Timeline of the History of Assam , the important dates in its history against important events elsewhere.
|Year||Ancient Assam (350 - 1206)||Contemporaneous events||Date source|
|350||Pushyavarman establishes the Varman dynasty in Kamarupa||( Barpujari 1990 :94)|
|636||Xuanzang visits the court of Bhaskarvarman in Kamarupa.|
|650||Bhaskarvarman dies. End of Varman dynasty|
|655||Salasthamba establishes Mlechchha dynasty in Kamarupa|
|900||Brahmapala establishes Pala dynasty in Kamarupa|
|c1100||Jayapala, the last Pala king removed by Ramapala of Pala empire|
|1187||Birpal establishes Chutiya kingdom at Swarnagiri|
|Year||Medieval Assam (1206–1826)||Contemporaneous events||Date source|
|1206||The first Muslim invasion, Bakhtiar Khilji is thwarted and his army destroyed. Beginning of the medieval period in Assam|
|1228||Sukaphaa enters Assam||( Gogoi 1968 :265)|
|1224||Ratnadhwajpal the second Chutiya king annexes the Kingdoms of Bhadrasena and Nyayapal|
|1228||Chutiya kingdom expedition against Kamatapur|
|1248||Ratnadhwajpal establishes his capital at Sadiya|
|1252||Sukaphaa establishes capital at Charaideo||( Gogoi 1968 :265)|
|1257||Sandhya, a ruler of Kamarupa, moves his capital west and thus established the Kamata kingdom.|
|1362||Sikandar Shah attacks Kamata kingdom and weakens the ruler Indranarayan[ citation needed ]|
|1392||Chutia king Satyanarayan's first land grant record in Habung. This is the first recorded land grant given to Brahmins in Upper Assam found till date.||( Neog 1977 :816)|
|1449||Srimanta Sankardev is born|
|1490||First Ahom-Dimasa battle. Ahoms defeated under Konkhra and pursued for peace.|
|1498||Alauddin Hussain Shah of Gaur removes the last Khen ruler of Kamata kingdom||Vasco da Gama lands at Calicut||( Barpujari 1992 :47)|
|1515||Viswa Singha establishes Koch political power and Koch dynasty||( Barpujari 1992 :70)|
|1520||Ahoms defeated by Chutiya king Dharmadhwajpal|
|1524||Chutiya kingdom partially annexed to Ahom Kingdom under Suhungmung, and placed under the rule of Sadiyakhowa Gohain.||( Gogoi 1968 :287)|
|1527||Nusrat Shah's invasion, the first Muslim invasion of the Ahom kingdom, ends in failure.||( Barpujari 1992 :133)|
|1532||Turbak attacks Ahom Kingdom, the first commander to enjoy some success.|
|1533||Turbak defeated and killed. Ahoms pursue Gaur army to Karatoya river.|
|1536||Ahoms destroy Dimapur, the capital of the Kachari kingdom|
|1540||Nara Narayan succeeds his father to the throne of Kamata kingdom|
|1563||Chilarai occupies Ahom capital Garhgaon, end with Treaty of Majuli.||( Barpujari 1992 :79–80)|
|1568||Srimanta Sankardev dies|
|1581||Nara Narayana divides Kamata kingdom into Koch Bihar and Koch Hajo (to be governed by Raghudev)||( Barpujari 1992 :94)|
|1587||Naranarayana of Koch dynasty dies.||( Barpujari 1992 :74)|
|1588||Raghudev, son of Chilarai and ruler of Koch Hajo declares independence||( Barpujari 1992 :95)|
|1609||Momai Tamuli Borbarua restructures Paik system in Ahom kingdom.|
|1609||Koch Bihar becomes a Mughal vassal||( Barpujari 1992 :98)|
|1613||Koch Hajo is annexed by the Mughal Empire||( Barpujari 1992 :103)|
|1615||Ahom-Mughal conflicts begin||( Barpujari 1992 :148)|
|1637||Bali Narayan dies of natural causes, and Koch rebellion again Mughals collapse||( Barpujari 1992 :161)|
|1639||Treaty of Asurar Ali signed between the Ahom kingdom and Mughal Empire||( Barpujari 1992 :164)|
|1659||Ahoms take possession of Koch Hajo (up to Sankosh river). Koch Hajo was occupied by rulers of Koch Bihar earlier, who drove out the Mughal faujdar from Guwahati||( Barpujari 1992 :165)|
