Timeline of archaeology, 2000s

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2000

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2001

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2002

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2003

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2004

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Salcombe B underwater archaeological site identified from Bronze Age finds discovered on the Salcombe Cannon Wrecksite

Contents

Awards

Miscellaneous

Births

Deaths

2005

Explorations

Excavations

Publications

Finds

Awards

Miscellaneous

Births

Deaths

2006

Explorations

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Miscellaneous

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Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tenochtitlan</span> Former city-state in the Valley of Mexico

Tenochtitlan, also known as Mexico-Tenochtitlan, was a large Mexican altepetl in what is now the historic center of Mexico City. The exact date of the founding of the city is unclear. The date 13 March 1325 was chosen in 1925 to celebrate the 600th anniversary of the city. The city was built on an island in what was then Lake Texcoco in the Valley of Mexico. The city was the capital of the expanding Aztec Empire in the 15th century until it was captured by the Spanish in 1521.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tlāloc</span> Deity in Aztec religion; a god of rain, fertility, and water

Tlaloc is the god of rain in Aztec religion. He was also a deity of earthly fertility and water, worshipped as a giver of life and sustenance. He was feared for his power over hail, thunder, lightning. He is also associated with caves, springs, and mountains, most specifically the sacred mountain where he was believed to reside. His cult was one of the oldest and most universal in ancient Mexico.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Egyptology</span> Study of Ancient Egypt

Egyptology is the study of ancient Egyptian history, language, literature, religion, architecture and art from the 5th millennium BC until the end of its native religious practices in the 4th century AD. A practitioner of the discipline is an "Egyptologist". In Europe, particularly on the Continent, Egyptology is primarily regarded as being a philological discipline, while in North America it is often regarded as a branch of archaeology.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Coyolxāuhqui</span> Aztec goddess

In Aztec religion, Coyolxāuhqui is a daughter of the priestess Cōātlīcue. She was the leader of her brothers, the Centzon Huitznahua. She led her brothers in an attack against their mother, Cōātlīcue, when they learned she was pregnant, convinced she dishonored them all. The attack is thwarted by Coyolxāuhqui's other brother, Huitzilopochtli, the national deity of the Mexicas.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Huītzilōpōchtli</span> Aztec deity

Huitzilopochtli is the solar and war deity of sacrifice in Aztec mythology. He was also patron of the Aztecs and their capital city, Tenochtitlan. He wielded Xiuhcoatl, the fire serpent, as a weapon, thus also associating Huitzilopochtli with fire.

<span title="Classical Nahuatl-language text"><i lang="nci">Tzompantli</i></span> Rack or palisade that displays human skulls

A tzompantli or skull rack was a type of wooden rack or palisade documented in several Mesoamerican civilizations, which was used for the public display of human skulls, typically those of war captives or other sacrificial victims. It is a scaffold-like construction of poles on which heads and skulls were placed after holes had been made in them. Many have been documented throughout Mesoamerica, and range from the Epiclassic through early Post-Classic. In 2017 archeologists announced the discovery of the Hueyi Tzompantli, with more than 650 skulls, in the archeological zone of the Templo Mayor in Mexico City.

The year 2005 in archaeology involved some significant events.

<i>Templo Mayor</i> Main temple of Tenochtitlan

The Templo Mayor was the main temple of the Mexica people in their capital city of Tenochtitlan, which is now Mexico City. Its architectural style belongs to the late Postclassic period of Mesoamerica. The temple was called Huēyi Teōcalli[we:ˈi teoːˈkali] in the Nahuatl language. It was dedicated simultaneously to Huitzilopochtli, god of war, and Tlaloc, god of rain and agriculture, each of which had a shrine at the top of the pyramid with separate staircases. The central spire was devoted to Quetzalcoatl in his form as the wind god, Ehecatl. The Great Temple devoted to Huitzilopochtli and Tlaloc, measuring approximately 100 by 80 m at its base, dominated the Sacred Precinct. Construction of the first temple began sometime after 1325, and it was rebuilt six times. The temple was destroyed by the Spanish in 1521, and the Mexico City cathedral was built in its place.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Human sacrifice in pre-Columbian cultures</span> Ritualistic killing of humans in pre-Columbian cultures

The practice of human sacrifice in pre-Columbian cultures, in particular Mesoamerican and South American cultures, is well documented both in the archaeological records and in written sources. The exact ideologies behind child sacrifice in different pre-Columbian cultures are unknown but it is often thought to have been performed to placate certain gods.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Aztec religion</span> Religion of the Aztecs

The Aztec religion is a polytheistic and monistic pantheism in which the Nahua concept of teotl was construed as the supreme god Ometeotl, as well as a diverse pantheon of lesser gods and manifestations of nature. The popular religion tended to embrace the mythological and polytheistic aspects, and the Aztec Empire's state religion sponsored both the monism of the upper classes and the popular heterodoxies.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Human sacrifice in Aztec culture</span> Aztec rite

