Thymidylate kinase dimer, Human
|PDB structures||RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum|
|Gene Ontology||AmiGO / QuickGO|
Thymidylate kinase (EC 188.8.131.52; dTMP kinase) catalyzes the phosphorylation of thymidine 5'-monophosphate (dTMP) to form thymidine 5'-diphosphate (dTDP) in the presence of ATP and magnesium:
Thymidylate kinase is a ubiquitous enzyme of about 25 Kd and is important in the dTTP synthesis pathway for DNA synthesis. The function of dTMP kinase in eukaryotes comes from the study of a cell cycle mutant, cdc8, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Structural and functional analyses suggest that the cDNA codes for authentic human dTMP kinase. The mRNA levels and enzyme activities corresponded to cell cycle progression and cell growth stages.
Thymidylate kinase's subfamily is predicted thymidylate kinase, TKRP1. InterPro : IPR014505
Human protein DTYMK contains this domain.
As of late 2007, 40 structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 1E2D, 1E2E, 1E2F, 1E2G, 1E2Q, 1E98, 1E99, 1E9A, 1E9B, 1E9C, 1E9D, 1E9E, 1E9F, 1G3U, 1GSI, 1GTV, 1MRN, 1MRS, 1N5I, 1N5J, 1N5K, 1N5L, 1NMX, 1NMY, 1NMZ, 1NN0, 1NN1, 1NN3, 1NN5, 1TMK, 1W2G, 1W2H, 2CCG, 2CCJ, 2CCK, 2PBR, 2TMK, 3TMK, 4TMK, and 5TMP.
In biochemistry, a kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from high-energy, phosphate-donating molecules to specific substrates. This process is known as phosphorylation, where the substrate gains a phosphate group and the high-energy ATP molecule donates a phosphate group. This transesterification produces a phosphorylated substrate and ADP. Conversely, it is referred to as dephosphorylation when the phosphorylated substrate donates a phosphate group and ADP gains a phosphate group. These two processes, phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, occur four times during glycolysis.
A salvage pathway is a pathway in which a biological product is produced from intermediates in the degradative pathway of its own or a similar substance. The term often refers to nucleotide salvage in particular, in which nucleotides are synthesized from intermediates in their degradative pathway.
Thymidine kinase is an enzyme, a phosphotransferase : 2'-deoxythymidine kinase, ATP-thymidine 5'-phosphotransferase, EC 184.108.40.206. It can be found in most living cells. It is present in two forms in mammalian cells, TK1 and TK2. Certain viruses also have genetic information for expression of viral thymidine kinases. Thymidine kinase catalyzes the reaction:
Nucleoside-diphosphate kinases are enzymes that catalyze the exchange of terminal phosphate between different nucleoside diphosphates (NDP) and triphosphates (NTP) in a reversible manner to produce nucleotide triphosphates. Many NDP serve as acceptor while NTP are donors of phosphate group. The general reaction via ping-pong mechanism is as follows: XDP + YTP ←→ XTP + YDP. NDPK activities maintain an equilibrium between the concentrations of different nucleoside triphosphates such as, for example, when guanosine triphosphate (GTP) produced in the citric acid (Krebs) cycle is converted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Other activities include cell proliferation, differentiation and development, signal transduction, G protein-coupled receptor, endocytosis, and gene expression.
HAT Medium is a selection medium for mammalian cell culture, which relies on the combination of aminopterin, a drug that acts as a powerful folate metabolism inhibitor by inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase, with hypoxanthine and thymidine which are intermediates in DNA synthesis. The trick is that aminopterin blocks DNA de novo synthesis, which is absolutely required for cell division to proceed, but hypoxanthine and thymidine provide cells with the raw material to evade the blockage, provided that they have the right enzymes, which means having functioning copies of the genes that encode them.
Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) also known as PNPase and inosine phosphorylase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NP gene.
Nucleic acid metabolism is the process by which nucleic acids are synthesized and degraded. Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides. Nucleotide synthesis is an anabolic mechanism generally involving the chemical reaction of phosphate, pentose sugar, and a nitrogenous base. Destruction of nucleic acid is a catabolic reaction. Additionally, parts of the nucleotides or nucleobases can be salvaged to recreate new nucleotides. Both synthesis and degradation reactions require enzymes to facilitate the event. Defects or deficiencies in these enzymes can lead to a variety of diseases.
A serine/threonine protein kinase is a kinase enzyme that phosphorylates the OH group of serine or threonine. At least 125 of the 500+ human protein kinases are serine/threonine kinases (STK).
Thymidylate synthase (TS) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) to deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP). Thymidine is one of the nucleotides in DNA. With inhibition of TS, an imbalance of deoxynucleotides and increased levels of dUMP arise. Both cause DNA damage.
Guanosine monophosphate synthetase, also known as GMPS is an enzyme that converts xanthosine monophosphate to guanosine monophosphate.
Bifunctional purine biosynthesis protein PURH is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ATIC gene.
Thymidine kinase 1, soluble, is a human thymidine kinase.
In enzymology, a dUTP diphosphatase (EC 220.127.116.11) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
In enzymology, a thiamine-phosphate diphosphorylase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
In enzymology, a (deoxy)nucleoside-phosphate kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
In enzymology, a guanylate kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
In enzymology, a nucleoside-triphosphate-adenylate kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
Thymidylate kinase also known as deoxythymidylate kinase or dTMP kinase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DTYMK gene. and belongs to thymidylate kinase family of proteins.
Trifluridine/tipiracil is a combination drug that is used as a third- or fourth-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer, after chemotherapy and targeted therapeutics have failed. It is a combination of two active pharmaceutical ingredients: trifluridine, a nucleoside analog, and tipiracil, a thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor. Tipiracil prevents rapid metabolism of trifluridine, increasing the bioavailability of trifluridine.
Thymidine kinase is an enzyme, a phosphotransferase : 2'-deoxythymidine kinase, ATP-thymidine 5'-phosphotransferase, EC 18.104.22.168 that catalyzes the reaction:
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