.30-30 Winchester

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.30-30 Winchester
A .30 WCF cartridge.
Place of originUnited States
Production history
Designer Winchester
Variants .25-35 Winchester, .219 Zipper, .30-30 Ackley Improved, 7-30 Waters, .32 Winchester Special
Parent case .38-55 Winchester
Case type Rimmed, bottleneck
Bullet diameter.308 in (7.8 mm)
Neck diameter.330 in (8.4 mm)
Shoulder diameter.401 in (10.2 mm)
Base diameter.422 in (10.7 mm)
Rim diameter.506 in (12.9 mm)
Rim thickness.063 in (1.6 mm)
Case length2.039 in (51.8 mm)
Overall length2.550 in (64.8 mm)
Primer typeLarge rifle
Maximum pressure (SAAMI)42,000 psi (290 MPa)
Ballistic performance
Bullet mass/typeVelocityEnergy
110 gr (7 g) FP2,684 ft/s (818 m/s)1,760 ft⋅lbf (2,390 J)
130 gr (8 g) FP2,496 ft/s (761 m/s)1,799 ft⋅lbf (2,439 J)
150 gr (10 g) FN2,390 ft/s (730 m/s)1,903 ft⋅lbf (2,580 J)
160 gr (10 g) cast LFN2,330 ft/s (710 m/s)1,929 ft⋅lbf (2,615 J)
170 gr (11 g) FP2,227 ft/s (679 m/s)1,873 ft⋅lbf (2,539 J)
Source(s): Hodgdon [1]

The .30-30 Winchester/.30 Winchester Center Fire cartridge was first marketed in 1895 for the Winchester Model 1894 lever-action rifle. [2] The .30-30 (or "thirty-thirty"), as it is most commonly known, and the .25-35 were offered that year as the United States's first small-bore sporting rifle cartridges designed for smokeless powder. Since its introduction, it has been surpassed by many cartridges in the long-range shooting attributes of speed, energy, and trajectory, [3] yet remains in widespread use because of its practical effectiveness in forested hunting situations. [4]


The .30-30 is by far the most common cartridge shot from lever action rifles. [5] The .30-30 is substantially more powerful than the Magnum handgun cartridges (e.g., .357, .44, et al.) also often paired with lever actions, and produces that energy with mild recoil. [6] While its old rival .35 Remington produces more muzzle energy and recoil, the .30-30 will often retain more terminal energy. [6] The .30-30 is not commonly used for extreme long-range shooting across wide-open spaces, but modern innovations in ballistic tipped bullets for leverguns have moved the long-range capabilities of the .30-30 somewhat closer to parity with higher-velocity cartridges. [7] [8] In any case, a hunting-specific advantage of the .30-30 over those cartridges is that it leaves lower volumes of spoiled (destroyed or bloodshot) venison after a kill, leading to less waste. [9] [10]

The .30-30 is often said to have killed more whitetail deer in North America than any cartridge in history, and it remains highly popular today. [11] [12] [13]


The .30 Winchester Smokeless first appeared in Winchester's catalog No. 55, dated August 1895. When chambered in the Winchester Model 1894 carbine and rifle, it was also known as .30 Winchester Center Fire or .30 WCF. When the cartridge was chambered in the Marlin Model 1893 rifle, rival gunmaker Marlin used the designation .30-30 or .30-30 Smokeless. The added -30 stands for the standard load of 30 grains (1.9  g ) of early smokeless powder and is based on late-19th century American naming conventions for black powder-filled cartridges. Both Marlin and Union Metallic Cartridge Co. also dropped the Winchester appellation, as they did not want to put the name of rival Winchester on their products. [14]

The modern designation of .30-30 Winchester was arrived at by using Marlin's variation of the name with the Winchester name appended as originator of the cartridge, but .30 WCF is still seen occasionally.

Characteristics and use

A Winchester 1894 in .30 WCF. Winchester94 forest.jpg
A Winchester 1894 in .30 WCF.

