Tianluokeng Tulou cluster

Last updated

Tianloukeng Tulou Cluster
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Earth buildings-Tianluokeng.jpg
Location Tian Luo Keng, Shuyang, Nanjing County, Fujian, China
Part of Fujian Tulou
Criteria Cultural: (iii), (iv), (v)
Reference 1113-006
Inscription2008 (32nd Session)
Area8.85 ha (21.9 acres)
Buffer zone67.8 ha (168 acres)
Coordinates 24°35′14″N117°03′19″E / 24.58722°N 117.05528°E / 24.58722; 117.05528 Coordinates: 24°35′14″N117°03′19″E / 24.58722°N 117.05528°E / 24.58722; 117.05528
China Fujian2 location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Location of Tianluokeng Tulou cluster in Fujian
China edcp relief location map.jpg
Red pog.svg
Tianluokeng Tulou cluster (China)

Tianluokeng tulou cluster (田螺坑土楼群) is one of the better known groups of Fujian Tulou. It is located in Fujian province, Zhangzhou City, Nanjing County, Shuyang Township, Tian Luo Keng Village (literally "Snail Pit" Village) in southern China.

Fujian Province

Fujian is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, Guangdong to the south, and the Taiwan Strait to the east. Its capital is Fuzhou, while its largest city by population is Xiamen, both located near the coast of the Taiwan Strait in the east of the province. The name Fujian came from the combination of Fuzhou and Jianzhou, a city in Fujian, during the Tang dynasty.

Zhangzhou Prefecture-level city in Fujian, Peoples Republic of China

Zhangzhou, alternately romanized as Changchow, is a prefecture-level city in Fujian Province, China. The prefecture around the city proper comprises the southeast corner of the province, facing the Taiwan Strait and surrounding the prefecture of Xiamen. During the 2010 census, the entire area of Zhangzhou was home to 4,809,983 inhabitants. Along with the 1.9 million people of central Xiamen, its urban districts of Longwen and Xiangcheng, together with Longhai, form a single metropolitan area of about 5 million people (2010).

Nanjing County County in Fujian, Peoples Republic of China

Nanjing County is a county under the administration of Zhangzhou City, in the south of Fujian province, People's Republic of China.

The cluster consists of a square earth building at the center of a quincunx, surrounded by four round earth buildings (or more exactly, 3 round earth buildings and one oval shape earth building), figuratively nicknamed "四菜一汤, Si cai yi tang" (four dishes with a soup).

Quincunx Pattern of five points, four in a square or rectangle and a fifth at its center

A quincunx is a geometric pattern consisting of five points arranged in a cross, with four of them forming a square or rectangle and a fifth at its center. It forms the arrangement of five units in the pattern corresponding to the five-spot on six-sided dice, playing cards, and dominoes. It is represented in Unicode as U+2059FIVE DOT PUNCTUATION or U+2684DIE FACE-5.

A tulou (lit. "earth building") is a unique architecture found only in the mountainous areas bordering Fujian and Guangdong in southern China. The "Earth building" is an enclosed buildings, usually square or circular in shape, with a very thick earth wall (up to 6 feet thick) and wooden skeletons, from three to five storeys high, housing up to 80 families. These earth buildings have only one entrance, guarded by 4–5-inch-thick (100–130 mm) wooden doors re-enforced with an outer shell of iron plate. The top level of these earth building have gun holes for defence against bandits. In spite of the earth wall, some of them are more than 700 years old, surviving through centuries of natural elements, including earthquakes, yet still standing solid. There are more than 35,000 earth buildings to be found in southern China, among them a little over 3,000 have been classified as Fujian Tulou

On July 7, 2008, at the UNESCO 32nd session held in Quebec City, Canada, the Tianluokeng Tulou cluster was inscribed as one of 46 Fujian Tulou World Heritage Sites. [1]

UNESCO Specialised agency of the United Nations

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration in education, sciences, and culture in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter. It is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation.

Quebec City Provincial capital city in Quebec, Canada

Quebec City, officially Québec, is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. The city had a population estimate of 531,902 in July 2016, and the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296 in July 2016, making it the second largest city in Quebec after Montreal, and the seventh largest metropolitan area and eleventh largest city in the country.

World Heritage Site place listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or natural significance

A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity.

The five earth buildings at the Snail Pit village are:

The cluster is located about four hours drive by motor coach or taxi from Xiamen, through winding and bumpy narrow mountain roads (Fujian Provincial Highway 309 (S309), or county roads).

