BitTorrent (software)

Last updated
BitTorrent
BitTorrent logo.svg
Original author(s) Bram Cohen
Developer(s) Rainberry, Inc.
Initial releaseJuly 2, 2001;20 years ago (2001-07-02) [1]
Stable release(s) [±]
Windows7.10.5.46011 / May 7, 2021;3 months ago (2021-05-07) [2]
Mac7.4.3.43797 / September 4, 2019;23 months ago (2019-09-04) [3]
Android6.5.7 / September 9, 2020;11 months ago (2020-09-09) [4]
Preview release(s) [±]
Windows8.0 alpha Build 25431 / November 10, 2011;9 years ago (2011-11-10)
macOSNone
AndroidNone
Operating system Windows, macOS, Android
Platform IA-32, x64, ARM
Size
  • Windows: 3.16 MB
  • macOS: 2.74 MB
  • Android: 16.03 ~ 19.84 MB
Available in66 languages
Type BitTorrent client
License Ad-supported freemium
Website www.bittorrent.com

BitTorrent is an ad-supported [5] BitTorrent client developed by Bram Cohen and Rainberry, Inc. used for uploading and downloading files via the BitTorrent protocol. BitTorrent was the first client written for the protocol. It is often nicknamed Mainline by developers denoting its official origins. Since version 6.0 the BitTorrent client has been a rebranded version of μTorrent. As a result, it is no longer open source. It is currently available for Microsoft Windows, Mac, Linux, iOS and Android.

Contents

History

Programmer Bram Cohen designed the protocol in April 2001 and released a first implementation of the BitTorrent client on 2 July 2001. [1] [6] It is now maintained by Cohen's company BitTorrent, Inc.

Prior to version 6.0, BitTorrent was written in Python, and was free software. Very early versions released prior to December 30, 2001 were released into the public domain without a license. Versions up to and including 3.4.2 were distributed under the MIT license. The source code for versions 4.x and 5.x was released under the BitTorrent Open Source License, a modified version of the Jabber Open Source License. Versions 4.0 and 5.3 were relicensed under the GPL.

Version 4.20 of the client was dubbed Allegro by BitTorrent Inc., in reference to protocol extensions developed by the company to accelerate download performance and ISP manageability. [7]

Version 5.30 of the client which is snapshotted at Internet Archive [8] is the latest open source version.

Since version 6.0, the BitTorrent client has been a rebranded version of μTorrent. It is no longer open source.

Features

The BitTorrent client enables a user to search for and download torrent files using a built-in search box ("Search for torrents") in the main window, which opens the BitTorrent torrent search engine page with the search results in the user's default web browser.

The current client includes a range of features, including multiple parallel downloads. BitTorrent has several statistical, tabular and graphical views that allow a user to see what events are happening in the background. A host of views offer information on the peers and seeds to which the user is connected, including how much data is being downloaded from each and to how much data is being uploaded by each. It has an automatic recovery system that checks all data that has been handled after an improper shutdown. It also intermediates peering between itself, source file servers ("trackers") and other clients, thereby yielding distribution efficiencies. The client also enables users to create and share torrent files.