When the .30 WCF was introduced, it was seen as fast and flat-shooting: 160 or 165 grains at 1,900 to 2,000 fps and a 4 inch drop at 200 yards if sighted in for 150 yards. [15] The cartridge's common loads are 150 grain (MV 2,390 fps from a 24-inch barrel) and 170 grain (MV 2200 fps from a 24-inch barrel). [16]

In Canada and the U.S., the cartridge has likely, at some point, been used on all big game species. [17] More recently, it has been used on whitetail, mule deer, pronghorn, caribou, elk, moose, and black bear. [18] It is commonly said that in the U.S. and Canada more deer have been killed with the .30-30 than with any other cartridge, and perhaps this was true for a time in the U.S. It is unlikely to be true in Canada where, for a period, military surplus rifles in .303 British were widely available and used; they were cheaper than lever-action rifles and the cartridge was more powerful than the .30-30. [19] The .30-30 is commonly seen as usable on deer up to 150 to 200 yards. [20]

In Canada the .30-30 has a long history of use on moose—one writer calling it "a standby for moose" in Canada's northern forests. [21] In some circles it continues to be used, yet modern opinions on its suitability for moose are mixed. Paul Robertson, a Canadian hunting firearms columnist, says, "Too many moose have been taken with the 30/30 to rule it out as good for this purpose as well." [22] The .30-30 is legal for hunting moose in Newfoundland, Canada, but provincial authorities do not recommend its use. [23] The cartridge, with flat- or round-nosed bullets in standard loadings, does not meet minimum energy standards required for moose hunting in Finland, Norway, or Sweden. [24] Thor Strimbold, a Canadian who has made more than 20 one-shot kills on moose with a .30-30, advises most moose hunters to use more than minimal power if they can handle the recoil. [25] It is generally agreed that the .30-30 is not a good choice for hunters who wish to shoot animals at longer ranges. [26] Hunting technique and style, as well as law and culture, influence cartridge choices. [27]

One reason for the .30-30's popularity among deer hunters is its light recoil. Average recoil from a typical 150-grain load at 2,390 feet per second (730 m/s) in a 7.5 lb (3.4 kg) rifle is 10.6 foot-pounds (14.4 J) of felt recoil at the shooter's shoulder, about half that of a comparable rifle chambered for the .30-06 Springfield. [28] Among some hunters, though, the .30-30 has been replaced by cartridges such as the .243 Winchester, 7mm-08 Remington, and 6.5 Creedmoor, which also offer light recoil along with more speed, energy, and a flatter trajectory. [3]

For a period of time the Model 94 in .30-30 was relatively inexpensive, which helped its popularity. Today the cost of a .30-30 is matched by some entry-level bolt-action sporting rifles. The .30-30 remains popular, though, among some hunters who value a short, handy rifle used at ranges that will likely not exceed 150 yards (137 meters). [29] Mlllions of rifles have been produced in this caliber, with many passed on to a new generation of hunters. [30] The practicality of hunting with an inherited rifle and cartridge, especially if the combination has been seen as effective at modest range, [31] is an important factor in some circles. The widespread availability of .30-30 loads, which can cost less than some other calibers, is another factor. New rifles continue to be purchased and cartridge sales are strong.

Because the majority of rifles chambered in .30-30 are lever-action rifles with tubular magazines, most .30-30 cartridges are loaded with round-nose or flat-nose bullets for safety. This is to prevent a spitzer-point bullet (the shape seen on the 7.62×51mm NATO above) from setting off the primer of the cartridge ahead of it in the magazine during recoil, resulting in potentially catastrophic damage to both firearm and shooter. The Savage Model 99 was introduced in 1899 with a rotary magazine, in part, to avoid that issue. When used in single-shot rifles or handguns, such as the Thompson Center Arms Contender or Encore series, it is common for shooters to hand load the cartridge with spire-point bullets for improved ballistics.

