Vero cell

Last updated
Phase-contrast microscopic image of Vero cells. (under green light. 100-fold magnification.) Vero cells.jpg
Phase-contrast microscopic image of Vero cells. (under green light. 100-fold magnification.)

Vero cells are a lineage of cells used in cell cultures. [1] The 'Vero' lineage was isolated from kidney epithelial cells extracted from an African green monkey ( Chlorocebus sp.; formerly called Cercopithecus aethiops, this group of monkeys has been split into several different species). The lineage was developed on 27 March 1962, by Yasumura and Kawakita at the Chiba University in Chiba, Japan. [2] The original cell line was named "Vero" after an abbreviation of verda reno , which means "green kidney" in Esperanto, while vero itself means "truth" in Esperanto. [3]

Contents

Characteristics

The Vero cell lineage is continuous and aneuploid, meaning that it has an abnormal number of chromosomes. A continuous cell lineage can be replicated through many cycles of division and not become senescent. [4] Vero cells are interferon-deficient; unlike normal mammalian cells, they do not secrete interferon alpha or beta when infected by viruses. [5] However, they still have the Interferon-alpha/beta receptor, so they respond normally when recombinant interferon is added to their culture media.

The whole genome sequence of a Vero cell line was determined by Japanese investigators in 2014. [6] Chromosome 12 of Vero cells has a homozygous ~9-Mb deletion, causing the loss of the type I interferon gene cluster and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors CDKN2A and CDKN2B in the genome. [6] Although African green monkeys were previously classified as Cercopithecus aethiops , they have been placed within the genus Chlorocebus , which includes several species. [7] The genome analysis indicated that the Vero cell lineage is derived from a female Chlorocebus sabaeus . [6]

Uses in research

Vero cells are used for many purposes, including:

Lineages

Isolated from C. aethiops kidney on 27 Mar 1962
Isolated from Vero in 1968, it grows to a lower saturation density (cells per unit area) than the original Vero. It is useful for detecting and counting hemorrhagic fever viruses by plaque assays.
This line is a clone from Vero 76. Vero E6 cells show some contact inhibition, so are suitable for propagating viruses that replicate slowly.
Vero F6 is a cell transfected with the gene encoding HHV-1 entry protein glycoprotein-H (gH). [8] Vero F6 was transfected via a concatenated plasmid with the gH gene after a copy of the HHV-1 glycoprotein-D (gD) promoter region. In Vero lineage F6, expression of gH is under the control of the promoter region of gD. (Also F6B2; obs. F6B1.1)

See also

Related Research Articles

Shiga toxin class of enzymes

Shiga toxins are a family of related toxins with two major groups, Stx1 and Stx2, expressed by genes considered to be part of the genome of lambdoid prophages. The toxins are named after Kiyoshi Shiga, who first described the bacterial origin of dysentery caused by Shigella dysenteriae. Shiga-like toxin (SLT) is a historical term for similar or identical toxins produced by Escherichia coli. The most common sources for Shiga toxin are the bacteria S. dysenteriae and some serotypes of Escherichia coli (STEC), which includes serotypes O157:H7, and O104:H4.

Chinese hamster ovary cell cell line

Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are an epithelial cell line derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, often used in biological and medical research and commercially in the production of therapeutic proteins. They have found wide use in studies of genetics, toxicity screening, nutrition and gene expression, particularly to express recombinant proteins. CHO cells are the most commonly used mammalian hosts for industrial production of recombinant protein therapeutics.

Transfection is the process of deliberately introducing naked or purified nucleic acids into eukaryotic cells. It may also refer to other methods and cell types, although other terms are often preferred: "transformation" is typically used to describe non-viral DNA transfer in bacteria and non-animal eukaryotic cells, including plant cells. In animal cells, transfection is the preferred term as transformation is also used to refer to progression to a cancerous state (carcinogenesis) in these cells. Transduction is often used to describe virus-mediated gene transfer into eukaryotic cells.

Roseolovirus is a genus of viruses in the order Herpesvirales, in the family Herpesviridae, in the subfamily Betaherpesvirinae. Humans serve as natural hosts. There are currently three species in this genus including the type species Human betaherpesvirus 6A. Diseases associated with this genus include: HHV-6: sixth disease ; HHV-7: symptoms analog to the 'sixth disease'.

HEK 293 cells cell line

Human embryonic kidney 293 cells, also often referred to as HEK 293, HEK-293, 293 cells, or less precisely as HEK cells, are a specific cell line originally derived from human embryonic kidney cells grown in tissue culture. HEK 293 cells have been widely used in cell biology research for many years, because of their reliable growth and propensity for transfection. They are also used by the biotechnology industry to produce therapeutic proteins and viruses for gene therapy.