Release history

Legend:Old version, not maintainedOlder version, still maintainedCurrent stable versionLatest preview versionFuture release
Versions released into the public domain or under MIT License
VersionRelease dateChanges
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.0.02001 July 2
  • Initial release
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.0.52001 July 20
  • Several stability and performance improvements.
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.0.62001 July 24
  • The C code has been modified to use an altogether more reasonable library which doesn't abuse the C preprocessor. It should now work under Windows and Mac OS X.
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.0.22001 August 10
  • The UI has been rewritten to be very simple and easier to use.
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.12001 August 23
  • A fix for a serious problem which was keeping it from using a whole net connection, a complete rewrite of Downloader.py, and other minor tweaks.
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.22001 September 2
  • Several major changes were made to the protocol, which is now frozen.
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.3.12001 September 12
  • This release has extensive user feedback and download resuming.
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.52001 October 23
  • UI was rewritten. It is now completely graphical and works in mozilla/netscape under UNIX. Monothreading was added which gave vast performance increases. The publisher now stores metadata in files, so it doesn't have to re-scan files every time it restarts, and the tracker now stores publisher and downloader information persistently, so downloads start working again as soon as it restarts. A clean shutdown, small improvements, and bugfixes added.
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.6.12002 January 6
  • For this release, the upload/download logic was thoroughly rewritten to use a tit-for-tat bandwidth trading strategy. Usage of TCP buffering was also greatly improved. Unix installation was simplified, and many small improvements were added.
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.6.22002 March 18
  • The UI is much nicer, and now looks like a real GUI. There are a huge number of small stability and performance enhancements, none of them directly impacting the interface.
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.72002 April 29
  • Major performance enhancements, including peers reciprocating uploads more responsively. Significant UI enhancements were made, including progress meters on file allocation and resuming. Much better error-handling and multi-file support were added, so multiple files can be downloaded with a single click. The protocol has been reworked to be much more secure, and now uses a fixed port. This should be the last backwards-incompatible release. Several major bugs were also fixed.
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.7.12002 April 30
  • A massive bug in the last release has been fixed. That one barely worked at all; this one is much better.
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.7.22002 May 6
  • In this release, the tracker has been rewritten to use asynchronous I/O, so it no longer has the hanging problems which plagued it before.
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.8.02002 May 31
  • Huge internal performance improvements, changes to the protocol to substantially reduce overhead, and Tracker now keeps track of which peers are still up, greatly improving scaling.
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.8.12002 June 5
  • A crippling bug in the download logic has been fixed. It should scale comfortably to thousands of simultaneous downloaders now.
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.92002 July 2
  • This release contains major performance enhancements and bugfixes. The publication process has been greatly cleaned up and simplified. Deployments which have too many downloaders behind NAT can now keep them out with the tracker option, --nonat 1. This will hopefully be the last release with a version check on startup - if there are no big snags in the next deployment, the version check will be removed in the next release.
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.9.12002 July 4
  • Reporting of disk full and rejected by tracker has been fixed. Bitfields have been made big-endian for consistency.
Old version, no longer maintained: 2.9.62002 July 18
  • Fixed for all the tweaks and minor issues which showed up in the last trial run, and new support for building .debs.
Old version, no longer maintained: 3.0.12002 October 2
  • Minor cleanups, finalizing the protocol, and removal of version checking (which happened in release 3.0).
Old version, no longer maintained: 3.0.22002 November 5
  • A polished UI, improved upload and download rate estimation, a new GUI for making metainfo files, and some bugfixes.
Old version, no longer maintained: 3.12003 January 2
  • Massive performance improvements and some bugfixes were made. Some utilities were added. Upload rate capping was added.
Old version, no longer maintained: 3.22003 March 28
  • This release features massive performance improvements, and now supports read-only files. The Windows build now takes command-line parameters. There were also several bugfixes.
Old version, no longer maintained: 3.2.1b2003 June 5
  • This version is enhanced with new features to make BitTorrent even more robust and easier to use.
Old version, no longer maintained: 3.32003 September 24
  • Files now only get allocated as they're downloaded, and don't fragment the hard drive. Large torrents no longer hose the CPU. Better network utilization and more consistent download rates have been achieved. Poorly seeded torrents now get out faster. Several important bugs were fixed.
Old version, no longer maintained: 3.42004 March 6
  • This version fixes bugs. The client no longer complains about tracker connection problems when transfers are still going. The bandwidth usage was reduced.
Old version, no longer maintained: 3.4.12004 March 11
  • This version fixes many bugs, adds more bandwidth savings, and improves support for peers behind dynamic IPs.
Old version, no longer maintained: 3.4.1a2004 March 12
  • The tracker works under Python 2.2 and supports 3.3 clients properly. The client is unchanged.
Old version, no longer maintained: 3.4.22004 May 15
  • This release fixes some bugs (including an important tracker bug and a problem where some users got 'could not find file' messages) and adds warning message support, so trackers can send non-fatal human-readable messages to clients.
Versions released under BitTorrent Open Source License
VersionRelease dateChanges
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.0.12005 April 6
  • This release introduces an all new queue-based user interface (based on GTK+ instead of wxWidgets). It also features various interface improvements. Many options are now modifiable from the interface, including upload rate. Statistics are now visible in the GUI. Performance was improved. BitTorrent packets are now marked as bulk data to make traffic shaping easier. Various bugs were fixed. The license has changed to the "BitTorrent Open Source License".
