Timur Kuran

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Timur Kuran
Timur Kuran 11-2003(hi-res).jpg
Born1954 (age 6869)
NationalityAmerican, Turkish
Academic career
Institution Duke University
Field Political economy
Economic history
Political history
Middle East
Islamic studies
Alma mater Princeton University (A.B.)
Stanford University (M.A., Ph.D.)
Kenneth Arrow
Contributions Preference falsification
Economic and political effects of Islamic law

Timur Kuran is a Turkish-American economist and political scientist, Professor of Economics and Political Science, and Gorter Family Professor of Islamic Studies at Duke University. His work spans economics, political science, history, and law. [1]


Early life and education

Kuran was born in New York City in 1954, where his parents were graduate students at Yale University. They returned to Turkey, and he spent his early childhood in Ankara, where his father, Aptullah Kuran, taught at Middle East Technical University. The family moved to Istanbul in 1969, when the senior Kuran joined the faculty of Robert College, whose higher education side became Boğaziçi University in 1971. [2]

Kuran obtained his secondary education in Istanbul, graduating from Robert College in 1973. He went on to study economics at Princeton University, graduating magna cum laude in 1977. [3] He obtained his doctorate at Stanford University, under the supervision of Kenneth Arrow. [4]


Kuran taught at University of Southern California between 1982 and 2007, where he held the King Faisal professorship in Islamic Thought and Culture from 1993 onwards. He moved to Duke University in 2007, as Gorter Family Professor of Islamic Studies and with a joint appointment in the departments of Economics and Political Science.

Kuran’s visiting positions include: Institute for Advanced Study (1989–90), Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago; (1996-1997), Economics Department, Stanford University (2004-2005), Law School, Yale University (2020). [3]

From 2008 to 2014 Kuran served on the Executive Committee of the International Economic Association. [5] He is a founding member of the Association for Analytic Learning about Islam and Muslim Societies (AALIMS), which he has directed since its establishment in 2011.

Kuran was the founding editor of the University of Michigan Press book series “Economics, Cognition, and Society” (1989-2006). Since 2009, he been co-editor of the Cambridge University Press series “Cambridge Studies in Economics, Choice, and Society,” which he co-founded with Peter Boettke. He has co-edited the Journal of Comparative Economics since 2017.

Kuran is a promoter of freedom of expression, within and outside academia. In 2021, he became a co-founding member of the Academic Freedom Alliance (AFA). In 2022, he joined the Advisory Council of the Foundation for Individual Rights and Expression (FIRE).    


Four themes stand out in Timur Kuran’s works: preference falsification, the roles of Islamic institutions in the economic performance of the Middle East, the economic agenda of contemporary Islamism, and the political legacies of Islamic institutions in the Middle East. The last three themes benefit from his passion for collecting Ottoman and Turkish documents.

Preference falsification

Kuran coined the term preference falsification in a 1987 article to describe the act of misrepresenting one’s wants under perceived social pressures. It involves tailoring one’s expressed preferences to what appears socially acceptable or politically advantageous. [6] His subsequent works argue that the phenomenon is ubiquitous and that it can have huge social, political, and economic consequences. The effects hinge on interdependencies between the personal preferences that individuals choose to express publicly. A broad statement of his argument is in Private Truths, Public Lies: The Social Consequences of Preference Falsification. This 1995 book explains how preference falsification shapes collective decisions, orients structural change, distorts human knowledge, and conceals political possibilities.

An April 1989 article by Kuran, “Sparks and prairie fires: A theory of unanticipated political revolution,” presented the French Revolution (1789), the Russian Revolution (1917), and the Iranian Revolution (1979) as examples of events that stunned the world; and it explained how preference falsification, combined with interdependencies among publicly expressed preferences, keeps us from anticipating political earthquakes that are easily explained in retrospect. [7] After the East European Revolutions of late 1989, Kuran explained why seasoned experts of the Communist Bloc were caught off guard in “Now Out of Never: The Element of Surprise in the East European Revolution of 1989.” [8] These papers and Private Truths, Public Lies suggest that political revolutions and big shifts in public opinion will surprise the world repeatedly, because of people’s readiness, under perceived social pressures, to conceal their political dispositions. [9]