A notable exception to the "no pointed bullets" guideline for bullet selection in rifles with tubular magazines are the new flexible "memory elastomer"-tipped LEVERevolution cartridges as produced by Hornady. [32] The soft tips of these bullets easily deform under compression, preventing detonations while under recoil in the magazine, yet also return to their original pointed shape when that pressure is removed, thus allowing for a more efficient bullet shape than previously available to load safely in such rifles. The more aerodynamic shape results in a flatter bullet trajectory and greater retained velocity downrange, significantly increasing the effective range of rifles chambered for this cartridge. [8] [7]

Rifles and handguns chambered in .30-30

The .30-30 is by far the most common chambering in lever-action rifles, [5] such as the Marlin Model 336 and Winchester Model 1894. Some earlier Savage Model 99 rifles were chambered for this cartridge. Current production lever-action rifles include those by Marlin, Mossberg, Henry, and Winchester. Savage also produced a pump-action Model 170, both rifle and carbine, that was available in .30-30. In Europe the .30-30 was occasionally used in a drilling, a three-barrelled firearm (one rifle barrel on top of two shotgun barrels). [33]

The rimmed design is well suited for various single-shot actions, so it is commonly found there, as well. Rimmed cartridges are chambered in bolt-action rifles, but .30-30 bolt actions are uncommon today. "At one time Winchester turned out the Model 54 bolt-action repeater in this caliber [.30 WCF], but it was a decided failure, chiefly because the man desiring a bolt action preferred to take one of the better and more powerful cartridges. However, in this particular caliber, the .30 WCF cartridge proved to be decidedly accurate." [34] In addition, rimmed cartridges typically do not feed well with the box magazines normally found on bolt-action rifles. [35] [36] Other examples of bolt-action rifles offered in .30-30 Winchester are the Stevens Model 325, the Savage Model 340, the Springfield/Savage 840, and the Remington 788.[ citation needed ]

A Magnum Research BFR in .30-30. BFR 30-30, Revolver for Article.jpg
A Magnum Research BFR in .30-30.

In the sport of handgun metallic silhouette shooting, the .30-30 has been used. The Thompson Center Arms Contender pistol, with its compact frame and break-action design, is available for the .30-30 cartridge. The .30-30 will produce velocities of nearly 2000 f/s (610 m/s) out of the 10-in (25-cm) Contender barrel, though recoil and muzzle blast are stronger due to the short barrel. The longer barrel results in significant reductions in felt recoil (due to increased weight) and muzzle blast, with higher velocities, especially if factory-loaded rifle ammunition is used. Magnum Research offers their five-shot BFR revolver in .30-30. [37] In the U.S., some handgun hunters use the 30-30. [38] Hunting with a pistol is not permitted in Canada.

Derivative cartridges

In addition to the most common factory derivations, the .25-35 Winchester (6.5×52mmR) and .32 Winchester Special, and the less-known .219 Zipper, the .30-30 has also spawned many wildcat cartridges over the years. One example is the 7-30 Waters, made by necking the .30-30 case down to 7 mm (.284 in). The 7-30 Waters eventually moved from a wildcat design to a factory chambering, with rifles being made by Winchester, and barrels made by Thompson/Center for their Contender pistol. Other .30-30-based wildcats are used almost exclusively in the Contender pistol. One of the more notable examples is the .30 Herrett, a .30-30 case necked back to reduce case capacity for more efficient loading with fast-burning powders. The .30 Herrett produces higher velocities with less powder than the larger .30-30 case in the short 10- and 14-in (25- and 35-cm) Contender barrels. Other examples are the .357 Herrett, developed to handle heavier bullets and larger game than the .30 Herrett, and the 7 mm International Rimmed, a popular metallic silhouette cartridge. Bullberry, a maker of custom Contender barrels, offers proprietary .30-30 wildcats in 6 mm, .25 caliber, and 6.5 mm diameters. [39] [40] In addition, P.O. Ackley used the cartridge as the basis for the .30-30 Ackley Improved. [41]

See also

Related Research Articles

Single-shot Firearm that holds one round of ammunition

Single-shot firearms are firearms that hold only a single round of ammunition, and must be reloaded manually after every shot. The history of firearms began with single-shot designs, then multi-barreled designs appeared, and eventually many centuries passed before multi-shot repeater designs became commonplace.

.45 Colt Revolver cartridge designed by the U.S. Army

The .45 Colt (11.43×33mmR), is a rimmed, straight-walled, handgun cartridge dating to 1872. It was originally a black-powder revolver round developed for the Colt Single Action Army revolver. This cartridge was adopted by the U.S. Army in 1873 and served as an official US military handgun cartridge for 14 years.