Rhadinovirus is a genus of viruses in the order Herpesvirales, in the family Herpesviridae, in the subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae. Humans and other mammals serve as natural hosts. There are currently nine species in this genus including the type species Saimiriine gammaherpesvirus 2. Diseases associated with this genus include: Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease, caused by Human gammaherpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). The term rhadino comes from the Latin fragile, referring to the tendency of the viral genome to break apart when it is isolated.

Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus species of virus

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the ninth known human herpesvirus; its formal name according to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is Human gammaherpesvirus 8, or HHV-8 in short. Like other herpesviruses, its informal names are used interchangeably with its formal ICTV name. This virus causes Kaposi's sarcoma, a cancer commonly occurring in AIDS patients, as well as primary effusion lymphoma, HHV-8-associated multicentric Castleman's disease and KSHV inflammatory cytokine syndrome. It is one of seven currently known human cancer viruses, or oncoviruses. Even after so many years of discovery of KSHV/HHV8, there is no known cure for KSHV associated tumorigenesis.

<i>Chlorocebus</i> genus of mammals

Chlorocebus is a genus of medium-sized primates from the family of Old World monkeys. Six species are currently recognized, although some people classify them all as a single species with numerous subspecies. Either way, they make up the entirety of the genus Chlorocebus.

<i>Thogotovirus</i> genus of viruses

Thogotovirus is a genus of enveloped RNA viruses, one of seven genera in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae. Their single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome has six or seven segments. Thogotoviruses are distinguished from most other orthomyxoviruses by being arboviruses – viruses that are transmitted by arthropods, in this case usually ticks. Thogotoviruses can replicate in both tick cells and vertebrate cells; one subtype has also been isolated from mosquitoes. A consequence of being transmitted by blood-sucking vectors is that the virus must spread systemically in the vertebrate host – unlike influenza viruses, which are transmitted by respiratory droplets and are usually confined to the respiratory system.

COS cells COS-1 and COS-7 cell lines

COS are fibroblast-like cell lines derived from monkey kidney tissue. COS cells are obtained by immortalizing CV-1 cells with a version of the SV40 virus that can produce large T antigen but has a defect in genomic replication. The CV-1 cell line in turn was derived from the kidney of the African green monkey.

<i>Murine respirovirus</i> species of virus

Murine respirovirus, formerly Sendai virus (SeV) and previously also known as murine parainfluenza virus type 1 or hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ), is an enveloped,150-200 nm in diameter, a negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. It typically infects rodents and it is not pathogenic for humans or domestic animals. Sendai virus (SeV) is a member of genus Respirovirus. Respirovirus ~ ViralZone page The virus was isolated in the city of Sendai in Japan in the early 1950s. Since then, it has been actively used in research as a model pathogen. The virus is infectious for many cancer cell lines, has oncolytic properties demonstrated in animal models and in naturally-occurring cancers in animals. SeV's ability to fuse eukaryotic cells and to form syncytium was used to produce hybridoma cells capable of manufacturing monoclonal antibodies in large quantities. Recent applications of SeV-based vectors include the reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells and vaccines creation. For vaccination purpose the Sendai virus-based constructs could be delivered in a form of nasal drops, which may be beneficial in inducing a mucosal immune response. SeV has several features that are important in a vector for a successful vaccine: the virus does not integrate into the host genome, it does not undergo genetic recombination, it replicates only in the cytoplasm without DNA intermediates or a nuclear phase and it is not causing any disease in humans or domestic animals. Sendai virus is used as a backbone for vaccine development against Mycobacterium tuberculosis that causes tuberculosis, against HIV-1 that causes AIDS and against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) that causes respiratory infection in children. The vaccine development against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is in pre-clinical stage, against HIV-1 it reached phase II clinical trial and against RSV it is in phase I. Fudan University in collaboration with ID Pharma Co. Ltd. is engaged in development of the vaccine for COVID-19 prevention. SeV serves as a vaccine backbone vector in the project.

Macacine alphaherpesvirus 1, Herpesvirus simiae, or Herpes virus B) is the Simplexvirus infecting macaque monkeys. Macacine alphaherpesvirus 1 is an alphaherpesvirus, which consists of a subset of herpes viruses that travel within hosts using the peripheral nerves. As such, this neurotropic virus is not found in the blood.

Erbovirus is a genus of viruses in the order Picornavirales, in the family Picornaviridae. Horses serve as natural hosts. There is currently only one species in this genus: the type species Erbovirus A. Diseases associated with this genus include: upper respiratory tract disease with viremia and fecal shedding. Viruses belonging to the genus Erbovirus have been isolated in horses with acute upper febrile respiratory disease. The structure of the Erbovirus virion is icosahedral, having a diameter of 27-30 nm.

