| IUPAC name |
[(2R,3S,5R)-3-hydroxy-5-(5-methyl-2,4-dioxopyrimidin-1-yl)oxolan-2-yl]methyl (hydroxy-phosphonooxyphosphoryl) hydrogen phosphate
|Other names |
dTTP, 2'-deoxythymidine triphosphate
3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) is one of the four nucleoside triphosphates that are used in the in vivo synthesis of DNA. Unlike the other deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, thymidine triphosphate does not always contain the "deoxy" prefix in its name.The corresponding ribonucleoside triphosphate is called uridine triphosphate.
It can be used by DNA ligase to create overlapping "sticky ends" so that protruding ends of opened microbial plasmids may be closed up.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an organic compound and hydrotrope that provides energy to drive many processes in living cells, e.g. muscle contraction, nerve impulse propagation, condensate dissolution, and chemical synthesis. Found in all known forms of life, ATP is often referred to as the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer. When consumed in metabolic processes, it converts either to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or to adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Other processes regenerate ATP so that the human body recycles its own body weight equivalent in ATP each day. It is also a precursor to DNA and RNA, and is used as a coenzyme.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds. They form the building blocks of the DNA double helix and contribute to the folded structure of both DNA and RNA. Dictated by specific hydrogen bonding patterns, Watson–Crick base pairs allow the DNA helix to maintain a regular helical structure that is subtly dependent on its nucleotide sequence. The complementary nature of this based-paired structure provides a redundant copy of the genetic information encoded within each strand of DNA. The regular structure and data redundancy provided by the DNA double helix make DNA well suited to the storage of genetic information, while base-pairing between DNA and incoming nucleotides provides the mechanism through which DNA polymerase replicates DNA and RNA polymerase transcribes DNA into RNA. Many DNA-binding proteins can recognize specific base-pairing patterns that identify particular regulatory regions of genes.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule. DNA replication occurs in all living organisms acting as the most essential part for biological inheritance. The cell possesses the distinctive property of division, which makes replication of DNA essential.
In biochemistry, a ligase is an enzyme that can catalyze the joining of two large molecules by forming a new chemical bond, usually with accompanying hydrolysis of a small pendant chemical group on one of the larger molecules or the enzyme catalyzing the linking together of two compounds, e.g., enzymes that catalyze joining of C-O, C-S, C-N, etc. In general, a ligase catalyzes the following reaction:
Nucleotides are organic molecules consisting of a nucleoside and a phosphate. They serve as monomeric units of the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth. Nucleotides are composed of three subunit molecules: a nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar, and a phosphate group consisting of one to three phosphates. The four nitrogenous bases in DNA are guanine, adenine, cytosine and thymine; in RNA, uracil is used in place of thymine.
Adenine is a nucleobase. It is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T. The three others are guanine, cytosine and thymine. Its derivatives have a variety of roles in biochemistry including cellular respiration, in the form of both the energy-rich adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). It also has functions in protein synthesis and as a chemical component of DNA and RNA. The shape of adenine is complementary to either thymine in DNA or uracil in RNA.
In chemistry, pyrophosphates are phosphorus oxyanions that contain two phosphorus atoms in a P-O-P linkage. A number of pyrophosphate salts exist, such as Na2H2P2O7. Often pyrophosphates are called diphosphates. The parent pyrophosphates are derived from partial or complete neutralization of pyrophosphoric acid. Important salts include disodium pyrophosphate and tetrasodium pyrophosphate. The pyrophosphate bond is also sometimes referred to as a phosphoanhydride bond, a naming convention which emphasizes the loss of water that occurs when two phosphates form a new P-O-P bond, and which mirrors the nomenclature for anhydrides of carboylic acids. Pyrophosphates are found in ATP and other nucleotide triphosphates, which are very important in biochemistry.
Cytarabine, also known as cytosine arabinoside (ara-C), is a chemotherapy medication used to treat acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. It is given by injection into a vein, under the skin, or into the cerebrospinal fluid. There is a liposomal formulation for which there is tentative evidence of better outcomes in lymphoma involving the meninges.
A nucleoside triphosphate is a molecule containing a nitrogenous base bound to a 5-carbon sugar, with three phosphate groups bound to the sugar. It is an example of a nucleotide. They are the molecular precursors of both DNA and RNA, which are chains of nucleotides made through the processes of DNA replication and transcription. Nucleoside triphosphates also serve as a source of energy for cellular reactions and are involved in signalling pathways.