Kuran has used his theory to shed light on the persistence of East European communism despite its inefficiencies, [10] why India’s caste system has remained a powerful institution for millennia, [11] transformations of American race relations, [12] the aggravation of ethnic conflicts through a self-reinforcing process whereby ethnic symbols gain salience and practical significance, [13] (with Cass Sunstein) the eruption of mass hysteria over minor risks, [14] and American polarization. [15]

Islam and economic performance of the Middle East

In the mid-1990s, Kuran started exploring the drivers of the Middle East’s economic trajectory from the birth of Islam to the present. His focus has been on the roles of Islamic law (Sharia) in shaping economic opportunities.

During Islam’s early centuries, Kuran observes, the economic content of Islamic law was well-suited to global economic conditions. As such, the Middle East was an economically advanced region. [16] Subsequently, it failed to match the institutional transformation through which Western Europe vastly increased its capacity to pool resources, coordinate production, and conduct trade. [17] Although the Middle East’s economic institutions never froze, in certain areas central to economic modernization changes were minimal until the 1800s, at least in relation to structural transformations in the West. [18]  

TheLong Divergence: How Islamic Law Held Back the Middle East is Kuran’s broadest account of this thesis. There, he suggests that several elements of Islamic law helped to turn the Middle East into an economic laggard. Because of its egalitarian character, the Islamic law of inheritance inhibited capital accumulation, and it curtailed needs for organizational innovations to scale up the pooling of capital and labor. [19] The lack of an Islamic concept of corporation also hindered organizational development; in addition, it kept entrepreneurs politically weak. [20] The waqf, Islam’s distinct form of trust, locked vast resources into organizations prone to becoming dysfunctional. [21]

None of these institutions were disadvantageous at their emergence, suggests Kuran; they solved identifiable problems. None caused an absolute decline in economic activity. Each became a handicap by perpetuating itself during the millennium when Western Europe spearheaded economic modernization. [22]

A popular argument is that Islam fosters a conservative ethos that promotes resistance to adaptation. [23] Had conservatism per se made the Middle East fall behind, Kuran says, adjustments would have lagged across the board. But even as institutions of the private economy stalled, military and taxation systems were reformed repeatedly. That commercial and financial organizations were not scaled up points to an institutional trap, not conservative attitudes. [24] Inefficient institutions perpetuated themselves as their interactions dampened incentives to innovate. When in the 1800s the rise of the West created an existential threat, institutional transplants followed. The borrowed institutions perform functions long met through Islamic institutions. [25]

The Islamic institutions that delayed the Middle East’s economic modernization no longer block economic development directly, claims Kuran. But patterns they fostered, including low trust in institutions, rampant corruption, and widespread nepotism, are impeding the region’s catch-up. [26]

Kuran’s research on the Middle East’s economic history draws on data collected from Istanbul’s Islamic court archives. His data from the 1600s has been published as a ten-volume bilingual set. [27]

The functions of Islamic economics    

Kuran’s research agenda has included exploring the origins, logic, and initiatives of Islamic economics, a doctrine that claims to offer an alternative to capitalism and socialism. Its initiatives include the establishment of Islamic financial institutions meant to avoid interest. It also promotes Islamic behavioral norms and has founded anti-poverty systems inspired by zakat practices in seventh-century Arabia, in Islam’s earliest decades. [28]

Timur Kuran argues that the doctrine of Islamic economics is incoherent and largely irrelevant to present challenges. [29] Its practical applications have had no discernible effects on efficiency, trust, or poverty reduction. [30] Its real purpose has not been economic improvement but the cultivation of a distinct Islamic identity. [31] It has served global Islamism (known also as Islamic fundamentalism) by fueling the illusion that modern Muslim societies can live by economic rules based on Islam. [32]