.44 Magnum Revolver cartridge designed by Elmer Keith and Smith & Wesson (S&W)

The .44 Remington Magnum, also known as .44 Magnum or 10.9x33mmR, is a rimmed, large-bore cartridge originally designed for revolvers and quickly adopted for carbines and rifles. Despite the ".44" designation, guns chambered for the .44 Magnum round, and its parent, the .44 Special, use 0.429 in (10.9 mm) diameter bullets. The .44 Magnum is based on the .44 Special case but lengthened and loaded to higher pressures for greater velocity and energy.

.22 Short Variety of rimfire .22 caliber ammunition

.22 Short is a variety of .22 caliber (5.6 mm) rimfire ammunition. Developed in 1857 for the first Smith & Wesson revolver, the .22 rimfire was the first American metallic cartridge. The original loading was a 29 or 30 gr bullet and 4 gr of black powder. The original .22 rimfire cartridge was renamed .22 Short with the introduction of the .22 Long in 1871.

.32-20 Winchester

The .32-20 Winchester, also known as .32 WCF , was the first small-game lever-action cartridge that Winchester produced. It was initially introduced as a black-powder cartridge in 1882 for small-game, varmint hunting, and deer. Colt produced a single-action revolver chambered for this cartridge a few years later.

Wildcat cartridge Custom cartridge for firearms

A wildcat cartridge, often shortened to wildcat, is a custom cartridge for which ammunition and/or firearms are not mass-produced. These cartridges are often created in order to optimize a certain performance characteristic of an existing commercial cartridge.

.243 Winchester

The .243 Winchester (6×52mm) is a popular sporting rifle cartridge. Developed as a versatile short action cartridge to hunt both medium game and small game alike, it "took whitetail hunting by storm" when introduced in 1955, and remains one of the most popular whitetail deer cartridges. It is also commonly used for harvesting blacktail deer, pronghorns and mule deer with heavier rounds, and is equally suited to varmint hunting with lighter rounds. The .243 is based on a necked down .308 Winchester, introduced only three years earlier. Expanding monolithic copper bullets of approximately 80 to 85 grains or traditional lead rounds of 90 to 105 grains with controlled expansion designs are best suited for hunting medium game, while lighter rounds are intended for varmints.

Metallic silhouette shooting

Metallic silhouette shooting is a group of target shooting disciplines that involves shooting at steel targets representing game animals at varying distances, seeking to knock the metal target over. Metallic silhouette is shot with large bore rifles fired freehand without support out to 500 meters, and with large bore handguns from the prone position with only body support out to 200 meters. Competitions are also held with airguns and black-powder firearms. A related genre is shot with bow and arrow, the metal targets being replaced with cardboard or foam. The targets used are rams, turkeys, pigs, and chickens, which are cut to different scales and set at certain distances from the shooter depending on the specific discipline.

.270 Winchester Rifle cartridge

The .270 Winchester is a rifle cartridge developed by Winchester Repeating Arms Company in 1923 and unveiled in 1925 as a chambering for their bolt-action Model 54 to become arguably the flattest shooting cartridge of its day, only competing with the .300 Holland & Holland Magnum, also introduced in the same year.

7mm-08 Remington Necked down .308Win

The 7mm-08 Remington is a rifle cartridge that is almost a direct copy of a wildcat cartridge developed around 1958 known as the 7mm/308. As these names would suggest, it is the .308 Winchester case necked down to accept 7 mm (.284) bullets with a small increase in case length. Of cartridges based upon the .308, it is the second most popular behind only the .243 Winchester. However, the .308 is more popular than both. In 1980, the Remington Arms company popularized the cartridge by applying its own name and offering it as a chambering for their Model 788 and Model 700 rifles, along with a limited-run series within their Model 7600 pump-action rifles during the early 2000s.

.25-35 Winchester

The .25-35 Winchester, or WCF was introduced in 1895 by Winchester for the Winchester Model 1894. Together with the .30-30, it was one of the earliest smokeless cartridges designed in North America for a sporting rifle. Savage adopted it for its Savage Model 99 lever-action rifles. The case was based on the .30-30 cartridge.