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.1.02005 May 20
  • This release adds support for trackerless operation. Torrents can now be created from the UI. I18n support has been integrated. Several small fixes have been made.
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.1.12005 May 25
  • Many improvements to the trackerless operation have been made. GUI support for torrent comment fields has been added. Improvements to peer identification have been made. Many small bugs have been fixed.
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.0.42005 August 27
  • Trackerless Torrent files can now be identified. Opening an already open torrent now behaves correctly. Play/pause state is no longer saved across invocations of the GUI. Many more bugs were fixed.
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.1.42005 August 27
  • This release featured many improvements to trackerless operation. Support for translations was added along with a multi-rate limiter backend. URLs on the command line are now detected more effectively. Most command line scripts were renamed. Support for non-Latin/Unicode accelerator keys was added. Many further bugs were fixed.
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.1.62005 October 13
  • Donation nagging was removed. Global status lights were added. The installer was vastly improved. External drag and drop of files and URLs was added. The GUI and layout were improved. Startup time on trackerless torrents was greatly improved. Several bugs were fixed.
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.1.72005 November 3
  • The maximum upload rate slider was fixed. A language chooser UI was added. The speed of the peer list was improved and peer identification was improved. Many small bugs were fixed.
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.1.82005 November 18
  • Many small bugs were fixed, particularly with trackerless operation. OS X client auto-update was added. New status light icons were added.
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.2.02005 November 22
  • This is the first release in the stable 4.2 series, incorporating all features and improvements from the 4.1 beta series. Most notably, support for trackerless operation was added. Internationalization was added, including some translations. The command line scripts were renamed. The user interfaces were improved.
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.2.12005 December 5
  • Selecting the language from the settings window was made possible. Japanese and Korean language support was added. An "Invalid menu handle" bug and several other minor bugs were fixed.
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.3.02005 December 5
  • Massive code reorganization was done. GTK+-2.4 support was dropped (GTK+-2.6 is now the minimum requirement). A new internal state file format was introduced. Many string changes and internationalization additions were made. An obscure "--bind" command line bug was fixed.
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.3.22005 December 11
  • A command line option for testing auto-update was added. Correct BitTorrent icons are assured for all windows. Gzip support, which was broken by the recent "--bind" fix, was revived. Broken error handling code was removed.
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.2.22005 December 21
  • An "Invalid Menu Handle" error when upgrading was fixed. A bug in automatic seeding code was fixed. "launchmany-curses" was fixed for Python 2.2.
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.3.32005 December 21
  • Support for "--geometry" and for remembering window size and position was added. Fixes for window titles and system tray tooltips as well as for the NAT status light were made. An "Invalid Menu Handle" error when upgrading was fixed. "launchmany-curses" was fixed for Python 2.2.
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.3.52006 January 9
  • The status light state machine was improved and a "signal strength" indicator was added. Fastresume error messages were fixed. Several IPC bugs and other bugs were fixed.
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.3.62006 January 25
  • New icons were introduced. More fixes were made to Python 2.2 compatibility issues and to "Invalid Menu Handle" cases. The global upload rate calculation was fixed.
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.4.02006 February 1
  • All bugfixes and improvements from the Beta branch were incorporated, including the upgrade to GTK+ 2.6 API functions, massive code reorganization, internationalization improvements, new icons and status lights, remembering of window size, and more. A memory leak was fixed. Hebrew and Icelandic language support was added.
Old version, no longer maintained: 4.9.22006 May 5
  • This release features a completely new UI, the introduction of smart download/queuing behavior (as well as smart seeding behavior), a torrent priority system, encryption support, download rate control, fast extensions, and torrent "title" support. Progress bars, transfer rate graphs, error handling, and reporting have been improved.
Mac OS X Version History [9]
VersionBuildRelease dateFeatures/Changes
Old version, no longer maintained: 7.1.0 (22093)
  • Initial release
Old version, no longer maintained: 7.1.1
  • Fixed startup crash
Old version, no longer maintained: 7.2.0
  • Feature add torrent dialog with directory settings and file selection
  • Feature growl support
  • Feature dock icon badging
  • Feature to move torrent save location
  • Added privacy settings
  • Added advanced directory settings and rules
  • Improved UTP bandwidth support
  • Fixed seeding ratio limits
  • Fixed tracker messages when torrent is complete
  • Fixed setting auto add directory
  • Improved https support
  • Fixed having to hit return to register changes in the bandwidth preferences
Old version, no longer maintained: 7.2.1
  • Added utWEB support
  • Added RSS support
  • Added scheduler
  • Updated UI
  • Fixed support for secure trackers
  • Improved rate limiting
Old version, no longer maintained: 7.2.2
  • Various bug fixes
Old version, no longer maintained: 7.3.1
  • Added option to ignore subdirectories in autoload folder
  • Added option to duplicate smart RSS feed
  • Added option to start BitTorrent automatically when Mac starts
  • Show number of completed torrents in dock icon
  • Fixed hang on exit
  • Fixed enabling/disabling DHT
  • Fixed file extension when changing download location
  • Fixed smart RSS feed to correctly display matched items
  • Added proxy support
  • Added traffic cap feature
  • Added Lion full screen mode
  • Various UI and bug fixes
Old version, no longer maintained: 7.3.2
  • Fixed opening magnet links on Leopard (broken in 7.3.1)
Old version, no longer maintained: 7.3.3
  • Fixed seeding on PPC
  • Fixed crash when handling incorrect responses from HTTP trackers
  • Fixed crash on start on OSX 10.5.4 (Intel)
  • Fixed crash when changing proxy address
  • Fixed crash when processing autoadd directory
Current stable version:7.3.5 (27628)2012 July 25
VersionBuildRelease dateFeatures/Changes