A comprehensive statement of Kuran’s analysis and interpretation of Islamic economics is Islam and Mammon: The Economic Predicaments of Islamism . [33] Islamic financial firms deal in interest routinely, he argues there, through ruses that make interest appear as a return to risk. Their operations do not differ, except symbolically, from those of conventional financial firms with which they compete. [34] He also observes that modern zakat systems shuffle resources within the middle class or redistribute from poor to rich. [35] Finally, he points to the lack of evidence that Islamic economics has improved trust or trustworthiness. [36]

Following Fazlur Rahman, Kuran argues that Islamic economics misunderstands the original functions of Quran-based Islamic institutions. [37] [38] [39]

Kuran has written on the Islamic controversy over the permissibility of interest; [40] the origins, historical functions, and modern variants of zakat; [41] [42] and Islamic credit cards. [43]

Islam and political performance of the Middle East

With a focus on the Middle East’s institutional history, Kuran has explored why its modern states tend to be governed autocratically and why the region fares poorly in global indices of freedom. He proposes that three Islamic institutions played critical roles. Though designed to bind the state, Islam’s original tax system was sidelined within a couple of generations. [44] This Islamic waqf (as opposed to the modern waqf, which is a corporation) kept civic life anemic by restricting political participation and hindering collective action from below. [45] And private commercial enterprises remained small and ephemeral, hindering the formation of stable coalitions capable of bargaining with the state. [46] [47]

Ottoman and Turkish documents

In his childhood and early adulthood, Timur Kuran collected postal stamps. As his academic career began and research foci changed, his collecting interests turned to poorly studied areas: (1) Ottoman and Turkish postal history and postal stationery; (2) Ottoman and Turkish revenue stamps; and, increasingly, (3) Ottoman and Turkish documents, with an emphasis on evidence relating to the modernization of economic and civic life. [48]

In the third category, his major collections are on the following topics: official revenue stamps and their usages; Ottoman occupations; foreign occupations of Ottoman territories; private and semi-official social assistance; printing, the press, and publishing; banking and insurance; political organizations; education; and lotteries. These collections are furnishing data to Kuran’s ongoing academic research on Ottoman and Turkish modernization from the late 1700s. [48]

He has co-authored, with Mehmet Akan, volume 1 of an intended bilingual trilogy on the microhistory of the Turkish postal system. [49]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zakat</span> Form of almsgiving treated in Islam as a religious obligation or tax

Zakat is a form of almsgiving, often collected by the Muslim Ummah. It is considered in Islam as a religious obligation, and by Quranic ranking, is next after prayer (salat) in importance. Eight heads of Zakat are mentioned in the Quran.

Islamic economics refers to the knowledge of economics or economic activities and processes in terms of Islamic principles and teachings. Islam has a set of special moral norms and values about individual and social economic behavior. Therefore, it has its own economic system, which is based on its philosophical views and is compatible with the Islamic organization of other aspects of human behavior: social and political systems.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Young Turks</span> Political reform movement in the Ottoman Empire

Young Turks was a political reform movement in the early 20th century that favored the replacement of the Ottoman Empire's absolute monarchy with a constitutional government. They led a rebellion against the absolute rule of Sultan Abdulhamid II in the 1908 Young Turk Revolution. With this revolution, the Young Turks helped to establish the Second Constitutional Era in the same year, ushering in an era of multi-party democracy for the first time in the country's history.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Law and economics</span> Application of economic theory to analysis of legal systems

Law and economics, or economic analysis of law, is the application of microeconomic theory to the analysis of law. The field emerged in the United States during the early 1960s, primarily from the work of scholars from the Chicago school of economics such as Aaron Director, George Stigler, and Ronald Coase. The field uses economics concepts to explain the effects of laws, to assess which legal rules are economically efficient, and to predict which legal rules will be promulgated. There are two major branches of law and economics; one based on the application of the methods and theories of neoclassical economics to the positive and normative analysis of the law, and a second branch which focuses on an institutional analysis of law and legal institutions, with a broader focus on economic, political, and social outcomes, and overlapping with analyses of the institutions of politics and governance.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kemalism</span> Founding ideology of Turkey

Kemalism, also known as Atatürkism, or The Six Arrows, is the founding and official ideology of the Republic of Turkey. Kemalism, as it was implemented by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk after the declaration of Republic in 1923, was defined by sweeping political, social, cultural and religious reforms designed to separate the new Turkish state from its Ottoman predecessor and embrace a Western-style modernized lifestyle, including the establishment of secularism/laicism, state support of the sciences, free education, gender equality, economic statism and many more. Most of those policies were first introduced to and implemented in Turkey during Atatürk's presidency through his reforms.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Economic history of the Ottoman Empire</span> Overview of the economic history of the Ottoman Empire

The economic history of the Ottoman Empire covers the period 1299–1923. Trade, agriculture, transportation, and religion make up the Ottoman Empire's economy.