|1662||Mir Jumla occupies Garhgaon, the Ahom capital||( Barpujari 1992 :177–178)|
|1663||After Treaty of Ghilajharighat Mir Jumla returns to Dhaka, dies on the way||( Barpujari 1992 :188–189)|
|1667||Ahoms wrest Guwahati and extend control up to Manas river; begins defence preparations||( Barpujari 1992 :207)|
|1668||Mughals under Ram Singh I advance up to Guwahati to retake it||( Barpujari 1992 :211)|
|1671||Ahoms win Battle of Saraighat and Ram Singh I retreats to Rangamati||( Barpujari 1992 :227)|
|1679||Laluksola Borphukan deserts Guwahati||( Barpujari 1992 :245)|
|1681||Gadadhar Singha becomes Ahom swargadeo||( Barpujari 1992 :252)|
|1682||Ahoms win Battle of Itakhuli. End of Ahom-Mughal conflicts with Ahom win||( Barpujari 1992 :253–256)|
|1714||Rudra Singha dies, and with him dies the Kachari, Tiwa, Jaintia etc. grand alliance to remove the Mughals from Bengal||( Gogoi 1968 :503–507)|
|1769||First phase of Moamoria rebellion, Ahom capital falls but recaptured in April, 1770|
|1783||Ahom capital Rangpur fell the second time to Moamoria rebellion. Rebel leaders strike coins in their names||( Baruah 1993 :90)|
|1794||Captain Thomas Welsh restores Rangpur to Ahom king from Moamora rebels||( Baruah 1993 :133)|
|1805||Ahoms come to terms with Sarbananda, the last Moamora rebel leader holding out in Bengmara (Tinsukia). Ahoms declare Sarbananda the Barsenapati of Matak Rajya||( Baruah 1993 :164)|
|1817||The first Burmese invasion of Assam. Burmese occupation was complete by 1821||( Baruah 1993 :213)|
|Year||Colonial Assam (1826–1947)||Contemporaneous events||Date source|
|1826||Treaty of Yandaboo signed between East India Company and King of Burma; end of Burmese and beginning of British occupation of Assam||( Barpujari 1992 :363)|
|1861||Phulaguri Dhawa, the first peasant uprising against British rule was repressed|
|1894||Patharughat raijmel fired upon, villagers tortured and property confiscated||( Guha 1977 :53–54)|
|Year||Post Colonial Assam (1947-)||Contemporaneous events||Date source|
|1979||Assam agitation begins|
|1985||Assam Accord signed. End of Assam agitation|
Buranjis are a class of historical chronicles and manuscripts associated with the Ahom kingdom written initially in Ahom Language and later in Assamese language as well. The Buranjis are an example of historical literature which is rare in India; though they bear resemblance to Southeast Asian traditions of historical literature. The Buranjis are generally found in manuscript form, though many of these manuscripts have been compiled and published. They are some of the primary sources of historical information of Assam's medieval past, especially from the 13th century to the colonial times in 1828.
The Kamakhya Temple at Nilachal hills in Guwahati, Assam is one of the oldest and most revered centres of Tantric practices. The temple is the center of the Kulachara Tantra Marga and the site of the Ambubachi Mela, an annual festival that celebrates the menstruation of the goddess. Structurally, the temple is dated to the 8th-9th century with many subsequent rebuildings—and the final hybrid architecture defines a local style called Nilachal. It is also one of the oldest of the 51 pithas in the Shakta tradition. An obscure place of worship for much of history it became an important pilgrimage destination, especially for those from Bengal, in the 19th century during colonial rule.
The Danava dynasty was the first legendary line of rulers in Pragjyotisha, established by Mahiranga Danava. The dynasty was of Kirata origin. These rulers are mentioned in the Kalika Purana but there are no archaeological evidence to support this.
