|Hybrid parentage||'Commelin' × '202' (U. 'Exoniensis' × U. wallichiana)|
Ulmus 'Stavast' is a Dutch hybrid elm cultivar raised at the Dorschkamp Research Institute for Forestry & Landscape Planning, Wageningen, as clone '622' from the crossing of 'Commelin' with clone '202', itself a hybrid of the Exeter Elm Ulmus 'Exoniensis' and Himalayan Elm Ulmus wallichiana .
The tree is distinguished by its dense root system.
'Stavast' has only a moderate resistance to Dutch elm disease, rated 3 out of 5.
'Stavast' has not been in commerce in its own right much. It is retained as a rootstock for grafting, as its dense root system quickly stabilized young trees.It was used as a rootstock for grafting related elms like ‘Dodoens’, ‘Clusius’ and ‘Plantijn’, cultivars now propagated by rooted cuttings.
Nevertheless, specimens were planted in the Netherlands: in the elm trial plantation at "Lepelaarweg", Zeewolde, and 1 tree in "Het Egeltjesbos" public park in village De Kwakel, Uithoorn.[ citation needed ] In 2018, at Wijdemeren city council ‘s-Gravelandsevaartweg, Loosdrecht, planted 10. [ citation needed ] Wijdemeren holds the Netherlands Plant Collection Elm since 2020. Information given by Wijdemeren tree officer M. Tijdgat, also Elm collection holder.
A number of 'Stavast' trees were exported to New Zealand for use in trials at the Hortresearch station at Palmerston North in the 1990s.[ citation needed ]
The name 'Stavast' is Dutch for "stand firmly", but is also used to describe someone of resolute character.
Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees comprising the flowering plant genus Ulmus in the plant family Ulmaceae. The genus first appeared in the Miocene geological period about 20 million years ago, originating in what is now central Asia. These trees flourished and spread over most of the Northern Hemisphere, inhabiting the temperate and tropical-montane regions of North America and Eurasia, presently ranging southward in the Middle East to Lebanon, and Israel, and across the Equator in the Far East into Indonesia.
Ulmus wallichianaPlanch., the Himalayan elm, also known as the Kashmir elm and Bhutan elm, is a mountain tree ranging from central Nuristan in Afghanistan, through northern Pakistan and northern India to western Nepal at elevations of 800–3000 m. Although dissimilar in appearance, its common name is occasionally used in error for the cherry bark elm Ulmus villosa, which is also endemic to the Kashmir, but inhabits the valleys, not the mountain slopes. The species is closely related to the wych elm U. glabra.
Ulmus 'Nanguen' is a complex fourth generation Dutch hybrid cultivar raised at the Dorschkamp Research Institute for Forestry & Landscape Planning, Wageningen. Lutèce was derived from the cross 'Plantyn' ×, an ancestry comprising four field elms, a wych elm, the curious Exeter Elm ('Exoniensis'), and a frost-resistant selection of the Himalayan elm.
Ulmus 'New Horizon' is an American hybrid cultivar raised by the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF), from a crossing of the Japanese Elm clone W43-8 = 'Reseda' with Siberian Elm clone W426 grown from seed collected from a street tree at Yankton, South Dakota. Tested in the US National Elm Trial coordinated by Colorado State University, 'New Horizon' averaged a survival rate of 74% after 10 years.'New Horizon' was patented in the US in 1994, while in Europe, it is marketed as one of the 'Resista' elms protected under E U breeders' rights.
Ulmus 'Clusius' is a Dutch hybrid elm cultivar raised at the Dorschkamp Research Institute for Forestry & Landscape Planning, Wageningen, and released to commerce in 1983. 'Clusius' was derived from a crossing of the same Dutch clones that produced the fastigiate 'Lobel' released in 1973: '202' and '336'.
Ulmus × hollandica 'Commelin' is a Dutch hybrid cultivar released for sale in 1960. The tree was raised at Baarn as clone 274 by the Foundation Willie Commelin Scholten Phytopathological Laboratory in 1940, from a crossing of Ulmus × hollandica 'Vegeta' and clone 1, an Ulmus minor selected from a 1929 elm seedlings lot obtained from the Barbier nursery, Orléans.
The Dutch hybrid cultivar Ulmus 'Dodoens' was derived from a selfed seedling of a crossing of the Exeter Elm Ulmus 'Exoniensis' with the Himalayan Elm Ulmus wallichiana at the Dorschkamp Research Institute for Forestry & Landscape Planning, Wageningen. The tree was one of several cultivars prepared for release in 1970, but delayed by the outbreak of the second, far more aggressive strain of Dutch elm disease.
The Dutch hybrid elm cultivar Ulmus × hollandica 'Groeneveld' was cloned in 1949 at the De Dorschkamp Institute, Wageningen, and released in 1963 in response to the earlier, less virulent form of Dutch elm disease that afflicted Europe shortly after the First World War. The cultivar was derived from a crossing of Dutch clones '49', and '1', a Field Elm Ulmus minor found in central France and marketed by the Barbier nursery in Orléans.
Ulmus 'Lobel' is a Dutch hybrid cultivar raised at the Dorschkamp Research Institute for Forestry & Landscape Planning, Wageningen, from a crossing of clone '202' with '336'. 'Lobel' was cloned in 1962 and released for sale in 1973.
