Tommaso Toffoli (Italian pronunciation: [tomˈmaːzo ˈtɔffoli] ) is an Italian-American professor of electrical and computer engineering at Boston University where he joined the faculty in 1995. [ dead link ] He has worked on cellular automata and the theory of artificial life (with Edward Fredkin and others), and is known for the invention of the Toffoli gate.
He was born in June, 1943 in Montereale Valcellina, in northeastern Italy, to Francesco and Valentina (Saveri) Toffoli and was raised in Rome. He received his laurea in physics (equivalent to a Master's degree) from the University of Rome La Sapienza in 1967.[ citation needed ]
Toffoli came to the United States in 1969.[ citation needed ]
In 1976 he received a Ph.D. in computer and communication science from the University of Michigan, then in 1978 he joined the faculty of Massachusetts Institute of Technology as a principal research scientist, where he remained until 1995, when he joined the faculty of Boston University.[ citation needed ]
Systems Concepts is a company co-founded by Stewart Nelson and Mike Levitt focused on making hardware products related to the DEC PDP-10 series of computers. One of its major products was the SA-10, an interface which allowed PDP-10s to be connected to disk and tape drives designed for use with the channel interfaces of IBM mainframes.
A cellular automaton is a discrete model studied in automata theory. Cellular automata are also called cellular spaces, tessellation automata, homogeneous structures, cellular structures, tessellation structures, and iterative arrays. Cellular automata have found application in various areas, including physics, theoretical biology and microstructure modeling.
In logic circuits, the Toffoli gate, invented by Tommaso Toffoli, is a universal reversible logic gate, which means that any reversible circuit can be constructed from Toffoli gates. It is also known as the "controlled-controlled-not" gate, which describes its action. It has 3-bit inputs and outputs; if the first two bits are both set to 1, it inverts the third bit, otherwise all bits stay the same.
Edward Fredkin is a distinguished career professor at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), and an early pioneer of digital physics.
A cellular automaton (CA) is Life-like if it meets the following criteria:
In a cellular automaton, a Garden of Eden is a configuration that has no predecessor. It can be the initial configuration of the automaton but cannot arise in any other way. John Tukey named these configurations after the Garden of Eden in Abrahamic religions, which was created out of nowhere.
A second-order cellular automaton is a type of reversible cellular automaton (CA) invented by Edward Fredkin where the state of a cell at time t depends not only on its neighborhood at time t − 1, but also on its state at time t − 2.
Norman Harry Packard is a chaos theory physicist and one of the founders of the Prediction Company and ProtoLife. He is an alumnus of Reed College and the University of California, Santa Cruz. Packard is known for his contributions to both chaos theory and cellular automata. He also coined the phrase "the edge of chaos".
A billiard-ball computer, a type of conservative logic circuit, is an idealized model of a reversible mechanical computer based on Newtonian dynamics, proposed in 1982 by Edward Fredkin and Tommaso Toffoli. Instead of using electronic signals like a conventional computer, it relies on the motion of spherical billiard balls in a friction-free environment made of buffers against which the balls bounce perfectly. It was devised to investigate the relation between computation and reversible processes in physics.
The idea of human artifacts being given life has fascinated humankind for as long as people have been recording their myths and stories. Whether Pygmalion or Frankenstein, humanity has been fascinated with the idea of artificial life.
Programmable matter is matter which has the ability to change its physical properties in a programmable fashion, based upon user input or autonomous sensing. Programmable matter is thus linked to the concept of a material which inherently has the ability to perform information processing.
Paul Douglas ("Doug") Tougaw, born July 3, 1969, is a full professor in and chair of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Valparaiso University. He received his B.S. in Electrical Engineering from the Rose-Hulmann Institute of Technology and his M.S. and Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Notre Dame in 1995. In 2005, Tougaw earned an MBA from Valparaiso University's College of Business Administration. His main area of research interest is in the field of Quantum Cellular Automata (QCA). He was awarded the "Best Regional Paper" award at the 2007 Conference of the American Society of Engineering Educators. He was also runner-up for the USA National IEEE Young Engineer award.
Leon Ong Chua is an American electrical engineer and computer scientist. He is a professor in the electrical engineering and computer sciences department at the University of California, Berkeley, which he joined in 1971. He has contributed to nonlinear circuit theory and cellular neural network (CNN) theory. He is also the inventor and namesake of Chua's circuit one of the first and most widely known circuits to exhibit chaotic behavior, and was the first to conceive the theories behind, and postulate the existence of, the memristor. Thirty-seven years after he predicted its existence, a working solid-state memristor was created by a team led by R. Stanley Williams at Hewlett Packard.
Pierre Baldi is a distinguished professor of computer science at University of California Irvine and the director of its Institute for Genomics and Bioinformatics.
Andrzej Nowak is a Polish psychologist, one of the founders of dynamical social psychology. He is a pioneer in applying computer simulations in social sciences.
John Harrison Watrous is a professor of computer science at the David R. Cheriton School of Computer Science at the University of Waterloo, a member of the Institute for Quantum Computing, an affiliate member of the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics and a Fellow of the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research. He was a faculty member in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Calgary from 2002 to 2006 where he held a Canada Research Chair in quantum computing.
Norman H. Margolus is a Canadian-American physicist and computer scientist, known for his work on cellular automata and reversible computing. He is a research affiliate with the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
A reversible cellular automaton is a cellular automaton in which every configuration has a unique predecessor. That is, it is a regular grid of cells, each containing a state drawn from a finite set of states, with a rule for updating all cells simultaneously based on the states of their neighbors, such that the previous state of any cell before an update can be determined uniquely from the updated states of all the cells. The time-reversed dynamics of a reversible cellular automaton can always be described by another cellular automaton rule, possibly on a much larger neighborhood.
Critters is a reversible block cellular automaton with similar dynamics to Conway's Game of Life, first described by Tommaso Toffoli and Norman Margolus in 1987.
Toffoli is an Italian surname. Notable people with the surname include:
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