The Mlechchha dynasty ruled Kamarupa from their capital at Harruppesvar in present-day Tezpur, Assam, after the fall of the Varman dynasty. According to historical records, there were twenty one rulers in this dynasty, but the line is obscure and names of some intervening rulers are not known. Like all other Kamarupa dynasties a semi-mythical lineage from Narakasura was constructed to accord legitimacy to their rule. The Mlechchha dynasty in Kamarupa was followed by the Pala kings. The dynasty is unrelated to the previous Varman dynasty.
The Dimasa Kingdom was a late medieval/early modern kingdom in Assam, Northeast India ruled by Dimasa kings. The Dimasa kingdom and others that developed in the wake of the Kamarupa kingdom were examples of new states that emerged from indigenous communities in medieval Assam as a result of socio-political transformations in these communities. The British finally annexed the kingdom: the plains in 1832 and the hills in 1834. This kingdom gave its name to undivided Cachar district of colonial Assam. And after independence the undivided Cachar district was split into three districts in Assam: Dima Hasao district, Cachar district, Hailakandi district. The Ahom Buranjis called this kingdom Timisa.
Shukladhwaja (Pron:ʃʊkləˈdwɑːdʒ) (1510-1577AD), or more popularly known as Bir Chilarai(Pron:/ʧɪləˌraɪ/), was the 3rd son of Biswa Singha, founder of the Koch Dynasty in Kamata Kingdom and younger brother of Nara Narayan, the 2nd king of the Koch dynasty of the Kamata kingdom in the 16th century. He was Nara Narayan's commander-in-chief and chief Minister (Dewan) of the kingdom. He got his name Chilarai because, as a general, he executed troop movements that were as fast as a chila (kite/Eagle).
Suhungmung, or Dihingia Roja I was one of the most prominent Ahom Kings who ruled at the cusp of Assam's medieval history. His reign broke from the early Ahom rule and established a multi-ethnic polity in his kingdom. Under him the Ahom Kingdom expanded greatly for the first time since Sukaphaa, at the cost of the Chutia and the Dimasa kingdoms. He also successfully defended his kingdom against Muslim invasions, first by a general called Bar Ujjir and another by Turbak Khan. During his time, the Khen dynasty collapsed and the Koch dynasty ascended in the Kamata kingdom. His general, Ton-kham, pursued the Muslims up to the Karatoya river, the western boundary of the erstwhile Kamarupa Kingdom, the farthest west an Ahom military force had ventured in its entire six hundred years of rule.
Pragjyotisha is a mythological kingdom that is mentioned in a multitude of Hindu Epics. It came to be associated with the historical Kamarupa after Bhaskaravarman of the Varman dynasty by drawing his lineage from Naraka/Bhagadatta of the legendary Pragjyotisha to bring his peripheral kingdom closer to mainland traditions at a time when he was emerging as a powerful king with interests in North India. The identification with the mythical Naraka/Bhagadatta lineage continued to be used by the Mlechchhas and Palas for roughly similar purposes.
Charaideo or Che-Rai-Doi is a town in Charaideo district, Assam, India and was also the first capital of the Ahom kingdom established by the first Ahom king Chao Lung Siu-Ka-Pha in 1253. Even though the capital moved to other places over the course of the 600 years of rule, Charaideo remained the symbol of Ahom power. It is now known for its collection of maidams, tumuli or burial mounds of the Ahom kings and Ahom royalty.
The Sukreswar (Pron: ˌʃʊˈkreɪʃwə) Temple is an important Shiva temple in the state of Assam in India. The temple is located on the Sukreswar or Itakhuli hill on the south bank of river Brahmaputra in the Panbazar locality of Guwahati city. Leading down from the temple compound is a long flight of steps to the river. Sitting on the steps of Sukreswar ghat one can enjoy the scenery of sun setting on the river, boats moving across the river, people performing puja in honour of their relatives who have left this world, children and older people bathing. It has one of the largest Lingam of Lord Shiva.
