Thymidine kinase from herpesvirus

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Thymidine kinase from herpesvirus
PDB 1kim EBI.jpg
Structure of thymidine kinase from herpesvirus. [1]
Identifiers
SymbolHerpes_TK
Pfam PF00693
InterPro IPR001889
SCOPe 1kin / SUPFAM

Thymidine kinase from herpesvirus is a sub-family of thymidine kinases. [2]

Its presence in herpesvirus-infected cells is used to activate a range of antivirals against herpes infection, and thus specifically target the therapy towards infected cells only.

Such antivirals include:

Mutations in the gene coding thymidine kinase in herpes viruses can endow the virus with resistance to aciclovir. In these situations, alternative medications that are of use include other guanine analogues such as famciclovir, valaciclovir and penciclovir.

Related Research Articles

Aciclovir chemical compound

Aciclovir (ACV), also known as acyclovir, is an antiviral medication. It is primarily used for the treatment of herpes simplex virus infections, chickenpox, and shingles. Other uses include prevention of cytomegalovirus infections following transplant and severe complications of Epstein-Barr virus infection. It can be taken by mouth, applied as a cream, or injected.

Valaciclovir chemical compound

Valaciclovir, also spelled valacyclovir, is an antiviral medication used to treat outbreaks of herpes simplex or herpes zoster (shingles). It is also used to prevent cytomegalovirus following a kidney transplant in high risk cases. It is taken by mouth.

Thymidine kinase InterPro Family

Thymidine kinase is an enzyme, a phosphotransferase : 2'-deoxythymidine kinase, ATP-thymidine 5'-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.21. It can be found in most living cells. It is present in two forms in mammalian cells, TK1 and TK2. Certain viruses also have genetic information for expression of viral thymidine kinases. Thymidine kinase catalyzes the reaction:

Ganciclovir chemical compound

Ganciclovir is an antiviral medication used to treat cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. A prodrug form with improved oral bioavailability (valganciclovir) has also been developed.

Valganciclovir Antiviral medication

Valganciclovir, sold under the brandname Valcyte among others, is an antiviral medication used to treat cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in those with HIV/AIDS or following organ transplant. It is often used long term as it only suppresses rather than cures the infection. Valganciclovir is taken by mouth.

Nucleoside analogue

Nucleoside analogues are nucleosides which contain a nucleic acid analogue and a sugar. Nucleotide analogs are nucleotides which contain a nucleic acid analogue, a sugar, and a phosphate groups with one to three phosphates.

Brivudine chemical compound

Brivudine is an antiviral drug used in the treatment of herpes zoster ("shingles"). Like other antivirals, it acts by inhibiting replication of the target virus.

<i>Herpesviridae</i> Family of DNA viruses

Herpesviridae is a large family of DNA viruses that cause infections and certain diseases in animals, including humans. The members of this family are also known as herpesviruses. The family name is derived from the Greek word herpein, referring to spreading cutaneous lesions, usually involving blisters, seen in flares of herpes simplex 1, herpes simplex 2 and herpes zoster (shingles). In 1971, the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) established Herpesvirus as a genus with 23 viruses among four groups. Currently, 107 species are recognized, all but one of which are in one of the three subfamilies.

Famciclovir chemical compound

Famciclovir is a guanosine analogue antiviral drug used for the treatment of various herpesvirus infections, most commonly for herpes zoster (shingles). It is a prodrug form of penciclovir with improved oral bioavailability. Famciclovir is marketed under the trade name Famvir (Novartis).

Herpes simplex virus Species of virus

Herpes simplex virus1 and 2, also known by their taxonomical names Human alphaherpesvirus 1 and Human alphaherpesvirus 2, are two members of the human Herpesviridae family, a set of new viruses that produce viral infections in the majority of humans. Both HSV-1 and HSV-2 are common and contagious. They can be spread when an infected person begins shedding the virus.

Feline viral rhinotracheitis upper respiratory or pulmonary infection of cats

Feline viral rhinotracheitis (FVR) is an upper respiratory or pulmonary infection of cats caused by Felid alphaherpesvirus 1 (FeHV-1), of the family Herpesviridae. It is also commonly referred to as feline influenza, feline coryza, and feline pneumonia but, as these terms describe other very distinct collections of respiratory symptoms, they are misnomers for the condition. Viral respiratory diseases in cats can be serious, especially in catteries and kennels. Causing one-half of the respiratory diseases in cats, FVR is the most important of these diseases and is found worldwide. The other important cause of feline respiratory disease is feline calicivirus.