New Institutional Economics (NIE) is an economic perspective that attempts to extend economics by focusing on the institutions that underlie economic activity and with analysis beyond earlier institutional economics and neoclassical economics. Unlike neoclassical economics, it also considers the role of culture and classical political economy in economic development.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Great Divergence</span> Period/event in European history

The Great Divergence or European miracle is the socioeconomic shift in which the Western world overcame pre-modern growth constraints and emerged during the 19th century as the most powerful and wealthy world civilizations, eclipsing previously dominant or comparable civilizations from the Middle East and Asia such as the Ottoman Empire, Mughal India, Safavid Iran, Qing China and Tokugawa Japan, among others.

Between the 9th and 14th centuries, the Muslim world developed many advanced economic concepts, techniques and usages. These ranged from areas of production, investment, finance, economic development, taxation, property use such as Hawala: an early informal value transfer system, Islamic trusts, known as waqf, systems of contract relied upon by merchants, a widely circulated common currency, cheques, promissory notes, early contracts, bills of exchange, and forms of commercial partnership such as mufawada.

Cultural economics is the branch of economics that studies the relation of culture to economic outcomes. Here, 'culture' is defined by shared beliefs and preferences of respective groups. Programmatic issues include whether and how much culture matters as to economic outcomes and what its relation is to institutions. As a growing field in behavioral economics, the role of culture in economic behavior is increasingly being demonstrated to cause significant differentials in decision-making and the management and valuation of assets.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Women in the Ottoman Empire</span>

In the Ottoman Empire, women enjoyed a diverse range of rights depending on the time period, as well as their religion and class. The empire, first as a Turkoman beylik, and then a multi-ethnic, multi-religious empire, was ruled in accordance to the qanun, the semi-secular body of law enacted by Ottoman sultans. Furthermore, the relevant religious scriptures of its many confessional communities played a major role in the legal system, for the majority of Ottoman women, these were the Quran and Hadith as interpreted by Islamic jurists, often termed sharia. Most Ottoman women were permitted to participate in the legal system, purchase and sell property, inherit and bequeath wealth, and participate in other financial activities, rights which were unusual in the rest of Europe until the 19th century.

An economic ideology is a set of views forming the basis of an ideology on how the economy should run. It differentiates itself from economic theory in being normative rather than just explanatory in its approach, whereas the aim of economic theories is to create accurate explanatory models to describe how an economy currently functions. However, the two are closely interrelated, as underlying economic ideology influences the methodology and theory employed in analysis. The diverse ideology and methodology of the 74 Nobel laureates in economics speaks to such interrelation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Imaret</span> Charitable institution in the Ottoman Empire

Imaret, sometimes also known as a darüzziyafe, is one of a few names used to identify the public soup kitchens built throughout the Ottoman Empire from the 14th to the 19th centuries. These public kitchens were often part of a larger complex known as a külliye, which could include hospices, mosques, caravanserais and colleges. The imarets gave out food that was free of charge to specific types of people and unfortunate individuals. Imarets were not invented by the Ottomans but developed under them as highly structured groups of buildings. Nonetheless, imarets indicate an appreciation of Muslim religious teachings about charity found in the Qur'an.

Preference falsification is the act of misrepresenting a preference under perceived public pressures. It involves the selection of a publicly expressed preference that differs from the underlying privately held preference. People frequently convey to each other preferences that differ from what they would communicate privately under credible cover of anonymity. Pollsters can use techniques such as list experiments to uncover preference falsification.