IFNA7 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Interferon alpha-7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IFNA7 gene.

Immortalised cell line Eukaryotic cell clone derived from an eukaryotic organism by immortalization

An immortalised cell line is a population of cells from a multicellular organism which would normally not proliferate indefinitely but, due to mutation, have evaded normal cellular senescence and instead can keep undergoing division. The cells can therefore be grown for prolonged periods in vitro. The mutations required for immortality can occur naturally or be intentionally induced for experimental purposes. Immortal cell lines are a very important tool for research into the biochemistry and cell biology of multicellular organisms. Immortalised cell lines have also found uses in biotechnology.

Marburg virus species in the genus Marburgvirus

Marburg virus is a hemorrhagic fever virus of the Filoviridae family of viruses and a member of the species Marburg marburgvirus, genus Marburgvirus. Marburg virus (MARV) causes Marburg virus disease in humans and nonhuman primates, a form of viral hemorrhagic fever. The virus is considered to be extremely dangerous. The World Health Organization (WHO) rates it as a Risk Group 4 Pathogen. In the United States, the NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases ranks it as a Category A Priority Pathogen and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lists it as a Category A Bioterrorism Agent. It is also listed as a biological agent for export control by the Australia Group.

WI-38 Human cell line composed of fibroblasts

WI-38 is a diploid human cell line composed of fibroblasts derived from lung tissue of a 3-month-gestation aborted female fetus. The cell line, isolated by Leonard Hayflick in the 1960s, has been used extensively in scientific research, with applications ranging from developing important theories in molecular biology and aging to the production of most human virus vaccines. The contributions from this cell line towards human virus vaccine production have been credited with avoiding disease in, or saving the lives of, billions of people.

The Lone Star virus is a highly divergent Bunyavirus, which is carried and transmitted by the Lone Star Tick, Amblyomma americanum. This is the same vector that transmits the SFTS virus, and the newly discovered Bhanja and Heartland virus.

Tahyna virus ("TAHV") is a viral pathogen of humans classified in the California encephalitis virus (CEV) serogroup of the Orthobunyavirus family in the order Bunyavirales, which is endemic to Europe, Asia, Africa and possibly China.

293T is a human cell line, derived from the HEK 293 cell line, that expresses a mutant version of the SV40 large T antigen. It is very commonly used in biology for protein expression and production of recombinant retroviruses.

References

  1. History and Characterization of the Vero Cell Line -- A Report prepared by CDR Rebecca Sheets, Ph.D., USPHS CBER/OVRR/DVRPA/VVB for the Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee Meeting to be held on May 12, 2000 OPEN SESSION www.fda.gov pdf
  2. Yasumura Y, Kawakita M (1963). "The research for the SV40 by means of tissue culture technique". Nippon Rinsho. 21 (6): 1201–1219.
  3. Shimizu B (1993). Seno K, Koyama H, Kuroki T (eds.). Manual of selected cultured cell lines for bioscience and biotechnology (in Japanese). Tokyo: Kyoritsu Shuppan. pp. 299–300. ISBN   978-4-320-05386-1.
  4. "Main Types of Cell Culture". Fundamental Techniques in Cell Culture: a Laboratory Handbook. Retrieved 2006-09-28.
  5. Desmyter J, Melnick JL, Rawls WE (October 1968). "Defectiveness of Interferon Production and of Rubella Virus Interference in a Line of African Green Monkey Kidney Cells (Vero)". J. Virol. 2 (10): 955–61. PMC   375423 . PMID   4302013.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 Osada N, Kohara A, Yamaji T, Hirayama N, Kasai F, Sekizuka T, Kuroda M, Hanada K (2014). "The genome landscape of the African green monkey kidney-derived Vero cell line". DNA Research. 21 (6): 673–83. doi:10.1093/dnares/dsu029. PMC   4263300 . PMID   25267831.
  7. Haus T, Akom E, Agwanda B, Hofreiter M, Roos C, Zinner D (April 2013). "Mitochondrial diversity and distribution of African green monkeys (chlorocebus gray, 1870)". Am. J. Primatol. 75 (4): 350–60. doi:10.1002/ajp.22113. PMC   3613741 . PMID   23307319.
  8. Forrester A, Farrell H, Wilkinson G, Kaye J, Davis-Poynter N, Minson T (January 1992). "Construction and properties of a mutant of herpes simplex virus type 1 with glycoprotein H coding sequences deleted". J. Virol. 66 (1): 341–8. PMC   238293 . PMID   1309250.