6mm Remington

The 6mm Remington rifle cartridge, originally introduced in 1955 by Remington Arms Company as the .244 Remington, is based on a necked down .257 Roberts cartridge using a .24/6mm bullet. Known for a combination of high velocity, long range, flat trajectory, and accuracy, it is suitable as a dual use hunting cartridge for both medium-sized big game and varmints. When used in the less common earlier slow twist barrels, it offers exceptional range for varmint applications. While not as commercially popular today as the .243 Winchester, the 6mm Remington enjoys a slight ballistic advantage and continues to be popular with handloaders and custom rifle builders.

.35 Remington Firearm cartridge from the Remingtons lineup

The .35 Remington (8.9 x 49 mm) is the only remaining cartridge from Remington's lineup of medium-power rimless cartridges still in commercial production. Introduced in 1906, it was originally chambered for the Remington Model 8 semi-automatic rifle in 1908.

The 7-30 Waters cartridge was originally a wildcat cartridge developed by author Ken Waters in 1976 to give better performance to lever-action rifle shooters than the parent .30-30 Winchester cartridge, by providing a higher velocity and flatter trajectory with a smaller, lighter bullet. By 1984, Winchester introduced a Model 94 rifle chambered for the 7-30 Waters, establishing it as a commercial cartridge. In 1986, Thompson/Center began chambering 10-inch, 14-inch, and 20-inch Contender barrels for the cartridge.

.325 Winchester Short Magnum

The .325 Winchester Short Magnum, commonly known as the 325 WSM is an 8mm caliber rebated rim bottlenecked centerfire short magnum medium bore cartridge. The cartridge was introduced by Winchester Ammunition in 2005.

.32-40 Ballard

The .32-40 Ballard is an American rifle cartridge.

Varmint rifle

Varmint rifle is an American English term for a small-caliber precision firearm or high-powered airgun primarily used for both varmint hunting and pest control. These tasks include killing three types of pests or nuisance animals that spread diseases or destroy crops or livestock:

.500 S&W Magnum Revolver cartridge designed by Cor-bon and Smith & Wesson (S&W)

The .500 S&W Magnum or 12.7×41mmSR is a .50 caliber semi-rimmed revolver cartridge developed by Cor-Bon in partnership with the Smith & Wesson "X-Gun" engineering team for use in the Smith & Wesson Model 500 X-frame revolver and introduced in February 2003 at the SHOT Show. It has two primary design purposes: as a hunting handgun cartridge capable of taking all North American game species, and to be the most powerful production handgun cartridge to date.

.350 Legend Hunting cartridge by Winchester Repeating Arms

The .350 Legend (9×43 mm), also called 350 LGND, is a SAAMI-standardized straight-walled hunting cartridge developed by Winchester Repeating Arms. The cartridge was designed for use in American states that have specific regulations for deer hunting with straight-walled centerfire cartridges. Winchester claims that the .350 Legend is the fastest production straight-walled hunting cartridge in the world, although some .444 Marlin and .458 Winchester Magnum loads are faster. It is designed for deer hunting out to a maximum effective range of 250 yards (230 m).

The 6.8 Western is a centerfire rifle cartridge designed by Winchester Repeating Arms Company and Browning Arms Company. Introduced to the market in 2021 basically as a big game hunting cartridge that may be also used for long range target shooting.