Zakāt is a form of alms-giving treated as a religious tax and/or religious obligation in Islam for all Muslims who meet the necessary criteria of wealth, and one of the Five Pillars of Islam. Beneficiaries of zakat include orphans, widowed, poor muslims, debt-ridden, travelers, zakat collectors, new converts to Islam, Islamic clergy. Zakat is prescribed to cleanse the individual's wealth, heart, and baser characteristics in general, and to replace them with virtues.

Islamic socialism is a political philosophy that incorporates Islamic principles into socialism. As a term, it was coined by various Muslim leaders to describe a more spiritual form of socialism. Islamic socialists believe that the teachings of the Qur'an and Muhammad—especially the zakat—are not only compatible with principles of socialism, but also very supportive of them. They draw inspiration from the early Medinan welfare state established by Muhammad. Muslim socialists found their roots in anti-imperialism. This can especially be seen in the writings of Salama Moussa, who wrote extensively both about socialism, and about Egyptian nationalism against British rule.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Economic ethics</span> Application of ethical principles to economic phenomena

Economic ethics is the combination of economics and ethics that unites value judgements from both disciplines to predict, analyze, and model economic phenomena. It encompasses the theoretical ethical prerequisites and foundations of economic systems. This particular school of thought dates back to the Greek philosopher Aristotle, whose Nicomachean Ethics describes the connection between objective economic principles and the consideration of justice. The academic literature on economic ethics is extensive, citing authorities such as natural law and religious law as influences on normative rules in economics. The consideration of moral philosophy, or that of a moral economy, is a point of departure in assessing behavioural economic models. The standard creation, application, and beneficiaries of economic models present a complex trilemma when ethics are considered. These ideas, in conjunction with the fundamental assumption of rationality in economics, create the link between economics and ethics.

Yeşim Arat (born September 5, 1955), is a Turkish political scientist and author specialized in gender politics, Turkish politics, women in Turkish politics, and women's movements in Turkey. She is a professor in the department of political science and international relations at Boğaziçi University.

Bedross Der Matossian is professor of Modern Middle East history and the Hymen Rosenberg Professor in Judaic Studies at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. He is also the vice chair of the Department of History. Der Matossian was born and raised in East Jerusalem. He is a graduate of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, where he began his graduate studies in the Department of Islamic and Middle Eastern Studies. He completed his Ph.D. in Middle East History in the Department of Middle Eastern, South Asian, and African Studies at Columbia University in 2008. From 2008 to 2010, he was a lecturer of Middle East History in the Faculty of History at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. For the Spring quarter 2014 he was appointed as the Dumanian Visiting professor in the University of Chicago. His areas of interest include ethnic politics in the Middle East, inter-ethnic violence in the Ottoman Empire, Palestinian history, and the history of Armenian Genocide. Der Matossian was the past president of the Society for Armenian Studies. He is also the series editor of "Armenians in the Modern and Early Modern World". published by I.B.Tauris and Bloomsbury Press. He serves on the Board of Directors of multiple international educational institutions and on the editorial board of multiple journals, the most prominent of which is the flagship journal of the field: International Journal of Middle East Studies (IJMES).

Knowledge falsification is the deliberate misrepresentation of what one knows under perceived social pressures. The term was coined by Timur Kuran in his book Private Truths, Public Lies: The Social Consequences of Preference Falsification.


