Vero cells are a lineage of cells used in cell cultures.The 'Vero' lineage was isolated from kidney epithelial cells extracted from an African green monkey ( Chlorocebus sp.; formerly called Cercopithecus aethiops, this group of monkeys has been split into several different species). The lineage was developed on 27 March 1962, by Yasumura and Kawakita at the Chiba University in Chiba, Japan. The original cell line was named "Vero" after an abbreviation of verda reno , which means "green kidney" in Esperanto, while vero itself means "truth" in Esperanto.
The Vero cell lineage is continuous and aneuploid, meaning that it has an abnormal number of chromosomes. A continuous cell lineage can be replicated through many cycles of division and not become senescent.Vero cells are interferon-deficient; unlike normal mammalian cells, they do not secrete interferon alpha or beta when infected by viruses. However, they still have the Interferon-alpha/beta receptor, so they respond normally when recombinant interferon is added to their culture media.
The whole genome sequence of a Vero cell line was determined by Japanese investigators in 2014.Chromosome 12 of Vero cells has a homozygous ~9-Mb deletion, causing the loss of the type I interferon gene cluster and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors CDKN2A and CDKN2B in the genome. Although African green monkeys were previously classified as Cercopithecus aethiops , they have been placed within the genus Chlorocebus , which includes several species. The genome analysis indicated that the Vero cell lineage is derived from a female Chlorocebus sabaeus .
Vero cells are used for many purposes, including:
Shiga toxins are a family of related toxins with two major groups, Stx1 and Stx2, expressed by genes considered to be part of the genome of lambdoid prophages. The toxins are named after Kiyoshi Shiga, who first described the bacterial origin of dysentery caused by Shigella dysenteriae. Shiga-like toxin (SLT) is a historical term for similar or identical toxins produced by Escherichia coli. The most common sources for Shiga toxin are the bacteria S. dysenteriae and some serotypes of Escherichia coli (STEC), which includes serotypes O157:H7, and O104:H4.
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Roseolovirus is a genus of viruses in the order Herpesvirales, in the family Herpesviridae, in the subfamily Betaherpesvirinae. Humans serve as natural hosts. There are currently three species in this genus including the type species Human betaherpesvirus 6A. Diseases associated with this genus include: HHV-6: sixth disease ; HHV-7: symptoms analog to the 'sixth disease'.
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Chlorocebus is a genus of medium-sized primates from the family of Old World monkeys. Six species are currently recognized, although some people classify them all as a single species with numerous subspecies. Either way, they make up the entirety of the genus Chlorocebus.
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COS are fibroblast-like cell lines derived from monkey kidney tissue. COS cells are obtained by immortalizing CV-1 cells with a version of the SV40 virus that can produce large T antigen but has a defect in genomic replication. The CV-1 cell line in turn was derived from the kidney of the African green monkey.
Murine respirovirus, formerly Sendai virus (SeV) and previously also known as murine parainfluenza virus type 1 or hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ), is an enveloped,150-200 nm in diameter, a negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. It typically infects rodents and it is not pathogenic for humans or domestic animals. Sendai virus (SeV) is a member of genus Respirovirus. Respirovirus ~ ViralZone page The virus was isolated in the city of Sendai in Japan in the early 1950s. Since then, it has been actively used in research as a model pathogen. The virus is infectious for many cancer cell lines, has oncolytic properties demonstrated in animal models and in naturally-occurring cancers in animals. SeV's ability to fuse eukaryotic cells and to form syncytium was used to produce hybridoma cells capable of manufacturing monoclonal antibodies in large quantities. Recent applications of SeV-based vectors include the reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells and vaccines creation. For vaccination purpose the Sendai virus-based constructs could be delivered in a form of nasal drops, which may be beneficial in inducing a mucosal immune response. SeV has several features that are important in a vector for a successful vaccine: the virus does not integrate into the host genome, it does not undergo genetic recombination, it replicates only in the cytoplasm without DNA intermediates or a nuclear phase and it is not causing any disease in humans or domestic animals. Sendai virus is used as a backbone for vaccine development against Mycobacterium tuberculosis that causes tuberculosis, against HIV-1 that causes AIDS and against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) that causes respiratory infection in children. The vaccine development against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is in pre-clinical stage, against HIV-1 it reached phase II clinical trial and against RSV it is in phase I. Fudan University in collaboration with ID Pharma Co. Ltd. is engaged in development of the vaccine for COVID-19 prevention. SeV serves as a vaccine backbone vector in the project.
Macacine alphaherpesvirus 1, Herpesvirus simiae, or Herpes virus B) is the Simplexvirus infecting macaque monkeys. Macacine alphaherpesvirus 1 is an alphaherpesvirus, which consists of a subset of herpes viruses that travel within hosts using the peripheral nerves. As such, this neurotropic virus is not found in the blood.
Erbovirus is a genus of viruses in the order Picornavirales, in the family Picornaviridae. Horses serve as natural hosts. There is currently only one species in this genus: the type species Erbovirus A. Diseases associated with this genus include: upper respiratory tract disease with viremia and fecal shedding. Viruses belonging to the genus Erbovirus have been isolated in horses with acute upper febrile respiratory disease. The structure of the Erbovirus virion is icosahedral, having a diameter of 27-30 nm.
Interferon alpha-7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IFNA7 gene.
An immortalised cell line is a population of cells from a multicellular organism which would normally not proliferate indefinitely but, due to mutation, have evaded normal cellular senescence and instead can keep undergoing division. The cells can therefore be grown for prolonged periods in vitro. The mutations required for immortality can occur naturally or be intentionally induced for experimental purposes. Immortal cell lines are a very important tool for research into the biochemistry and cell biology of multicellular organisms. Immortalised cell lines have also found uses in biotechnology.
Marburg virus is a hemorrhagic fever virus of the Filoviridae family of viruses and a member of the species Marburg marburgvirus, genus Marburgvirus. Marburg virus (MARV) causes Marburg virus disease in humans and nonhuman primates, a form of viral hemorrhagic fever. The virus is considered to be extremely dangerous. The World Health Organization (WHO) rates it as a Risk Group 4 Pathogen. In the United States, the NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases ranks it as a Category A Priority Pathogen and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lists it as a Category A Bioterrorism Agent. It is also listed as a biological agent for export control by the Australia Group.
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Tahyna virus ("TAHV") is a viral pathogen of humans classified in the California encephalitis virus (CEV) serogroup of the Orthobunyavirus family in the order Bunyavirales, which is endemic to Europe, Asia, Africa and possibly China.
293T is a human cell line, derived from the HEK 293 cell line, that expresses a mutant version of the SV40 large T antigen. It is very commonly used in biology for protein expression and production of recombinant retroviruses.
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