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Troxacitabine (brand name Troxatyl) is a nucleoside analogue with anticancer activity. Its use is being studied in patients with refractory lymphoproliferative diseases. [1]

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Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is the name given to a B-cell proliferation due to therapeutic immunosuppression after organ transplantation. These patients may develop infectious mononucleosis-like lesions or polyclonal polymorphic B-cell hyperplasia. Some of these B-cells may undergo mutations which will render them malignant, giving rise to a lymphoma.

Refractory metals are a class of metals that are extraordinarily resistant to heat and wear. The expression is mostly used in the context of materials science, metallurgy and engineering. The definition of which elements belong to this group differs. The most common definition includes five elements: two of the fifth period and three of the sixth period. They all share some properties, including a melting point above 2000 °C and high hardness at room temperature. They are chemically inert and have a relatively high density. Their high melting points make powder metallurgy the method of choice for fabricating components from these metals. Some of their applications include tools to work metals at high temperatures, wire filaments, casting molds, and chemical reaction vessels in corrosive environments. Partly due to the high melting point, refractory metals are stable against creep deformation to very high temperatures.

Tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues

Tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues or tumours of the haematopoietic and lymphoid malignancies are tumors that affect the blood, bone marrow, lymph, and lymphatic system. Because these tissues are all intimately connected through both the circulatory system and the immune system, a disease affecting one will often affect the others as well, making myeloproliferation and lymphoproliferation closely related and often overlapping problems.


A refractory material or refractory is a material that is resistant to decomposition by heat, pressure, or chemical attack, and retains strength and form at high temperatures. Refractories are inorganic, nonmetallic, porous, and heterogeneous. They are typically composed of oxides or non oxides like carbides, nitrides etc. of the following materials: silicon, aluminium, magnesium, calcium, and zirconium. Some metals with melting points >1850°C like niobium, chromium, zirconium, tungsten rhenium, tantalum etc. are also considered as refractories.

Evans syndrome is an autoimmune disease in which an individual's immune system attacks their own red blood cells and platelets, the syndrome can include immune neutropenia. These immune cytopenias may occur simultaneously or sequentially.

Ibritumomab tiuxetan Radioimmunotherapy treatment

Ibritumomab tiuxetan, sold under the trade name Zevalin, is a monoclonal antibody radioimmunotherapy treatment for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The drug uses the monoclonal mouse IgG1 antibody ibritumomab in conjunction with the chelator tiuxetan, to which a radioactive isotope is added. Tiuxetan is a modified version of DTPA whose carbon backbone contains an isothiocyanatobenzyl and a methyl group.

Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) refer to a specific class of diagnoses, comprising a group of several conditions, in which, lymphocytes are produced in excessive quantities. These disorders primarily present in patients who have a compromised immune system. Due to this factor, there are instances of these conditions being equated with "immunoproliferative disorders"; although, in terms of nomenclature, lymphoproliferative disorders are a subclass of immunoproliferative disorders—along with hypergammaglobulinemia and paraproteinemias.

Immunoproliferative disorders, are disorders of the immune system that are characterized by the abnormal proliferation of the primary cells of the immune system, which includes B cells, T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, or by the excessive production of immunoglobulins.

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) occurs when antibodies directed against the person's own red blood cells (RBCs) cause them to burst (lyse), leading to an insufficient number of oxygen-carrying red blood cells in the circulation. The lifetime of the RBCs is reduced from the normal 100–120 days to just a few days in serious cases. The intracellular components of the RBCs are released into the circulating blood and into tissues, leading to some of the characteristic symptoms of this condition. The antibodies are usually directed against high-incidence antigens, therefore they also commonly act on allogenic RBCs. AIHA is a relatively rare condition, affecting one to three people per 100,000 per year. Autoimmune hemolysis might be a precursor of later onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH) is an autoimmune hemolytic anemia featured by complement-mediated intravascular hemolysis after cold exposure. It can present as an acute non-recurrent postinfectious event in children, or chronic relapsing episodes in adults with hematological malignancies or tertiary syphilis. Described by Julius Donath (1870–1950) and Karl Landsteiner (1868–1943) in 1904, PCH is one of the first clinical entities recognized as an autoimmune disorder.

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), is a form of lymphoproliferative disorder (LPDs). It affects lymphocyte apoptosis.

Large granular lymphocytic (LGL) leukemia is a chronic lymphoproliferative disorder that exhibits an unexplained, chronic elevation in large granular lymphocytes (LGLs) in the peripheral blood.

Aggressive NK-cell leukemia

Aggressive NK-cell leukemia is a disease with an aggressive, systemic proliferation of natural killer cells and a rapidly declining clinical course.


SH2 domain–containing protein 1A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SH2D1A gene. It is often called SLAM-associated protein, where "SLAM" refers to signaling lymphocytic activation molecules. It is a SH2 domain–containing molecule that plays a role in SLAM signaling. A putative function is as an adaptor for Fyn and competitor of phosphatases, leading to modulation of SLAM family function. SAP has been implicated in autoimmunity, and a mutation of it is associated with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease.


Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLAMF1 gene. Recently SLAMF1 has also been designated CD150.


T-lymphocyte surface antigen Ly-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LY9 gene. LY9 has also recently been designated CD229.

X-linked lymphoproliferative disease is a lymphoproliferative disorder.

Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma Complication of coeliac disease

Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL), previously termed enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma, type I and at one time termed enteropathy-type T-cell lymphoma (ETTL), is a complication of coeliac disease in which a malignant T-cell lymphoma develops in areas of the small intestine afflicted by the disease's intense inflammation. While a relatively rare disease, it is the most common type of primary gastrointestinal T-cell lymphoma.

Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTCL-NT) is a rare type of lymphoma that commonly involves midline areas of the nasal cavity, oral cavity, and/or pharynx At these sites, the disease often takes the form of massive, necrotic, and extremely disfiguring lesions. However, ENKTCL-NT can also involve the eye, larynx, lung, gastrointestinal tract, skin, and various other tissues. ENKTCL-NT mainly afflicts adults; it is relatively common in Asia and to lesser extents Mexico, Central America, and South America but is rare in Europe and North America. In Korea, ENKTCL-NT often involves the skin and is reported to be the most common form of cutaneous lymphoma after mycosis fungoides.

Epstein–Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative diseases are a group of disorders in which one or more types of lymphoid cells, i.e. B cells, T cells, NK cells, and histiocytic-dendritic cells, are infected with the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). This causes the infected cells to divide excessively, and is associated with the development of various non-cancerous, pre-cancerous, and cancerous lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs). These LPDs include the well-known disorder occurring during the initial infection with the EBV, infectious mononucleosis, and the large number of subsequent disorders that may occur thereafter. The virus is usually involved in the development and/or progression of these LPDs although in some cases it may be an "innocent" bystander, i.e. present in, but not contributing to, the disease.


  1. Vose JM, Panwalkar A, Belanger R, Coiffier B, Baccarani M, Gregory SA, et al. (January 2007). "A phase II multicenter study of troxacitabine in relapsed or refractory lymphoproliferative neoplasms or multiple myeloma". Leukemia & Lymphoma. 48 (1): 39–45. doi:10.1080/10428190600909578. PMID   17325846.