2CID   25940455.
  159. Kimmel N, Friedman MG, Sarov I (May 1982). "Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of herpes simplex virus-specific IgM antibodies". Journal of Virological Methods. 4 (4–5): 219–27. doi:10.1016/0166-0934(82)90068-4. PMID   6286702.
  160. Huang S, Lin J, Guo N, Zhang M, Yun X, Liu S, et al. (2011). "Elevated serum thymidine kinase 1 predicts risk of pre/early cancerous progression". Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 12 (2): 497–505. PMID   21545220.
  161. Kumar JK, Aronsson AC, Pilko G, Zupan M, Kumer K, Fabjan T, et al. (September 2016). "A clinical evaluation of the TK 210 ELISA in sera from breast cancer patients demonstrates high sensitivity and specificity in all stages of disease". Tumour Biology. 37 (9): 11937–11945. doi:10.1007/s13277-016-5024-z. PMC   5080325 . PMID   27079872.
  162. Kiran Kumar J, Sharif H, Westberg S, von Euler H, Eriksson S (September 2013). "High levels of inactive thymidine kinase 1 polypeptide detected in sera from dogs with solid tumours by immunoaffinity methods: implications for in vitro diagnostics". Veterinary Journal. 197 (3): 854–60. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.05.036. PMID   23831216.
  163. Jagarlamudi KK, Hansson LO, Eriksson S (February 2015). "Breast and prostate cancer patients differ significantly in their serum Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) specific activities compared with those hematological malignancies and blood donors: implications of using serum TK1 as a biomarker". BMC Cancer. 15 (66): 66. doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1073-8. PMC   4336758 . PMID   25881026.
  164. He Q, Zhang P, Zou L, Li H, Wang X, Zhou S, et al. (October 2005). "Concentration of thymidine kinase 1 in serum (S-TK1) is a more sensitive proliferation marker in human solid tumors than its activity". Oncology Reports. 14 (4): 1013–9. PMID   16142366.
  165. Romain S, Spyratos F, Guirou O, Deytieux S, Chinot O, Martin PM (1994). "Technical evaluation of thymidine kinase assay in cytosols from breast cancers. EORTC Receptor Study Group Report". European Journal of Cancer. 30A (14): 2163–5. doi:10.1016/0959-8049(94)00376-g. PMID   7857717.
  166. Arnér ES, Spasokoukotskaja T, Eriksson S (October 1992). "Selective assays for thymidine kinase 1 and 2 and deoxycytidine kinase and their activities in extracts from human cells and tissues". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 188 (2): 712–8. doi:10.1016/0006-291x(92)91114-6. PMID   1359886.
  167. Wang L, Eriksson S (June 2008). "5-Bromovinyl 2'-deoxyuridine phosphorylation by mitochondrial and cytosolic thymidine kinase (TK2 and TK1) and its use in selective measurement of TK2 activity in crude extracts". Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. 27 (6): 858–62. doi:10.1080/15257770802146510. PMID   18600552. S2CID   3134631.
  168. Herzfeld A, Greengard O (November 1980). "Enzyme activities in human fetal and neoplastic tissues". Cancer. 46 (9): 2047–54. doi:10.1002/1097-0142(19801101)46:9<2047::aid-cncr2820460924>3.0.co;2-q. PMID   6253048.
  169. Machovich R, Greengard O (December 1972). "Thymidine kinase in rat tissues during growth and differentiation". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects. 286 (2): 375–81. doi:10.1016/0304-4165(72)90273-5. PMID   4660462.
  170. Herzfeld A, Raper SM, Gore I (December 1980). "The ontogeny of thymidine kinase in tissues of man and rat". Pediatric Research. 14 (12): 1304–10. doi:10.1203/00006450-198012000-00006. PMID   7208144. S2CID   30647108.
  171. Schollenberger S, Taureck D, Wilmanns W (November 1972). "[Enzymes of thymidine and thymidylate metabolism in normal and pathological blood and bone marrow cells]". Blut (in German). 25 (5): 318–34. doi:10.1007/BF01631814. PMID   4508724. S2CID   39093011.
  172. Nakao K, Fujioka S (April 1968). "Thymidine kinase activity in the human bone marrow from various blood diseases". Life Sciences. 7 (8): 395–9. doi:10.1016/0024-3205(68)90039-8. PMID   5649653.
  173. Wickramasinghe SN, Olsen I, Saunders JE (September 1975). "Thymidine kinase activity in human bone marrow cells". Scandinavian Journal of Haematology. 15 (2): 139–44. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0609.1975.tb01065.x. PMID   1059244.
  174. Kuroiwa N, Nakayama M, Fukuda T, Fukui H, Ohwada H, Hiwasa T, Fujimura S (July 2001). "Specific recognition of cytosolic thymidine kinase in the human lung tumor by monoclonal antibodies raised against recombinant human thymidine kinase". Journal of Immunological Methods. 253 (1–2): 1–11. doi:10.1016/s0022-1759(01)00368-4. PMID   11384664.
  175. 1 2 He Q, Mao Y, Wu J, Decker C, Merza M, Wang N, et al. (October 2004). "Cytosolic thymidine kinase is a specific histopathologic tumour marker for breast carcinomas". International Journal of Oncology. 25 (4): 945–53. doi:10.3892/ijo. PMID   15375544.
  176. Mao Y, Wu J, Wang N, He L, Wu C, He Q, Skog S (2002). "A comparative study: immunohistochemical detection of cytosolic thymidine kinase and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in breast cancer". Cancer Investigation. 20 (7–8): 922–31. doi:10.1081/cnv-120005905. PMID   12449723. S2CID   23072666.
  177. Mao Y, Wu J, Skog S, Eriksson S, Zhao Y, Zhou J, He Q (May 2005). "Expression of cell proliferating genes in patients with non-small cell lung cancer by immunohistochemistry and cDNA profiling". Oncology Reports. 13 (5): 837–46. doi:10.3892/or.13.5.837. PMID   15809747.
  178. Wu J, Mao Y, He L, Wang N, Wu C, He Q, Skog S (2000). "A new cell proliferating marker: cytosolic thymidine kinase as compared to proliferating cell nuclear antigen in patients with colorectal carcinoma". Anticancer Research. 20 (6C): 4815–20. PMID   11205225.
  179. Li HX, Lei DS, Wang XQ, Skog S, He Q (January 2005). "Serum thymidine kinase 1 is a prognostic and monitoring factor in patients with non-small cell lung cancer". Oncology Reports. 13 (1): 145–9. doi:10.3892/or.13.1.145. PMID   15583816.
  180. Kruck S, Hennenlotter J, Vogel U, Schilling D, Gakis G, Hevler J, et al. (February 2012). "Exposed proliferation antigen 210 (XPA-210) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and oncocytoma: clinical utility and biological implications". BJU International. 109 (4): 634–8. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10392.x. PMID   21711439. S2CID   205545163.
  181. Neef AB, Pernot L, Schreier VN, Scapozza L, Luedtke NW (June 2015). "A Bioorthogonal Chemical Reporter of Viral Infection". Angewandte Chemie. 54 (27): 7911–4. doi:10.1002/anie.201500250. PMC   7159598 . PMID   25974835.

Further reading