|Tirumala Deva Raya|
Tirumala Deva Raya (reign 1565–1572 CE) was the first Crowned King of the Vijayanagara Empire from the Aravidu Dynasty. He was the younger brother of Rama Raya and son-in-law of Krishna Deva Raya.
Krishnadevaraya was an emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire, also known as the Karnata Empire, reigning from 1509 to 1529. He was the third monarch of the Tuluva dynasty, and is considered to be one of the greatest rulers in Indian history. He ruled the largest empire in India after the decline of the Delhi Sultanate. Presiding over the empire at its zenith, he is regarded as an icon by many Indians. Krishnadevaraya earned the titles Karnatakaratna Simhasanadeeshwara, Yavana Rajya Pratistapanacharya, Kannada Rajya Rama Ramana, Andhra Bhoja, Gaubrahmana Pratipalaka and Mooru Rayara Ganda. He became the dominant ruler of the peninsula by defeating the sultans of Bijapur, Golconda, the Bahmani Sultanate and the Gajapatis of Odisha, and was one of the most powerful Hindu rulers in India.
The Thanjavur Nayak kingdom or Thanjavur Nayak dynasty were the rulers of Thanjavur in the 15th and 17th centuries. The Nayaks of the Balija social group, were originally appointed as provincial governors by the Vijayanagara Emperor in the 15th century, who divided the territory into Nayak kingdoms which were Madurai, Tanjore, Gingee and Kalahasthi. In the mid 15th century they became an independent kingdom, although they continued their alliance with the Vijayanagara Empire. The Thanjavur Nayaks were notable for their patronage of literature and the arts.
Balija is a caste of the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Kerala.
Sriranga II was nominated in 1614 by King Venkata II to succeed him as king of the Vijayanagara Empire in Southern India. Sriranga was supported by a faction headed by Yachama Naidu of Recherla Velama dynasty, one of the Venkata II's loyal viceroys and commanders and Nayak of Venkatagiri, but was not favored by a set of nobles headed by Gobburi Jagga Raya, brother of Venkata II’s favourite Queen Obayamma.
Rama Deva Raya ascended the throne after a gruesome war in 1617 as the King of Vijayanagara Empire. In 1614 his father, Sriranga II the preceding King and his family were gruesomely murdered by rival factions headed by Jagga Raya, who was one of their kins. Rama Deva himself was smuggled out of the prison by Yachama Naidu, a faithful commander and the viceroy of earlier king Venkata II.
Sriranga III was the last ruler of the Vijayanagara Empire, who came to power in 1642 following the death of his uncle Venkata III. He was also a great grandson of Aliya Rama Raya.
Sriranga Deva Raya was the eldest son of Tirumala Deva Raya and a king of Vijayanagara empire based at Penukonda. He carried the restoration of the Vijayanagara empire, but his reign was marred with repeated attacks and loss of territories from his Muslim neighbours.
Venkatapati Raya was the younger brother of Sriranga Deva Raya and the ruler of Vijayanagara Empire with bases in Penukonda, Chandragiri and Vellore. His reign of three decades saw a revival of the strength and prosperity of the empire. He dealt successfully with the Deccan sultans of Bijapur and Golkonda, the internal disorders, promoting economic revival in the country. He brought rebelling Nayakas of Tamil Nadu and parts of present-day Andhra Pradesh under control.
Venkata III was the grandson of Aliya Rama Raya. Venkata III belonged to the Telugu Family and became the King of Vijayanagara Empire from 1632–1642. His brothers in law were Damarla Venkatappa Nayaka and Damarla Ayyappa Nayaka, both sons of Damarla Chennapa Nayakadu
Palaiyakkarars, or Poligar, in Tamil Nadu refers to the holder of a small kingdom as a feudatory to a greater sovereign. Under this system, palayam was given for valuable military services rendered by any individual. The word pālayam means domain, a military camp, or a small kingdom. This type of Palayakkarars system was in practice during the rule of Pratapa Rudhra of Warangal in the Kakatiya kingdom. The system was put in place in Tamilnadu by Viswanatha Nayaka, when he became the Nayak ruler of Madurai in 1529, with the support of his minister Ariyanathar. Traditionally there were supposed to be 72 Palayakkarars. The majority of those Palaiyakkarar, who during the late 17th- and 18th-centuries controlled much of the Telugu region as well as the Tamil area, had themselves come from the Yadhavar, Kallar, Maravar and Vatuka, pala ekari communities.
Muzaffar Alam is the George V. Bobrinskoy Professor in South Asian Languages and Civilizations at the University of Chicago.
The political history of Mysore and Coorg (1761–1799) is the political history of the contiguous historical regions of Mysore State and Coorg province on the Deccan Plateau in west-central peninsular India from the time of the rise of Haidar Ali in 1761 to that of the death of his son Tipu Sultan in 1799.
The political history of Mysore and Coorg (1800–1947) is the political history of the contiguous historical regions of Mysore state and Coorg province located on the Deccan Plateau in west-central peninsular India, beginning with the acceptance of British suzerainty in 1800 to the independence of India in 1947.
Sanjay Subrahmanyam is an Indian historian who specialises in the early modern period and in connected history. He is the author of several books and publications. He holds the Irving and Jean Stone Endowed Chair in Social Sciences at UCLA which he joined in 2004.
The Nayaks of Gingee (Senji) were rulers of the Gingee principality of Tamil Nadu between 16th to 18th century CE. They were subordinates of the imperial Vijayanagara emperors, and were appointed as provincial governors by the Vijayanagar Emperor who divided the Tamil country into three Nayakships viz., Madurai, Tanjore and Gingee. Later, after the fall of the Vijayanagara's Tuluva dynasty, the Gingee rulers declared independence. While they ruled independently, they were sometimes at war with the Tanjore neighbors and the Vijayanagara overlords later based in Vellore and Chandragiri.
The Nayakas of Kalahasti were a line of rulers of Kalahasti and Vandavasi principalities. Members of the group include Damarla Chennapa Nayaka, after whom the city of Chennai is named. These Nayakas served as vassals of the late Vijayanagara Empire, then held by the Aravidu Dynasty and headquartered at Chandragiri and Vellore.
Gobburi Jagga Raya was a de facto King of Vijayanagara Empire on behalf adopted nephew named Chenga Raya, a rival claimant to the Vijaynagara thorne. He was the brother of Venkata II’s favourite Queen Obayamma who was bequeathed the Pulicat region and belonged to the Gobburi family of Nayaks under the Vijayanagar Empire.
Damarla Chennapa Nayakar was a Nayakar ruler of Kalahasti and Vandavasi under the suzerainty of Vijayanagar emperor Venkatapati Raya. He was also the Dalavoy or the Commander-in-Chief of the emperor. The line of Nayakars were chieftains during the Vijayanagar empire and attained full power after its decline, becoming independent Nayakars.
The Battle of Toppur was one of the largest battles in the history of India. In this battle, cannons were used at a large scale for the first time in South India. It caused complete destruction of the already declining Vijayanagara Empire. It was a civil war fought by the claimants for the kingship of the Vijayanagara Empire. Jagga Raya challenged the Sriranga Authority on behalf of his nephew.
Velcheru Narayana Rao is an Indian author, critic, researcher, translator and professor at the University of Wisconsin–Madison for Department of South Asian Studies. His work is primarily focused on Telugu literature for which he received the Sahitya Akademi Fellowship in February 2021.