Battle of Campichuelo

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Battle of Campichuelo
Part of Paraguay campaign
Paraguay campana 02.png
Military operations in Paraguay (in Spanish)
Date19 December 1810
LocationCampichuelo, near Encarnación, Paraguay
Result United Provinces victory
Belligerents
Flag of Argentina (alternative).svg United Provinces of South America. Flag of Spain (1785-1873 and 1875-1931).svg Royalist Paraguay
Commanders and leaders
Flag of Argentina (alternative).svg Manuel Belgrano Flag of Spain (1785-1873 and 1875-1931).svg Pablo Thompson
Strength
800 soldiers 500 soldiers

The Battle of Campichuelo was a battle fought on 19 December 1810 between revolutionary forces led by Manuel Belgrano and Royalist troops on the right bank of the Paraná River, part of the Paraguay campaign of the Argentine War of Independence. It ended with a victory for the forces of Belgrano.

Manuel Belgrano Argentine politician and military leader

Manuel José Joaquín del Corazón de Jesús Belgrano y González, usually referred to as Manuel Belgrano, was an Argentine economist, lawyer, politician, and military leader. He took part in the Argentine Wars of Independence and created the Flag of Argentina. He is regarded as one of the main Libertadores of the country.

Paraná River river in South America

The Paraná River is a river in south Central South America, running through Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina for some 4,880 kilometres (3,030 mi). It is second in length only to the Amazon River among South American rivers. The name Paraná is an abbreviation of the phrase "para rehe onáva", which comes from the Tupi language and means "like the sea". It merges first with the Paraguay River and then farther downstream with the Uruguay River to form the Río de la Plata and empties into the Atlantic Ocean.

Paraguay campaign

The Paraguay campaign (1810–11) was the attempt by a Buenos Aires-sponsored militia, commanded by Manuel Belgrano, to win the royalist Intendency of Paraguay for the cause of May Revolution. In Paraguay it is considered as their War of Independence. The first battles fought were the Battle of Campichuelo and Battle of Campo Maracana, in which Argentinians claimed victory. However, they were completely vanquished in the subsequent Battle of Paraguarí and Battle of Tacuarí. The campaign ended in a military failure and Paraguay broke its links with the Spanish crown just two months after Belgrano's withdrawal, starting its course towards full independence.

Contents

Antecedents

The Primera Junta sent an expedition to Paraguay in response to the belief that there was great party supporting the Revolution, who were oppressed by the Governor, Bernardo de Velasco. On 24 September they agreed to send Gen. Manuel Belgrano, who by decree of 4 September had been invested with the office of governor and captain general of the Banda Oriental.

Primera Junta first independent government of Argentina

The Primera Junta or First Assembly is the most common name given to the first independent government of Argentina. It was created on 25 May 1810, as a result of the events of the May Revolution. The Junta initially had representatives from only Buenos Aires. When it was expanded, as expected, with the addition of the representatives from the other cities of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, it became popularly known instead as the Junta Grande. The Junta operated at El Fuerte, which had been used since 1776 as a residence by the Viceroys.

Banda Oriental, or more fully Banda Oriental del Uruguay, was the name of the South American territories east of the Uruguay River and north of Río de la Plata that comprise the modern nation of Uruguay; the modern state of Brazil Rio Grande do Sul; and some of Santa Catarina, Brazil. It was the easternmost territory of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata.

The battle

Because Royalist Paraguayans had removed all boats on the River Paraná along its borders, Belgrano's forces had to build boats from leather, some canoes and large wooden rafts suitable to carry 60 men and four cannon, as the crossing was expected to be opposed. The river was 1000 meters wide at the crossing point, and the current would carry them a league and a half downstream, to El Campichuelo mountain. The passage started at 11:00 pm on 18 December, when a force of 12 men surprised the enemy, taking two prisoners and some weapons. The main crossing took place from 3:00 am until 6:00 am on 19 December under the command of Maj. Gen Machain, forcing the enemy to abandon their position. [1]

Belgrano was operating from the former capital mission of Santa Maria de la Candelaria (Misiones Province today) and nearby sites located in the Argentine province of Corrientes. Belgrano led a small force: 800 men, half cavalry and infantry, with six small-caliber cannon. They faced a 500-man Royalist force led by Pablo Thompson. Belgrano issued a proclamation asking the Royalists to join the revolutionary ranks; on their refusal he attacked and defeated the Royalist forces.

Misiones Province Province of Argentina

Misiones is one of the 23 provinces of Argentina, located in the northeastern corner of the country in the Mesopotamia region. It is surrounded by Paraguay to the northwest, Brazil to the north, east and south, and Corrientes Province of Argentina to the southwest.

Corrientes City in Argentina

Corrientes is the capital city of the province of Corrientes, Argentina, located on the eastern shore of the Paraná River, about 1,000 km (621 mi) from Buenos Aires and 300 km (186 mi) from Posadas, on National Route 12. It has a population of 346,334 according to the 2010 Census. It lies opposite its twin city, Resistencia, Chaco.

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