Xiamen Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city in Fujian, Peoples Republic of China

Xiamen (厦门) alternately known from its Hokkien pronunciation as Amoy [e˨˩ bŋ̍˨˨ ʨʰi˨˨], is a sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, People's Republic of China, beside the Taiwan Strait. It is divided into six districts: Huli, Siming, Jimei, Tong'an, Haicang, and Xiang'an. Altogether, these cover an area of 1,699.39 square kilometers (656.14 sq mi) with a population of 3,531,347 as of 2010. The urbanized area of the city has spread from its original island to include parts of all six of its districts, with a total population of 1,861,289. This area connects to Quanzhou in the north and Zhangzhou in the west, making up a metropolis of more than five million people. The Jinmen or Kinmen Islands administered by the Republic of China lie less than 6 kilometers (4 mi) away.

Related Research Articles

Temple of Heaven Imperial Sacrificial Altar

The Temple of Heaven is an imperial complex of religious buildings situated in the southeastern part of central Beijing. The complex was visited by the Emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties for annual ceremonies of prayer to Heaven for good harvest.

Walled village Residential community structure

A walled village is a type of large traditional multi-family communal living structure found in China, that is designed to be easily defensible. It is completely surrounded by thick defensive walls, protecting the residents from the attack of wild animals and enemies. Usually, people living in the walled village are extended families or clans sharing the same surname. Walled villages are still found in southern China and Hong Kong.

Yongding District, Longyan District in Fujian, Peoples Republic of China

Yongding is a district under the jurisdiction of Longyan prefecture-level city in the southwest of Fujian Province, People's Republic of China. It is the home of many Hakka-speaking families. Yongding has a population of about 400,000, of which more than 99% are Hakka, the rest being Southern Min-speaking people. It was reported at the end of 2014 that Yongding had become a district, having previously been a county.

Rotunda (architecture) building with a circular ground plan

A rotunda is any building with a circular ground plan, and sometimes covered by a dome. It can also refer to a round room within a building. The Pantheon in Rome is a famous rotunda. A Band Rotunda is a circular bandstand, usually with a dome.

Hakka walled village Settlement style historically popular among Hakka Chinese

A Hakka walled village is a large multi-family communal living structure that is designed to be easily defensible. This building style is unique to the Hakka people found in southern China. Walled villages are typically designed for defensive purposes and consist of one entrance and no windows at the ground level.

Chinese architecture style of architecture

Chinese architecture demonstrates an architectural style that developed over millennia in China, before spreading out to influence architecture all throughout East Asia. Since the solidification of the style in the early imperial period, the structural principles of Chinese architecture have remained largely unchanged, the main changes being only the decorative details. Starting with the Tang dynasty, Chinese architecture has had a major influence on the architectural styles of Japan, Korea, and Mongolia, and a varying amount of influence on the architectural styles of Southeast and South Asia including Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam and The Philippines. Chinese architecture is typified by various features; such as, bilateral symmetry, use of enclosed open spaces, the incorporation of ideas related to feng shui such as directional hierarchies, a horizontal emphasis, and the allusion to various cosmological, mythological, or other symbolism. Chinese architecture traditionally classifies structures according to type, ranging from pagodas to palaces. In part because of an emphasis on the use of wood, a relatively perishable material, and due to a de-emphasis on major monumental structures built of less-organic but more durable materials, much of the historical knowledge of Chinese architecture derives from surviving miniature models in ceramic and published planning diagrams and specifications. Some of the architecture of China shows the influence of other types or styles from outside of China, such as the influences on mosque structures originating in the Middle East. Although displaying certain unifying aspects, rather than being completely homogeneous, Chinese architecture has many types of variation based on status or affiliation, such as dependence on whether the structures were constructed for emperors, commoners, or used for religious purposes. Other variations in Chinese architecture are shown in the varying styles associated with different geographic regions and in ethnic architectural design.

The architecture of China is as old as Chinese civilization. From every source of information—literary, graphic, exemplary—there is strong evidence testifying to the fact that the Chinese have always enjoyed an indigenous system of construction that has retained its principal characteristics from prehistoric times to the present day. Over the vast area from Chinese Turkistan to Japan, from Manchuria to the northern half of French Indochina, the same system of construction is prevalent; and this was the area of Chinese cultural influence. That this system of construction could perpetuate itself for more than four thousand years over such a vast territory and still remain a living architecture, retaining its principal characteristics in spite of repeated foreign invasions—military, intellectual, and spiritual—is a phenomenon comparable only to the continuity of the civilization of which it is an integral part.