Cytidine monophosphate, also known as 5'-cytidylic acid or simply cytidylate, and abbreviated CMP, is a nucleotide that is used as a monomer in RNA. It is an ester of phosphoric acid with the nucleoside cytidine. CMP consists of the phosphate group, the pentose sugar ribose, and the nucleobase cytosine; hence, a ribonucleoside monophosphate. As a substituent it takes the form of the prefix cytidylyl-.
Clofarabine is a purine nucleoside antimetabolite marketed in the US and Canada as Clolar. In Europe and Australia/New Zealand the product is marketed under the name Evoltra. It is FDA-approved for treating relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in children after at least two other types of treatment have failed. Some investigations of effectiveness in cases of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia (JMML) have been carried out. Ongoing trials are assessing its efficacy for managing other cancers.
Ganciclovir is an antiviral medication used to treat cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. A prodrug form with improved oral bioavailability (valganciclovir) has also been developed.
Valganciclovir, sold under the brandname Valcyte among others, is an antiviral medication used to treat cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in those with HIV/AIDS or following organ transplant. It is often used long term as it only suppresses rather than cures the infection. Valganciclovir is taken by mouth.
Penciclovir is a guanosine analogue antiviral drug used for the treatment of various herpesvirus infections. It is a nucleoside analogue which exhibits low toxicity and good selectivity. Because penciclovir is absorbed poorly when given orally it is more often used as a topical treatment. It is the active ingredient in the cold sore medications Denavir, Vectavir and Fenivir. Famciclovir is a prodrug of penciclovir with improved oral bioavailability.
Directionality, in molecular biology and biochemistry, is the end-to-end chemical orientation of a single strand of nucleic acid. In a single strand of DNA or RNA, the chemical convention of naming carbon atoms in the nucleotide sugar-ring means that there will be a 5′-end, which frequently contains a phosphate group attached to the 5′ carbon of the ribose ring, and a 3′-end, which typically is unmodified from the ribose -OH substituent. In a DNA double helix, the strands run in opposite directions to permit base pairing between them, which is essential for replication or transcription of the encoded information.
Deoxycytidine triphosphate (dCTP) is a nucleoside triphosphate that contains the pyrimidine base cytosine. The triphosphate group contains high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds, which liberate energy when hydrolized.
Deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP) is a nucleotide used in cells for DNA synthesis, as a substrate of DNA polymerase. It is classified as a purine nucleoside triphosphate, with its chemical structure consisting of a deoxyribose sugar molecule bound to an adenine and to three phosphate groups. It differs from the energy-transferring molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by a single hydroxyl group, resulting in a deoxyribose instead of a ribose. Two phosphate groups can be hydrolyzed to yield deoxyadenosine monophosphate, which can then be used to synthesize DNA.
Deoxyguanosine triphosphate (dGTP) is a nucleoside triphosphate, and a nucleotide precursor used in cells for DNA synthesis. The substance is used in the polymerase chain reaction technique, in sequencing, and in cloning. It is also the competitor of inhibition onset by acyclovir in the treatment of HSV virus.
Bacterial transcription is the process in which a segment of bacterial DNA is copied into a newly synthesized strand of messenger RNA (mRNA) with use of the enzyme RNA polymerase. The process occurs in three main steps: initiation, elongation, and termination; and the end result is a strand of mRNA that is complementary to a single strand of DNA. Generally, the transcribed region accounts for more than one gene. In fact, many prokaryotic genes occur in operons, which are a series of genes that work together to code for the same protein or gene product and are controlled by a single promoter. Bacterial RNA polymerase is made up of four subunits and when a fifth subunit attaches, called the σ-factor, the polymerase can recognize specific binding sequences in the DNA, called promoters. The binding of the σ-factor to the promoter is the first step in initiation. Once the σ-factor releases from the polymerase, elongation proceeds. The polymerase continues down the double stranded DNA, unwinding it and synthesizing the new mRNA strand until it reaches a termination site. There are two termination mechanisms that are discussed in further detail below. Termination is required at specific sites for proper gene expression to occur. Gene expression determines how much gene product, such as protein, is made by the gene. Transcription is carried out by RNA polymerase but its specificity is controlled by sequence-specific DNA binding proteins called transcription factors. Transcription factors work to recognize specific DNA sequences and based on the cells needs, promote or inhibit additional transcription.
T7 DNA polymerase is an enzyme used during the DNA replication of the T7 bacteriophage. During this process, the DNA polymerase “reads” existing DNA strands and creates two new strands that match the existing ones. The T7 DNA polymerase requires a host factor, E. coli thioredoxin, in order to carry out its function. This helps stabilize the binding of the necessary protein to the primer-template to improve processivity by more than 100-fold, which is a feature unique to this enzyme. It is a member of the Family A DNA polymerases, which include E. coli DNA polymerase I and Taq DNA polymerase.
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