BitTorrent DNA

BitTorrent DNA (BitTorrent Delivery Network Accelerator) is a program designed to speed up the viewing of streaming video, downloading software (with or without the BitTorrent protocol) and playing online video games. It does so by distributing the end users' downloads between each other. In this way, the developers intend that content providers should take less load on their servers so the end users can receive the content faster. [10] It runs in the background whenever the operating system is running. [11]

BitTorrent DNA is different from traditional BitTorrent in that it relies on publisher HTTP servers in order to provide publishers with guaranteed minimum data delivery rate, as well as give publishers control over content delivery (peers must connect to the origin server before they can reach other peers), and collect information about content delivery to share with the publisher. The quality of the file transfer is specified in terms of a long-term average bitrate for data and in terms of meeting deadlines when streaming. It also can give bandwidth to TCP and other traffic.

DNA is also different from traditional BitTorrent in that it is a UDP-based protocol that has replaced regular TCP-based bandwidth throttling with a much more sensitive bandwidth management technique.

Apart from being installed by third party websites and software companies, the program for end users is also installed when the official BitTorrent client is installed (starting with the rebranded version 6.0). However, it can be independently uninstalled.

The first version of the DNA made it possible to keep the DNA application installed and yet temporarily stopped until the next system restart (through the system's control panel, in Windows XP [11] ). The DNA GUI was completely removed in the official BitTorrent version 6.1 and 6.1.1, but was re-introduced in version 6.1.2.

Since October, 2007 BitTorrent DNA has been offered by BitTorrent, Inc. as a commercial service that content providers can purchase (for an undisclosed price) and as a free background program for end users. [10] Company President Ashwin Navin launched the product claiming that "Implementing BitTorrent DNA on top of legacy infrastructure has the profound impact of allowing our customers to deliver a better user experience, higher quality video, faster software downloads, all with the security and reliability of a managed service." [12]

Navin in a podcast interview claimed that he attempted to sell BitTorrent DNA in January 2005. After finding that BitTorrent's brand was too polarizing for potential customers, they delayed the launch until after partnering with nearly 50 media companies in the BitTorrent Entertainment Network. That provided the company enough public validation to finally launch BitTorrent DNA two and half years later. [13]

The service's first customer was the company Brightcove, that chose to use it to distribute streaming video files. [14] [15]

As of May 2009, the Asus support website is using BitTorrent DNA as an additional download method of their larger files in addition to their multiple somewhat internationally distributed HTTP servers and content delivery mirrors and other redirection facilities Asus has been known to rely in the present and past for their data delivery needs. Currently, a separate "P2P" icon is being presented for the DNA style downloads next to the "Global" and "Chinese" located servers as an example. [16]

See also

Related Research Articles

Peer-to-peer Type of decentralized and distributed network architecture

Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers. Peers are equally privileged, equipotent participants in the application. They are said to form a peer-to-peer network of nodes.