Habung is a historical region in present-day Lakhimpur district of Assam, India, although some Tai-ahom activists claim it to be a part of present-day Dhemaji district. According to Wade (1800), the region where the Subansiri river and the Brahmaputra rivers met was known as Habung.As per epigrahic records, Habung (Ha-vrnga-Vishaya) was a vishaya or province where Brahmins were settled by Ratna Pala of the Pala dynasty of Kamarupa in the 10th century.
Madhukar Keshav Dhavalikar was an Indian historian and archaeologist.
Kamrup is the modern region situated between two rivers, the Manas and the Barnadi in Western Assam, with the same territorial extent as the Colonial and post-Colonial "Undivided Kamrup district". It was the capital region of two of the three dynasties of Kamarupa and Guwahati, the current political center of Assam, is situated here. It is characterized by its cultural artifacts.
Kamarupa Pithas are ancient pithas or geographical divisions of Kamarupa. The division of the Pithas are not consistent in different sources, though the number of pithas are usually four. Since these pithas are not mentioned in the Kamarupa inscriptions, and are found mentioned only in later medieval texts some authors have suggested that these divisions are possible later fabrications. The Yogini Tantra, mentions the Kamarupa Pithas, the same work which gives boundaries of ancient Kamrup kingdom as well.
Kamapitha is one of the four Kamarupa Pithas, the geographical divisions of ancient Kamarupa. Dineshchandra Sircar points out that these divisions are not found in the Kamarupa inscriptions and that they might be fabrications from late medieval sources, such as 16th-century work Yogini Tantra gives the boundaries of Kamapitha and other three pithas, the same work which gives boundaries of ancient Kamrup kingdom as well. The eastern border of Kamarupa was the temple of the goddess Tamreshvari near present-day Sadiya
Tamreswari temple is situated about 18 km away from Sadiya in Tinsukia district, Assam, India. The temple was in the custody of non-Brahmin tribal priests called Deoris. Some remains suggest that a Chutiya king built a wall in the year 1442. The temple was dedicated to Kechaikhati, a powerful tribal deity or a form of the Buddhist deity Tara, commonly found among different Bodo-Kachari groups. The worship of the goddess even after coming under Hindu influence was performed according to her old tribal customs. The temple was abandoned during the reign of Suhitpangphaa, when the Ahom kingdom was attacked by the Konbaung dynasty of Burma. Scholars assert that Kesaikhaiti is equivalent to the Tai-Khamti female deity Nang Hoo Toungh.
Mahamanikya was a Borahi-Kachari king of Barāha who ruled parts of Assam in the 14th-15th century. At the time, his kingdom centered on present-day Nagaon, Morigoan and Hojai districts. At his behest and patronage Madhava Kandali translated the Sanskrit epic Ramayana to Assamese verse called Saptakanda Ramayana. Some historians suggest that he was also involved—along with Indranarayana of Kamata kingdom and Baro-Bhuyans—in resisting Sikandar Shah's invasion into the Brahmaputra valley around 1362.
The Bengal Sultanate–Kamata Kingdom War was a late 15th century conflict between the Kamata Kingdom and the Bengal Sultanate. As a result of the conflict the Khen dynasty was overthrown and the Bengal Sultanate extended its domain up to the Hajo in what is present day western Assam by 1502. Nevertheless, the Sultanate administration was removed in about ten years by the Assamese Bhuyans led by Harup Narayan.
The invasions of Assam by Islamic rulers began in 1206 when the Turko-Afghan Muhammad-i-Bakhtiyar passed through Kamarupa against Tibet. The last attempt was the Battle of Saraighat in 1671 under Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. The Ahom kingdom removed the vestigial Mughal power from Western Assam up to the Manas river in 1682 after the Battle of Itakhuli.
Dānyāl, Prince of Bengal, also known as Dulāl Ghāzī, was the eldest son of the Sultan of Bengal Alauddin Hussain Shah. He performed official duties and engagements on behalf of his father. In 1495, Danyal secured a peace treaty with the Delhi Sultanate in Bihar, and served as the regional Governor of Bihar under the Bengal Sultanate. He was appointed as the Governor of Kamata following its conquest in 1498.