Korean architecture

Korean architecture refers to an architectural style that developed over centuries in Korea. Ever since the immigration of people originating from Siberia and Manchuria, Korea had kept an influence of Chinese architecture in the works because of close relations.

Kaiping County-level city in Guangdong, Peoples Republic of China

Kaiping, alternately romanized in Cantonese as Hoiping, is a county-level city in Guangdong Province, China. It is located west of the Pearl River Delta and administered as part of the prefecture-level city of Jiangmen. The surrounding area, especially Sze Yup, is the ancestral homeland of many overseas Chinese, particularly in the United States. Kaiping has a population of 688,242 as of 2017 and an area of 1,659 square kilometres (641 sq mi). The locals speak a variant of the Toishan (Hoisan) dialect.

Yueh Hai Ching Temple Chinese temple in Singapore

Yueh Hai Ching Temple, also known as the Wak Hai Cheng Bio from its Teochew pronunciation, is a Chinese temple in Singapore located in Raffles Place in Singapore's central business district. The temple, whose name literally means "Temple of the Calm Cantonese Sea", was the first stop for Chinese immigrants to Singapore in the early 19th century.

Pinghe County County in Fujian, Peoples Republic of China

Pinghe County is a county of the prefecture-level city of Zhangzhou, in southern Fujian province, PRC, bordering Guangdong province to the west.

Diaolou tower

Diaolou formerly romanized as Clock Towers, are fortified multi-storey watchtowers in village countryside, generally made of reinforced concrete. These towers are located mainly in the Kaiping (開平) county of Jiangmen prefecture in Guangdong province, China. In 2007, UNESCO designated the Kaiping Diaolou and Villages (Chinese:开平碉楼与村落) a World Heritage Site, which covers four separate Kaiping village areas: Sanmenli (三门里), Zilicun (自力村), Jinjiangli (锦江里), and Majianglong village cluster (马降龙村落群).

Zhangpu County County in Fujian, Peoples Republic of China

Zhangpu County is a county of Zhangzhou prefecture-level city in far southern Fujian province, People's Republic of China. The county seat is located in the town of Sui'an (绥安镇).

A burdei or bordei is a type of half-dugout shelter, somewhat between a sod house and a log cabin. This style is native to the Carpathian Mountains and forest steppes of eastern Europe.

Tulou

A tulou, or "earthen building", is a traditional communal Hakka people residence found in Fujian, in South China, usually of a circular configuration surrounding a central shrine, and part of Hakka architecture. These vernacular structures were occupied by clan groups.

Fujian <i>tulou</i> housing

The Fujiantulou are Chinese rural dwellings unique to the Hakka in the mountainous areas in southeastern Fujian, China. They were mostly built between the 12th and the 20th centuries.

Chuxi Tulou cluster


The Chuxi Tulou cluster is a group of earthen structures or "tulou" dating to the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644). The group provides a tourist attraction in the town of Xiayang (下洋镇), Yongding County, Longyan, Fujian Province, China.

Mozu tombs

Mozu kofungun (百舌鳥古墳群) is a group of kofun or tumuli in Sakai, Osaka Prefecture, Japan. Originally consisting of more than 100 tombs, less than 50% of the key-hole, round and rectangular tombs remain.

Architecture of Kerala kind of architectural style that originated and is mostly found in the Indian state of Kerala

Kerala architecture is a kind of architectural style that is mostly found in Indian state of Kerala. Kerala's style of architecture is unique in India, in its striking contrast to Dravidian architecture which is normally practiced in other parts of South India. The architecture of Kerala has been influenced by Dravidian and Indian Vedic architectural science over two millennia. The Tantrasamuchaya, Thachu-Shastra, Manushyalaya-Chandrika and Silparatna are important architectural sciences, which have had a strong impact in Kerala Architecture style. The Manushyalaya-Chandrika, a work devoted to domestic architecture is one such science which has its strong roots in Kerala.

Xiazhai, Fujian Town in Fujian, China

Xiazhai Town is a township-level division of Pinghe County, Zhangzhou City, Fujian Province, China.

Traditional Chinese house architecture

Traditional Chinese house architecture refers to a historical series of architecture styles and design elements that were commonly utilised in the building of civilian homes during the imperial era of ancient China. Throughout this two-thousand year long period, significant innovations and variations of homes existed, but house design generally incorporated a set of qualities that made Chinese home architecture distinct from that of other cultures and regions. As highlighted by the classic siheyuan style, this included an emphasis on extended family units in a single dwelling, distinct separation of various elements of the household, alignment with the cardinal directions and wooden construction; all in line with Confucian hierarchy and Feng Shui.

References