Uploading refers to transmitting data from one computer system to another through means of a network. Common methods of uploading include: uploading via web browsers, FTP clients], and terminals (SCP/SFTP). Uploading can be used in the context of clients that send files to a central server. While uploading can also be defined in the context of sending files between distributed clients, such as with a peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing protocol like BitTorrent, the term file sharing is more often used in this case. Moving files within a computer system, as opposed to over a network, is called file copying.

BitTorrent Peer-to-peer file sharing protocol

BitTorrent is a communication protocol for peer-to-peer file sharing (P2P), which enables users to distribute data and electronic files over the Internet in a decentralized manner.

Bram Cohen American programmer and author of the BitTorrent protocol

Bram Cohen is an American computer programmer, best known as the author of the peer-to-peer (P2P) BitTorrent protocol, as well as the first file sharing program to use the protocol, also known as BitTorrent. He is also the co-founder of CodeCon and organizer of the San Francisco Bay Area P2P-hackers meeting, was the co-author of Codeville and creator of the Chia cryptocurrency.

BitComet

BitComet is a cross-protocol BitTorrent, HTTP and FTP client written in C++ for Microsoft Windows and available in 52 different languages. Its first public release was version 0.28. The current BitComet logo has been used since version 0.50.

A BitTorrent tracker is a special type of server that assists in the communication between peers using the BitTorrent protocol.

Pando (application)

Pando was an application which was mainly aimed at sending files which would normally be too large to send via more "conventional" means. It used both peer-to-peer and client-server architectures and was released for Windows and Mac OS X operating systems.

Protocol encryption (PE), message stream encryption (MSE) or protocol header encrypt (PHE) are related features of some peer-to-peer file-sharing clients, including BitTorrent clients. They attempt to enhance privacy and confidentiality. In addition, they attempt to make traffic harder to identify by third parties including internet service providers (ISPs). However, encryption will not protect one from DMCA notices from sharing not legal content, as one is still uploading material and the monitoring firms can merely connect to the swarm.

Peer-to-peer file sharing is the distribution and sharing of digital media using peer-to-peer (P2P) networking technology. P2P file sharing allows users to access media files such as books, music, movies, and games using a P2P software program that searches for other connected computers on a P2P network to locate the desired content. The nodes (peers) of such networks are end-user computers and distribution servers.

qBittorrent

qBittorrent is a cross-platform free and open-source BitTorrent client.

Rainberry, Inc., formerly known as BitTorrent, Inc., is an American company that is responsible for the ongoing development of the BitTorrent peer-to-peer protocol, as well as the ongoing development of μTorrent and BitTorrent Mainline, two clients for that protocol. Files transferred using the BitTorrent protocol constitute a significant slice of all Internet traffic. At its peak, 170 million people used the protocol every month, according to the company's website. The company was founded on September 22, 2004 by Bram Cohen and Ashwin Navin. In 2018, the company was acquired by cryptocurrency startup TRON, and Bram Cohen left the company.

Tribler Peer-to-peer filesharing software and protocol

Tribler is an open source decentralized BitTorrent client which allows anonymous peer-to-peer by default. Tribler is based on the BitTorrent protocol and uses an overlay network for content searching. Due to this overlay network, Tribler does not require an external website or indexing service to discover content. The user interface of Tribler is very basic and focused on ease of use instead of diversity of features. Tribler is available for Linux, Windows, and OS X.

The following is a general comparison of BitTorrent clients, which are computer programs designed for peer-to-peer file sharing using the BitTorrent protocol.