Foscarnet chemical compound

Foscarnet (phosphonomethanoic acid), known by its brand name Foscavir, is an antiviral medication which is primarily used to treat viral infections involving the Herpesviridae family. It is classified as a pyrophosphate analog DNA polymerase inhibitor. Foscarnet is the conjugate base of a chemical compound with the formula HO2CPO3H2.

Penciclovir chemical compound

Penciclovir is a guanosine analogue antiviral drug used for the treatment of various herpesvirus infections. It is a nucleoside analogue which exhibits low toxicity and good selectivity. Because penciclovir is absorbed poorly when given orally it is more often used as a topical treatment. It is the active ingredient in the cold sore medications Denavir, Vectavir and Fenivir. Famciclovir is a prodrug of penciclovir with improved oral bioavailability.

Idoxuridine chemical compound

Idoxuridine is an anti-herpesvirus antiviral drug.

Trifluridine chemical compound

Trifluridine is an anti-herpesvirus antiviral drug, used primarily on the eye. It was sold under the trade name Viroptic by Glaxo Wellcome, now merged into GlaxoSmithKline. The brand is now owned by Monarch Pharmaceuticals, which is wholly owned by King Pharmaceuticals.

Herpes simplex Viral disease caused by herpes simplex viruses

Herpes simplex is a viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. Infections are categorized based on the part of the body infected. Oral herpes involves the face or mouth. It may result in small blisters in groups often called cold sores or fever blisters or may just cause a sore throat. Genital herpes, often simply known as herpes, may have minimal symptoms or form blisters that break open and result in small ulcers. These typically heal over two to four weeks. Tingling or shooting pains may occur before the blisters appear. Herpes cycles between periods of active disease followed by periods without symptoms. The first episode is often more severe and may be associated with fever, muscle pains, swollen lymph nodes and headaches. Over time, episodes of active disease decrease in frequency and severity. Other disorders caused by herpes simplex include: herpetic whitlow when it involves the fingers, herpes of the eye, herpes infection of the brain, and neonatal herpes when it affects a newborn, among others.

Herpes labialis A herpes simplex virus infection of the lip

Herpes labialis, commonly known as cold sores, is a type of infection by the herpes simplex virus that affects primarily the lip. Symptoms typically include a burning pain followed by small blisters or sores. The first attack may also be accompanied by fever, sore throat, and enlarged lymph nodes. The rash usually heals within 10 days, but the virus remains dormant in the trigeminal ganglion. The virus may periodically reactivate to create another outbreak of sores in the mouth or lip.

Herpes simplex research includes all medical research that attempts to prevent, treat, or cure herpes, as well as fundamental research about the nature of herpes. Examples of particular herpes research include drug development, vaccines and genome editing. HSV-1 and HSV-2 are commonly thought of as oral and genital herpes respectively, but other members in the herpes family include chickenpox, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr (EBV). There are many more members that infect animals other than humans, some of which cause disease in companion animals or have economic impacts in the agriculture industry.

Herpes simplex keratitis keratitis of the cornea that has material basis in herpes simplex type infection

Herpetic simplex keratitis is a form of keratitis caused by recurrent herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in the cornea.

HSV epigenetics is the epigenetic modification of herpes simplex virus (HSV) genetic code.

References

  1. Champness JN, Bennett MS, Wien F, et al. (August 1998). "Exploring the active site of herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase by X-ray crystallography of complexes with aciclovir and other ligands". Proteins. 32 (3): 350–61. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0134(19980815)32:3<350::AID-PROT10>3.0.CO;2-8. PMID   9715911.
  2. Brown DG, Visse R, Sandhu G, Davies A, Rizkallah PJ, Melitz C, Summers WC, Sanderson MR (October 1995). "Crystal structures of the thymidine kinase from herpes simplex virus type-1 in complex with deoxythymidine and ganciclovir". Nat. Struct. Biol. 2 (10): 876–81. doi:10.1038/nsb1095-876. PMID   7552712. S2CID   3223579.