  1. "Sabancı University – Events". March 5, 2009. Archived from the original on October 8, 2011. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
  2. Danışman, Günhan. "A short biography of Prof. Aptullah Kuran". Essays in Honour of Aptullah Kuran. Istanbul: YKY. pp. 15–17.
  3. 1 2 Kuran, Timur. "Curriculum Vitae of Timur Kuran" (PDF). Retrieved October 11, 2022.
  4. Jerry Oster (February 11, 2008). "Meet the New Faculty: Timur Kuran | Duke Today". News.duke.edu. Archived from the original on July 14, 2012. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
  5. "Timur Kuran: CV" (PDF). sites.duke.edu. April 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 26, 2021. Retrieved June 26, 2021.
  6. Kuran, Timur (1987). "Chameleon voters and public choice". Public Choice. 53 (1): 53–78. doi:10.1007/BF00115654. ISSN   1573-7101. S2CID   154483266.
  7. Kuran, Timur (1989). "Sparks and prairie fires: A theory of unanticipated political revolution". Public Choice. 61 (1): 41–74. doi:10.1007/BF00116762. ISSN   1573-7101. S2CID   16781816.
  8. Kuran, Timur (1991). "Now out of never: The element of surprise in the East European Revolution of 1989". World Politics. 44 (1): 7–48. doi:10.2307/2010422. ISSN   1086-3338. JSTOR   2010422. S2CID   154090678.
  9. Kuran, Timur (1995). Private Truths, Public Lies: The Social Consequences of Preference Falsification. Harvard University Press. pp. 247–326. ISBN   978-0-674-70758-0.
  10. Kuran, Timur (1995). Private Truths, Public Lies. pp. 118–127, 205–221. ISBN   9780674707580.
  11. Kuran, Timur (1995). Private Truths, Public Lies. pp. 128–136, 196–204. ISBN   9780674707580.
  12. Kuran, Timur (1995). Private Truths, Public Lies. pp. 137–154, 222–243, 310–325. ISBN   9780674707580.
  13. Kuran, Timur (1998). "Ethnic norms and their transformation through reputational cascades". The Journal of Legal Studies. 27 (S2): 623–659. doi:10.1086/468038. ISSN   0047-2530. S2CID   126231637.
  14. Kuran, Timur; Sunstein, Cass R. (1998–1999). "Availability cascades and risk regulation". Stanford Law Review. 51 (4): 683–768. doi:10.2307/1229439. JSTOR   1229439. S2CID   3941373.
  15. Kuran, Timur (2018). "Another road to serfdom: Cascading intolerance". Can It Happen Here? Authoritarianism in America. Dey Street Books. pp. 233–276.
  16. Kuran, Timur (2004). "Why the Middle East is economically underdeveloped: Historical mechanisms of institutional stagnation". Journal of Economic Perspectives. 18 (3): 71–76. doi: 10.1257/0895330042162421 . ISSN   0895-3309.
  17. Kuran, Timur (2004). "Why the Middle East is Economically Underdeveloped". Journal of Economic Perspectives. 18 (3): 77–83. doi: 10.1257/0895330042162421 .
  18. Kuran, Timur (2004). "Why the Middle East is Economically Underdeveloped". Journal of Economic Perspectives. 18 (3): 77. doi: 10.1257/0895330042162421 .
  19. Kuran, Timur (2011). The Long Divergence: How Islamic Law Held Back the Middle East. Princeton University Press. pp. 78–96. ISBN   978-1-4008-3601-7.
  20. Kuran, Timur (2011). Long Divergence. pp. 97–109, 121–128, 281–283. ISBN   978-1400836017.
  21. Kuran, Timur (2011). Long Divergence. pp. 110–116, 128–141. ISBN   978-1400836017.
  22. Kuran, Timur (2011). Long Divergence. pp. 279–298. ISBN   978-1400836017.
  23. Kuran, Timur (1997). "Islam and underdevelopment: An old puzzle revisited". Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE) / Zeitschrift für die gesamte Staatswissenschaft. 153 (1): 41–71. ISSN   0932-4569. JSTOR   40752985.
  24. Kuran, Timur (2011). Long Divergence. pp. 298–301. ISBN   978-1400836017.
  25. Kuran, Timur (2011). Long Divergence. pp. 16–22, 251–253. ISBN   978-1400836017.
  26. Kuran, Timur (2011). Long Divergence. pp. 293–298. ISBN   978-1400836017.