This is a glossary of jargon related to peer-to-peer file sharing via the BitTorrent protocol.

libtorrent

libtorrent is an open-source implementation of the BitTorrent protocol. It is written in and has its main library interface in C++. Its most notable features are support for Mainline DHT, IPv6, HTTP seeds and μTorrent's peer exchange. libtorrent uses Boost, specifically Boost.Asio to gain its platform independence. It is known to build on Windows and most Unix-like operating systems.

Micro Transport Protocol or μTP is an open UDP-based variant of the BitTorrent peer-to-peer file sharing protocol intended to mitigate poor latency and other congestion control problems found in conventional BitTorrent over TCP, while providing reliable, ordered delivery.

In the BitTorrent file distribution system, a torrent file or meta-info file is a computer file that contains metadata about files and folders to be distributed, and usually also a list of the network locations of trackers, which are computers that help participants in the system find each other and form efficient distribution groups called swarms. A torrent file does not contain the content to be distributed; it only contains information about those files, such as their names, folder structure, and sizes obtained via cryptographic hash values for verifying file integrity. The term torrent may refer either to the metadata file or to the files downloaded, depending on the context.

Torrent poisoning is intentionally sharing corrupt data or data with misleading file names using the BitTorrent protocol. This practice of uploading fake torrents is sometimes carried out by anti-infringement organisations as an attempt to prevent the peer-to-peer (P2P) sharing of copyrighted content, and to gather the IP addresses of downloaders.

μTorrent Proprietary adware BitTorrent client

μTorrent, or uTorrent is a proprietary adware BitTorrent client owned and developed by Rainberry, Inc. With over 150 million users it is the most widely used BitTorrent client outside China; globally only behind Xunlei. The "μ" in its name comes from the SI prefix "micro-", referring to the program's small memory footprint: the program was designed to use minimal computer resources while offering functionality comparable to larger BitTorrent clients such as Vuze or BitComet. μTorrent became controversial in 2015 when many users unknowingly accepted a default option during installation which also installed a cryptocurrency miner. The miner was removed in later versions, but had already done irreversible damage to μTorrent's reputation.

WebTorrent peer-to-peer web-based torrent client

WebTorrent is a peer-to-peer (P2P) streaming torrent client written in JavaScript, from the same author of YouTube Instant, and the team at WebTorrent and on GitHub, for use in web browsers, as well as a WebTorrent Desktop stand alone version able to bridge WebTorrent and BitTorrent serverless networks.

References

  1. 1 2 Cohen, Bram (July 2, 2001). "BitTorrent - a new P2P app". decentralization : Messages : 1985-3160. Self-published . Retrieved April 15, 2007 via Yahoo! Groups.
  2. "Download BitTorrent: Windows". bittorrent.com. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  3. "Download BitTorrent: Mac". bittorrent.com. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  4. "BitTorrent®- Torrent Downloads". Google Play Store.
  5. BitTorrent Customer Support (December 25, 2013). "Removing Partner Offers". BitTorrent . Retrieved July 8, 2015. We are among many products that support the production and distribution of our free software through advertising.
  6. McCullagh, Declan (July 16, 2001). "Defcon Keeps Hackers Hooked". Wired.com. Archived from the original on September 12, 2001.
  7. "BitTorrent 4.20 Released". slyck.com. 2006-06-22. Archived from the original on 2019-04-04. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
  8. "Internet Archive". 2010-05-30. Archived from the original on March 30, 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-31.
  9. "BitTorrent for Mac release notes".
  10. 1 2 "Official site". Archived from the original on 2008-09-13. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
  11. 1 2 "The official FAQ". Archived from the original on 2009-03-27. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
  12. "BitTorrent's Delivery Network Accelerator (DNA) Service Improves the Online Experience for Streaming Video, Downloadable Software and Video Games". businesswire.com.
  13. "Delivering a Digital Torrent". edcorner.stanford.edu.
  14. Andy Greenberg (2007-10-09). "Brightcove Unleashes A BitTorrent Stream". Forbes . Retrieved 2007-10-27.
  15. Jim Finkle (2007-10-09). "BitTorrent Moves to Video Streaming". PC World. Archived from the original on 2007-10-13. Retrieved 2007-10-27.
  16. "example download section for Asus M2N-LR mainboard product". Asus.