  1. ".30-30 load data Archived 2007-11-11 at the Wayback Machine " from Hodgdon.
  2. "Load Guide" data from Accurate Powder.
  3. 1 2 Ron Spomer. "Whitetail Deer Cartridge Shoot-Out: .30-30 Win. vs. .243 Win. vs. .30-06 Springfield". Outdoor Life , October 28, 2019. Accessed March 4, 2021.
  4. Rick Jamison, "The Winchester Model 94 .30-30," Shooting Times August 1989. G. Sitton, "Lever Guns and Iron Sights," Hunting April 1997. Layne Simpson, "The Sights and Sounds of the .30-30," Shooting Times September 1992. Grits Gresham, "The .30/30" Sports Afield August 1980.
  5. 1 2 Chuck Hawks. "The Deer Rifle". ChuckHawks.com. Accessed January 26, 2022.
  6. 1 2 Chuck Hawks. "Handgun Cartridges in Rifles". Chuckhawks.com. Accessed January 25, 2022.
  7. 1 2 Mann, Richard. "The .30-30 Rides Again". Guns and Hunting. National Rifle Association of America. Archived from the original on February 6, 2007.
  8. 1 2 Hornady LEVERevolution Ammunition by Guns and Shooting Online Staff at Chuck Hawks.
  9. Ron Spomer. "Choosing Your Best Deer Cartridge", Ron Spomer Outdoors on YouTube [3:30 mark], August 10, 2021. Accessed January 26, 2022.
  10. Ron Spomer. "30-30 Winchester Is A Joke". Ron Spomer Outdoors, October 20, 2021. Accessed January 25, 2022.
  11. Philip Massaro. "Top 5 Lever-Action Rifle Cartridges". American Hunter , November 29, 2019. Accessed January 25, 2022.
  12. Mark Chestnut. "A Lever Action .30-30 Winchester is Still One of the Best Deer Hunting Rifles (And Here’s Why)". Outdoor Life , October 19, 2019. Accessed January 25, 2022.
  13. "30-30 Misconceptions Through The Years". Winchester Repeating Arms Company. Accessed January 25, 2022.
  14. Leverguns.com article on History of the .30-30.
  15. H. V. Stent, "The Winchester Model 94," Gun Digest 1980. However, a vintage ad reproduced by Winchester suggests the velocity was 1812. Layne Simpson, "The Sights and Sounds of the .30-30," Shooting Times September 1992, says 1795 fps. Sources such as Stent and Simpson differ on the amount of drop at 200 yards. In any case, both say it was significantly flatter than the .44-40 Winchester it replaced.
  16. Layne Simpson, "The Sights and Sounds of the .30-30," says the 150 grain load was increased to 2,370 fps in the 1920s and the 170 grain load to 2,200 fps just before World War Two. Remington ballistics tables.
  17. Clay Harvey, "30-30 Winchester," in Popular Sporting Rifle Cartridges DBI 1984. Bert Stent, "A Small Wonder—The .30-30 Carbine," BC Outdoors July 1988; Bob Milek, "The Old .30-30 is as good as ever!" Guns & Ammo July 1985; Grits Gresham, "The 30/30" Sports Afield August 1989.
  18. H. V. Stent, "The Model 94 Winchester" Gun Digest 1980. David O'Farrell, "The Lever Guns of Our Grandfathers" The Outdoor Edge September/October 2014. W. P. Williamson, "Charmed Three Times!" The Outdoor Edge November/December 1997. Wayne van Zwoll, "Adrift in Alaska," Petersen's Hunting May/June 2006. Charles Farmer, "Black Timber Elk" 1987 Sports Afield Deer. Grits Gresham, "The 30/30" Sports Afield August 1989. Kevin Steele, "Deer Cartridges East vs West," Guns & Ammo December 1989.
  19. Cary Rideout, "The Providers," Outdoor Canada Hunting 2011. Grits Gresham, "The 30/30," Sports Afield August 1989, says the .30-30 has killed "more deer than any other caliber in history." Jack O'Connor wrote decades ago that the .44-40 had likely killed more game than the .30-30. A vintage Baker & Kimball ad selling Model 92 Winchester rifles said they were "Chambered for the popular 44/40 which has killed more American big game than any other cartridge made." Reproduced in Duncan Dobie, "Dawn of American Deer Hunting" Krause Publications 2011. The .30-06, popular around the world today and only 11 years younger than the .30-30, has likely surpassed the .30-30 for top spot as a deer killer in the U.S. today.
  20. Wayne van Zwoll, "Quick-Handling Carbines," North American Hunter November 2003. Russell Tinsley, Hunting the Whitetail Deer Outdoor Life 1977.