  27. Kuran, Timur (2010–13). Mahkeme Kayıtları Işığında 17. Yüzyıl İstanbul'unda Sosyo-Ekonomik Yaşam / Social and Economic Life in Seventeenth-Century Istanbul: Glimpses from Court Records. Vol. 1–10. Istanbul: İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları.
  28. Kuran, Timur (1995). "Islamic economics and the Islamic subeconomy". Journal of Economic Perspectives. 9 (4): 155–173. doi: 10.1257/jep.9.4.155 . ISSN   0895-3309.
  29. Kuran, Timur (1995). "Islamic economics and the Islamic subeconomy". Journal of Economic Perspectives. 9 (4): 169–171. doi: 10.1257/jep.9.4.155 .
  30. Kuran, Timur (2018). "Islam and economic performance: Historical and contemporary links". Journal of Economic Literature. 56 (4): 1307–1317. doi:10.1257/jel.20171243. ISSN   0022-0515. S2CID   149654985.
  31. Kuran, Timur (1997). "The genesis of Islamic economics: A chapter in the politics of Muslim identity". Social Research. 64 (2): 301–338. ISSN   0037-783X. JSTOR   40971187.
  32. Kuran, Timur (1996). "The discontents of islamic economic morality". The American Economic Review. 86 (2): 438–442. ISSN   0002-8282. JSTOR   2118166.
  33. Kuran, Timur (2004). Islam and Mammon: The Economic Predicaments of Islamism. Princeton University Press. ISBN   978-1-4008-3735-9.
  34. Kuran, Timur (2004). Islam and Mammon. pp. 7–19, 40–41, 43–46, 55–58. ISBN   1400837359.
  35. Kuran, Timur (2004). Islam and Mammon. pp. 19–28, 41–42. ISBN   1400837359.
  36. Kuran, Timur (2004). Islam and Mammon. pp. 28–34, 42–43, 47–49, 50, 75–76, 88–89, 103–20. ISBN   1400837359.
  37. Kuran, Timur (2011). Long Divergence. pp. 297–298. ISBN   978-1400836017.
  38. Kuran, Timur (2004). Islam and Mammon. pp. 20–21, 103–21. ISBN   1400837359.
  39. Kuran, Timur (2018). "Islam and economic performance". Journal of Economic Literature. 56 (4): 1297–1311. doi:10.1257/jel.20171243. S2CID   149654985.
  40. Kuran, Timur (2005). "The logic of financial westernization in the Middle East". Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization. Festschrift in honor of Richard H. Day. 56 (4): 593–615. doi:10.1016/j.jebo.2004.04.002. ISSN   0167-2681.
  41. Kuran, Timur (2003). "Islamic redistribution through zakat: Historical record and modern realities". Poverty and Charity in Middle Eastern Contexts. Albany: SUNY Press. pp. 275–293. ISBN   978-0-7914-5737-5.
  42. Kuran, Timur (2020). "Zakat: Islam's missed opportunity to limit predatory taxation". Public Choice. 182 (3): 395–416. doi:10.1007/s11127-019-00663-x. ISSN   1573-7101. S2CID   254934414.
  43. Çokgezen, Murat; Kuran, Timur (2015). "Between consumer demand and Islamic law: The evolution of Islamic credit cards in Turkey". Journal of Comparative Economics. 43 (4): 862–882. doi:10.1016/j.jce.2015.07.005. hdl: 10161/13170 . ISSN   0147-5967.
  44. Kuran, Timur (2020). "Zakat": 395–416. doi:10.1007/s11127-019-00663-x. S2CID   254934414.{{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  45. Kuran, Timur (2016). "Legal roots of authoritarian rule in the Middle East: Civic legacies of the Islamic waqf". American Journal of Comparative Law. 64 (2): 419–54. doi: 10.5131/AJCL.2016.0014 .
  46. Kuran, Timur (2013). "The political consequences of Islam's economic legacy". Philosophy and Social Criticism. 39 (4–5): 345–405. doi:10.1177/0191453713477350. S2CID   17551915.
  47. Kuran, Timur (2011). Long Divergence. pp. 291–296. ISBN   978-1400836017.
  48. 1 2 "Timur Kuran Röportajı - NadirKitap Blog". www.nadirkitap.com. Retrieved October 11, 2022.
  49. Akan, Mehmet; Kuran, Timur (2019). Türkiye'de Postanın Mikrotarihi, 1920-2015 / Microhistory of the Turkish Posts, 1920-2015. Vol. 1. Istanbul: İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları.