|Tobacco vein mottling virus
Tobacco vein mottling virus
Tobacco vein mottling virus (TVMV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Potyviridae , first described in 1972. It is found in the United States in tobacco plants. It is spread between plants by aphids.
Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus species in the genus Tobamovirus that infects a wide range of plants, especially tobacco and other members of the family Solanaceae. The infection causes characteristic patterns, such as "mosaic"-like mottling and discoloration on the leaves. TMV was the first virus to be discovered. Although it was known from the late 19th century that a non-bacterial infectious disease was damaging tobacco crops, it was not until 1930 that the infectious agent was determined to be a virus. It is the first pathogen identified as a virus.
A satellite is a subviral agent that depends on the coinfection of a host cell with a helper virus for its replication. Satellites can be divided into two major classes: satellite viruses and satellite nucleic acids. Satellite viruses, which are most commonly associated with plants, but are also found in mammals, arthropods, and bacteria, encode structural proteins to enclose their genetic material, which are therefore distinct from the structural proteins of their helper viruses. Satellite nucleic acids, in contrast, do not encode their own structural proteins, but instead are encapsulated by proteins encoded by their helper viruses. The genomes of satellites range upward from 359 nucleotides in length for satellite tobacco ringspot virus RNA (STobRV).
Caulimoviridae is a family of viruses infecting plants. There are currently 85 species in this family, divided among 10 genera. Viruses belonging to the family Caulimoviridae are termed double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) reverse-transcribing viruses i.e. viruses that contain a reverse transcription stage in their replication cycle. This family contains all plant viruses with a dsDNA genome that have a reverse transcribing phase in their lifecycle.
Tobamovirus is a genus of positive-strand RNA viruses in the family Virgaviridae. Many plants, including tobacco, potato, tomato, and squash, serve as natural hosts. Diseases associated with this genus include: necrotic lesions on leaves. The name Tobamovirus comes from the host and symptoms of the first virus discovered.
Potyvirus is a genus of viruses in the family Potyviridae. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently 183 species in this genus including the type species Potato virus Y. The genus is named after the type virus. Potyviruses account for ~30% of the currently known plant viruses. Like begomoviruses, members of this genus may cause significant losses in agricultural, pastoral, horticultural and ornamental crops. More than 200 species of aphids spread potyviruses and most are from the subfamily Aphidinae.
Begomovirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Geminiviridae. They are plant viruses that as a group have a very wide host range, infecting dicotyledonous plants. Worldwide they are responsible for a considerable amount of economic damage to many important crops such as tomatoes, beans, squash, cassava and cotton. There are currently 424 species in this genus including the type species Bean golden yellow mosaic virus.
Bean yellow mosaic virus is a plant pathogenic virus in the genus Potyvirus and the virus family Potyviridae. Like other members of the Potyvirus genus, it is a monopartite strand of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA surrounded by a capsid made for a single viral encoded protein. The virus is a filamentous particle that measures about 750 nm in length. This virus is transmitted by species of aphids and by mechanical inoculation.
Groundnut rosette virus (GRV) is a peanut pathogenic virus found in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is transmitted between plants by insect vectors such as the groundnut aphid.
Sunn-hemp mosaic virus (SHMV) is a pathogenic plant virus. It is known by many names, including bean strain of tobacco mosaic virus and Sunn-hemp rosette virus. SHMV is an intracellular parasite that infects plants. It can be seen only through an electron microscope. It is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that causes physical characteristics of spotting and/or discoloration. The Sunn-hemp mosaic virus is listed as a species within the genus Tobamovirus and the virus family Virgaviridae by the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses, who renamed it from "Sunnhemp" to "Sunn-hemp" in 1991.
Indian cassava mosaic virus(ICMV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Geminiviridae. It affects cassava in India and certain other countries. It is considered to be an invasive species.
Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) is a plant pathogenic virus that occurs worldwide on species of field grown bell, hot and ornamental pepper species. It is caused by members of the plant virus genus Tobamovirus- otherwise known as the tobacco mosaic virus family. Tobamovirus are viruses that contain positive sense RNA genomes that infect plants. Symptoms of the disease vary depending on the cultivar. Typical symptoms include the chlorosis of leaves, stunting, and distorted and lumpy fruiting structures. The virus is spread by mechanical transmission and infected seeds. Avoidance is the best means of controlling the disease because once a plant is infected it cannot be treated. Only seeds that have been tested and treated for the pathogen should be planted.
Tobacco etch virus (TEV) is a plant pathogenic virus in the genus Potyvirus and the virus family Potyviridae. Like other members of the Potyvirus genus, TEV is a monopartite strand of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA surrounded by a capsid made from a single viral encoded protein. The virus is a filamentous particle that measures about 730 nm in length. It is transmissible in a non-persistent manner by more than 10 species of aphids including Myzus persicae. It also is easily transmitted by mechanical means but is not known to be transmitted by seeds.
Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) is a pathogenic plant virus. Over 400 species of plants from 50 families are susceptible to infection.
Tobacco streak virus (TSV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Bromoviridae, in the genus Ilavirus. It has a wide host range, with at least 200 susceptible species. TSV is generally more problematic in the tropics or warmer climates. TSV does not generally lead to epidemics, with the exception of sunflowers in India and Australia, and peanuts in India.
Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Secoviridae. It affects species of cucumber, tobacco, tomato, cowpea, among others. It causes ringspots in tobacco plants and raspberries, yellow bud mosaic in peaches, yellow vein in grapes, and stunted growth in gladiolus and Narcissus. Its range is in the temperate regions of North America, especially where its vector, Xiphinema americanum is present. Along with the adult and larval stages of this nematode, the virus is also spread by seed. This type of infection is more common in strawberries and soybeans than any other susceptible plant.
Mottle is a pattern of irregular marks, spots, streaks, blotches or patches of different shades or colours. It is commonly used to describe the surface of plants or the skin of animals. In plants, mottling usually consists of yellowish spots on plants, and is usually a sign of disease or malnutrition. Many plant viruses cause mottling, some examples being:
Abutilon mosaic virus (AbMV) is a virus of the genus Begomovirus. It infects Abutilon species, notably the flowering maple, Abutilon striatum. The mottled or variegated effect on the leaves of Abutilon striatum is sought after.
Polerovirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Luteoviridae. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently 26 species in this genus including the type species Potato leafroll virus. Diseases associated with this genus include: PLRV causes prominent rolling of the leaves of potato and a stiff upright habit of the plants; necrosis of the phloem and accumulation of carbohydrates in the leaves.
Solendovirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Caulimoviridae order Ortervirales. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently only two species in this genus, including the type species Tobacco vein clearing virus. Diseases associated with this genus include: TVCV: vein-clearing symptoms in N. edwardsonii.