  21. H. V. Stent, "The Winchester Model 94," Gun Digest 1980. However, the 303 British likely has killed more moose in Canada because of the wide availability, for a time, of inexpensive military surplus rifles (Cary Rideout, "The Providers," Outdoor Canada Hunting 2011).
  22. "The Immortal 30-30," Western Sportsman Oct.-Nov. 1990.
  23. Newfoundland hunting regulations.
  24. Sweden and Finland expect a load for moose to retain 2,000 joules at 100 meters (1475 fpe at about 110 yards). Norway expects 2,200 joules (1622 fpe) at 100 meters. Hornady's LEVERevolution 160-gr flex-tipped spitzer ammunition might meet the standard in Sweden and Finland especially if the rifle's barrel length is beyond 20 inches (reviewguns.com).
  25. H. V. Stent, "The Winchester Model 94," Gun Digest 1980. Stent says Strimbold came to advise nothing less powerful than the .308 Win. "for inexperienced hunters" on moose. Stent put the 303 British and 300 Savage in the "same class." Stent said, "I myself would be a little happier with a heavier caliber" than a .30-30 for moose and elk, indicating, "My own choice might be a 7x57." H. V. Stent, "Of Power and Placement," Gun Digest 1989.
  26. H. V. Stent, "The Winchester Model 94," Gun Digest 1980, limits it to "150 yards or so" on moose and elk, though he later said he would prefer a heavier caliber on such game. H. V. Stent, "Of Power and Placement" Gun Digest 1989. Some people will say 150 yards is too far on moose and elk for a cartridge that, in a standard round-nosed load from a 20-inch carbine, might retain only 1,000 fpe. Sweden and Finland expect a load for moose to retain 2000 joules at 100 meters (1475 fpe at about 110 yards). Norway expects 2200 joules (1,622 fpe) at 100 meters.
  27. Bob Milek, "What determines 'maximum effective range'?" Guns & Ammo December 1989.
  28. "Chuck Hawks" article IDEAL DEER CARTRIDGES.
  29. Clay Harvey, "30-30 Winchester," in Popular Sporting Rifle Cartridges, DBI 1984. John Wootters, "Winchester's Model 94—The First Hundred Years," Hunting December 1994. John Wootters, "The New/Old .30-30," Petersen's Hunting May 1989. Rick Jamison, "The Winchester Model 94 .30-30," Shooting Times August 1989.
  30. Rich LaRocco, "Picking a Deer Rifle That Works for You," Hunting Guns 1984.
  31. Sam Fadala, "America Meets the .30-30," in Book of the Winchester Models 70 & 94Shooting Times 2007.
  32. "LEVERevolution Archived 2006-11-14 at the Wayback Machine " at Hornady web site.
  33. Layne Simpson, "The Sights and Sounds of the .30-30," Shooting Times September 1992
  34. Sharpe, Philip B. (1937). "Part Two Rifle Loading Data". Complete Guide to Handloading, A Treatise on Handloading for Pleasure, Economy and Utility. Funk & Wagnalls. p. 368.
  35. "Rimmed cartridges have certain drawbacks, but these were of no concern at the time the design was introduced. The biggest of these is the difficulty in obtaining reliable feeding from a box-type magazine. The rims tend to interfere with each other during the feeding cycle. This occurs when the rim of the cartridge being chambered tries to strip the round beneath it, since the rims do not easily ride over one another." in The Cartridge case Archived 2019-10-19 at the Wayback Machine article by Sierra Bullets.
  36. "When several cartridges are stacked in a magazine, the rims get in the way." in GUNS AND AMMO: Terminology – Firearms.
  37. BFR article Archived 2006-10-14 at the Wayback Machine at Magnum Research web site.
  38. Bob Milek, "The 30-30: A Big-Game Handgun Cartridge," Petersen's Hunting May 1988.
  39. "Cartridge Loads". Hodgdon. Archived from the original on 2007-11-11. Retrieved 2007-08-01., .30 Herrett, 130 gr at 2344 ft/s with 22 gr of H110; .30-30 pistol, 130 gr at 2238 ft/s with 36 gr of Varget
  40. Bulleberry Barrel Works. "Bullberry Loading Data". Archived from the original on 2008-10-15. Retrieved 2008-10-13.
  41. Judy Donnelly (2011). The Handloader's Manual of Cartridge Conversions. p. 200. ISBN   978-1-5107-2027-5.