Human sacrifice was common in many parts of Mesoamerica, so the rite was nothing new to the Aztecs when they arrived at the Valley of Mexico, nor was it something unique to pre-Columbian Mexico. Other Mesoamerican cultures, such as the Purépechas and Toltecs, and the Maya performed sacrifices as well and from archaeological evidence, it probably existed since the time of the Olmecs, and perhaps even throughout the early farming cultures of the region. However, the extent of human sacrifice is unknown among several Mesoamerican civilizations. What distinguished Aztec practice from Maya human sacrifice was the way in which it was embedded in everyday life. These cultures also notably sacrificed elements of their own population to the gods.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Heracleion</span> Ancient Egyptian city

Heracleion, also known as Thonis and sometimes called Thonis-Heracleion, was an ancient Egyptian port city located near the Canopic Mouth of the Nile, about 32 km (20 mi) northeast of Alexandria on the Mediterranean Sea. It became inundated and its remains are located in Abu Qir Bay, currently 7 km (4.3 mi) off the coast, under ca. 19 ft (5.8 m) of water, and near Abukir. The sanctuary of Neith of Sais was located in Thonis. A stele found on the site indicates that late in its history the city was known by both its Egyptian and Greek names.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mexica</span> Nahuatl-speaking indigenous people of the Valley of Mexico

The Mexica were a Nahuatl-speaking indigenous people of the Valley of Mexico who were the rulers of the Aztec Empire. The Mexica established Tenochtitlan, a settlement on an island in Lake Texcoco, in 1325. A dissident group in Tenochtitlan separated and founded the settlement of Tlatelolco with its own dynastic lineage. In 1521, they were conquered by an alliance of Spanish conquistadors and indigenous people including the Tlaxcaltecs led by Hernán Cortés.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Coyolxauhqui Stone</span>

The Coyolxāuhqui Stone is a carved, circular Aztec stone, depicting the mythical being Coyolxāuhqui ("Bells-Her-Cheeks"), in a state of dismemberment and decapitation by her brother, the patron deity of the Aztecs, Huitzilopochtli. It was rediscovered in 1978 at the site of the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan, now in Mexico City. This relief is one of the best known Aztec monuments and one of the few great Aztec monuments that have been found fully in situ.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dedication Stone</span>

The Dedication Stone is a carved Aztec plaque made of polished greenstone. The plaque was found in 1845 in the location of present-day Mexico City. This plaque was made in commemoration of the completion of the sixth stage the Temple of Huitizilopochtli at Tenochtitlan in 1487. The dedication of the refurbished Great Temple was the final ceremony in becoming the emperor. Tizoc ruled from 1481 until 1486, after his death his brother Ahuitzotl succeeded him and ruled from 1486 until 1502. Expanding the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan, dedicated to the gods Huitzilopochtli and Tlaloc, was the duty of each tlatoani. Tizoc began the expansion of the Great Temple and his brother Ahuitzotl finished the project. According to the Codex Mendoza this was an important time for the Aztec society, they became an imperial civilization, with Ahuitzotl conquering 45 new towns. The ceremony of the re-dedication of the Temple involved so many sacrifices that the ceremony lasted for four days. Where this panel was located originally is unknown. Other panels similar to this one were usually placed into the architecture like stairways and pyramid platforms. Very similar stones have been found at the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan also known as the Templo Mayor and it is believed that this plaque might have been a part of those.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tenayuca</span> Archaeological site in Mexico

Tenayuca is a pre-Columbian Mesoamerican archaeological site in the Valley of Mexico. In the Postclassic period of Mesoamerican chronology, Tenayuca was a settlement on the former shoreline of the western arm of Lake Texcoco. It was located approximately 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) to the northwest of Tenochtitlan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tlatelolco (archaeological site)</span> Archaeological site in Mexico City

Tlatelolco is an archaeological excavation site in Mexico City, Mexico where remains of the pre-Columbian city-state of the same name have been found. It is centered on the Plaza de las Tres Culturas. On one side of the square is this excavated Tlatelolco site, on a second is the oldest European school of higher learning in the Americas called the Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco, and on the third stands a mid-20th-century modern office complex, formerly housing the Mexican Foreign Ministry, and since 2005 used as the Centro Cultural Universitario of UNAM.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Teopanzolco</span>

Teopanzolco is an Aztec archaeological site in the Mexican state of Morelos. Due to urban growth, it now lies within the modern city of Cuernavaca. Most of the visible remains date from the Middle to Late Postclassic Period (1300-1521).

The year 2010 in archaeology

The archaeology of Ancient Egypt is the study of the archaeology of Egypt, stretching from prehistory through three millennia of documented history. Egyptian archeology is one of the branches of Egyptology.