Timeline of the Kurukulam

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The following is a chronological overview of the history of the Karavas and Karaiyars caste of Sri Lanka and India. Both communities were historically also known as Kurukulam, meaning Kuru clan. [1]


Medieval period

Colonial period

Independent period


  1. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Sri Lanka, Volume 36-37. University of Michigan: Royal Asiatic Society of Sri Lanka. 1993. p. 137.
  2. Ceylon (1960). History of Ceylon. Ceylon University Press. p. 425.
  3. Tamil Culture. Academy of Tamil Culture. 1953. p. 307.
  4. Raghavan, M. D. (1971). Tamil culture in Ceylon: a general introduction. Kalai Nilayam. pp. 53, 138.
  5. Society, Sri Lanka Branch of the Royal Asiatic (1969). Journal of the Sri Lanka Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Royal Asiatic Society, Sri Lanka Branch. p. 2.
  6. McGilvray, Dennis B. (2008-05-07). Crucible of Conflict: Tamil and Muslim Society on the East Coast of Sri Lanka. Duke University Press. ISBN   978-0822341611.
  7. Vriddhagirisan, V. (1995). Nayaks of Tanjore. Asian Educational Services. p. 91. ISBN   9788120609969.
  8. Hellmann-Rajanayagam, Dagmar (2007). Von Jaffna nach Kilinocchi: Wandel des politischen Bewusstseins der Tamilen in Sri Lanka (in German). Ergon. pp. 104, 134. ISBN   9783899135442.
  9. DeSilva, Chandra Richard (1972). The Portuguese in Ceylon, 1617-1638. University of London: School of Oriental and African Studies. pp. 59–66, 83–84.
  10. Daily Mirror, Uditha Devapriya, 4 June 2019, The era of rebellion 1815-1848 https://www.dailymirror.lk/News-Features/The-era-of-rebellion-1815-1848/131-168599
  11. Wilson, A. Jeyaratnam (2000). Sri Lankan Tamil Nationalism: Its Origins and Development in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. UBC Press. pp. 18–24. ISBN   9780774807593.
  12. Richardson, John Martin (2005). Paradise Poisoned: Learning about Conflict, Terrorism, and Development from Sri Lanka's Civil Wars. International Center for Ethnic Studies. p. 342. ISBN   9789555800945.
  13. Jiggins, Janice (1979-06-07). Caste and Family Politics Sinhalese 1947-1976. Cambridge University Press. p. 27. ISBN   9780521220699.

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