Ulmus × hollandicaMill. , often known simply as Dutch elm, is a natural hybrid between Wych elm Ulmus glabra and field elm Ulmus minor which commonly occurs across Europe wherever the ranges of the parent species overlap. In England, according to the field-studies of R. H. Richens, "The largest area [of hybridization] is a band extending across Essex from the Hertfordshire border to southern Suffolk. The next largest is in northern Bedfordshire and adjoining parts of Northamptonshire. Comparable zones occur in Picardy and Cotentin in northern France".
Ulmus 'Plantyn' was one of three Dutch hybrid elms released by the Dorschkamp Research Institute for Forestry & Landscape Planning, Wageningen, in 1973. Derived from a crossing of the Dutch hybrids '202' and '302', it was to prove of great significance in later developments. A selfed seedling was to become the first Dutch clone to prove effectively immune to disease, released in 1989 as 'Columella'. 'Plantyn' was also destined to be the female parent of Lutèce released in 2002. In Italy, 'Plantyn' was used again as female parent in hybridizations with the Siberian Elm Ulmus pumila by the Istituto per la Protezione delle Piante (IPP), to create three new cultivars better adapted to the Mediterranean climate.
Ulmus 'Regal' is an American hybrid elm cultivar developed by the University of Wisconsin–Madison and released in 1983. 'Regal' was derived from seeds arising from the crossing of the Dutch hybrid clones 'Commelin' and '215' sent in 1960 by Hans M. Heybroek of the Dorschkamp Research Institute for Forestry & Landscape Planning, Wageningen, Netherlands.
The hybrid elm cultivar Ulmus × hollandica 'Belgica', one of a number of hybrids arising from the crossing of Wych Elm with a variety of Field Elm, was reputedly raised in the nurseries of the Abbey of the Dunes, Veurne, in 1694. Popular throughout Belgium and the Netherlands in the 19th century both as an ornamental and as a shelter-belt tree, it was the 'Hollandse iep' in these countries, as distinct from the tree known as 'Dutch Elm' in Great Britain and Ireland since the 17th century: Ulmus × hollandica 'Major'. In Francophone Belgium it was known as orme gras de Malines.
Ulmus 'Urban' is an American hybrid elm cultivar selected from the progeny of a controlled crossing of the Siberian Elm Ulmus pumila with the Dutch clone '148' in 1958 by Toru Arisumi of the USDA at Columbus, Ohio. Clone '148' had been sent to the US from the Netherlands in 1952 by Johanna Went, leader of the elm research team at the Willie Commelin Scholten Phytopathology Laboratory in Baarn.
Ulmus 'Wanoux' is a Dutch hybrid cultivar raised at the Dorschkamp Research Institute for Forestry & Landscape Planning, Wageningen, from an open pollination of 'Plantyn'. Originally identified as clone No. 762, it was selected for assessment by the French Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), which patented it as 'Wanoux' in 2006.
Ulmus 'Columella' is a Dutch elm cultivar raised by the Dorschkamp Research Institute for Forestry & Landscape Planning, Wageningen, from a selfed or openly pollinated seedling of the hybrid clone 'Plantyn' sown in 1967. It was released for sale in 1989 after proving extremely resistant to Dutch elm disease following inoculation with unnaturally high doses of the pathogen, Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. However, propagated by grafting onto Wych Elm rootstocks, graft failure owing to incompatibility has become a common occurrence in the Netherlands.
The Field Elm cultivar Ulmus minor 'Christine Buisman' was the first cultivar released by the Dutch elm breeding programme, initiated in response to the less virulent form of Dutch elm disease (DED), Ophiostoma ulmi, which afflicted Europe's elms after the First World War. 'Christine Buisman' was selected from a batch of 390 seedlings grown from seed collected in the Parque de la Quinta de la Fuente del Berro, Madrid, by Mrs Van Eeghen, a friend of elm researcher Johanna Westerdijk, in 1929 and named for the elm disease researcher Christine Buisman. Originally identified as Ulmus foliacea, it was later treated as Ulmus × hollandica by Melville. However, more recent research in Belgium using DNA markers has reaffirmed 'Christine Buisman' as a clone of U. minor.
The elm cultivar Ulmus minor 'Bea Schwarz' was cloned at Wageningen in the Netherlands, by the elm disease committee, from a selection of Ulmus minor found in France in 1939. However, specimens of the tree grown in the UK and the United States are falsely treated as Ulmus × hollandica.
The hybrid elm cultivar Ulmus 'Den Haag' is a Dutch development derived from a chance crossing of the Siberian Elm cultivar Ulmus pumila 'Pinnato-ramosa' and the Belgian Elm Ulmus × hollandica 'Belgica'. S. G. A. Doorenbos (1891-1980), Director of Public Parks in The Hague, finding that seeds he had sown in 1936 from the Zuiderpark 'Pinnato-ramosa' had hybridized with the local 'Belgica', selected six for trials. The best was cloned and grafted on 'Belgica' rootstock as 'Den Haag'; it was planted first in that city, then released to nurseries elsewhere in the Netherlands. The other five were also planted in The Hague.
Ulmus 'Rebona' is an American hybrid cultivar raised by the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF) as selection 'W916', derived from a crossing of Japanese Elm clone W43-8 = 'Reseda' with Siberian Elm clone W426 grown from seed collected from a street tree at Yankton, South Dakota. The tree was registered in 1993 by Conrad Appel KG, of Darmstadt and is a sibling of 'New Horizon'. In Europe, 'Rebona' is marketed as a Resista elm protected under E U breeders' rights.