Transamund II of Spoleto

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Transamund II [lower-alpha 1] was the Lombard Duke of Spoleto from 724 to 745, [1] though he was twice driven from power by the king, Liutprand. Transamund rose to power by deposing his own father, Faroald II, and tonsuring him in a monastery.

Lombards Historical ethnical group

The Lombards or Longobards were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.

The Duke of Spoleto was the ruler of Spoleto and most of central Italy outside the Papal States during the Early and High Middle Ages. The first dukes were appointed by the Lombard king, but they were independent in practice. The Carolingian conquerors of the Lombards continued to appoint dukes as did their successor to the Holy Roman Empire. In the 12th century, the dukes of Spoleto were far and away the most important imperial vassals in Italy.

Liutprand, King of the Lombards Lombard king

Liutprand was the King of the Lombards from 712 to 744 and is chiefly remembered for his Donation of Sutri, in 728, and his long reign, which brought him into a series of conflicts, mostly successful, with most of Italy. He is often regarded as the most successful Lombard monarch, notable for the Donation of Sutri, which was the first accolade of sovereign territory to the Papacy.

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In 737 or 738, Transamund captured Gallese and thus disrupted communication between Rome and Ravenna. Pope Gregory III offered to pay for the return of Gallese in return for a peace treaty with Transamund. The treaty included the Gregory, Duke of Benevento. Liutprand rejected the treaty as contrary his interests and attacked Transamund as a traitor. He had taken Spoleto by 16 June 739 and appointed Hilderic as his replacement. [2] Transamund fled to Rome, where Liutprand besieged him. The king took Amelia, Orte, Bomarzo, and Bieda, but still the pope refused to release his refugee. Gregory even wrote to ask Charles Martel, Duke of the Franks, for assistance. Charles, however, refused. [3]

Gallese Comune in Lazio, Italy

Gallese is an Italian comune (municipality) in the Province of Viterbo, 35 kilometres (22 mi) from Viterbo.

Rome Capital city and comune in Italy

Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. The Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states.

Ravenna Comune in Emilia-Romagna, Italy

Ravenna is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy. It was the capital city of the Western Roman Empire from 402 until that empire collapsed in 476. It then served as the capital of the Ostrogothic Kingdom until it was re-conquered in 540 by the Byzantine Empire. Afterwards, the city formed the centre of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna until the invasion of the Lombards in 751, after which it became the seat of the Kingdom of the Lombards.

In December 740, Transamund recovered his duchy and killed Hilderic with Papal-Beneventan aid, [4] but did not return the confiscated papal cities and his alliance with the pope ruptured. Liutprand did not recognise Transamund's reconquest and set out to dispossess him a second time. This time Liutprand met with Gregory's successor, Zachary, in 742 and, promising to restore the four towns, allied with the Romans and forced Transamund to flee again. [5] Transamund was caught and put in a monastery. Agiprand, Liutprand's nephew, was put in his place. The new duke of Benevento, Godescalc, who had succeeded Gregory without royal assent and continued to support Transamund, was the next object of royal wrath.

Pope Zachary pope

Pope Zachary reigned from 3 December or 5 December 741 to his death in 752. A Greek from Santa Severina, Calabria, he was the last pope of the Byzantine Papacy. Most probably he was a deacon of the Roman Church and as such signed the decrees of the Roman council of 732, and succeeded Gregory III on 5 December 741.

Agiprand was briefly the Duke of Spoleto between 742 and 744.

Godescalc of Benevento 8th-century Italian duke

Godescalc was the Duke of Benevento in Langobardia minor from 740 until his assassination in 743. Godescalc's accession was without approval of the King.

On Liutprand's death in 744, Transamund managed to regain power in Spoleto. He lasted another year under the weak King Hildeprand the Useless until he died.

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Thrasimund I or Transamund I was the Count of Capua and then Duke of Spoleto, a faithful follower of Grimoald I of Benevento.

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References

  1. Lars Ulwencreutz (November 2013). Ulwencreutz's The Royal Families in Europe V. Lulu.com. p. 350. ISBN   978-1-304-58135-8.
  2. Hartmann, Ludo Moritz. Geschichte Italiens im Mittelalter. II, 2, 137-138.
  3. Hodgkin, Thomas. Italy and her Invaders. Clarendon Press, 1895. pp 475—478.
  4. Hartmann, II, 2, 139.
  5. Hartmann, II, 2, pp. 139, 140.

Notes

  1. His name may also be spelled Transimund, Transmund, Thrasimund or Thrasamund.

Sources

Paul the Deacon Benedictine monk

Paul the Deacon, also known as Paulus Diaconus, Warnefridus, Barnefridus, Winfridus and sometimes suffixed Cassinensis, was a Benedictine monk, scribe, and historian of the Lombards.

Thomas Hodgkin (historian) British historian

Thomas Hodgkin, FBA was a British historian and biographer.

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Faroald II
Duke of Spoleto
724–739
Succeeded by
Hilderic
Preceded by
Hilderic
Duke of Spoleto
740–742
Succeeded by
Agiprand
Preceded by
Agiprand
Duke of Spoleto
744–745
Succeeded by
Lupus