Caravan (band)

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Caravan
Origin Canterbury, Kent, England
Genres Progressive rock, Canterbury scene, psychedelic rock, jazz-rock, progressive pop
Years active1968–1978, 1980–1985, 1990–1992, 1995–present
Website officialcaravan.co.uk
Members Pye Hastings
Geoffrey Richardson
Jan Schelhaas
Jim Leverton
Mark Walker
Past members Richard Coughlan
Richard Sinclair
Dave Sinclair
Steve Miller
Derek Austin
Stuart Evans
John G. Perry
Mike Wedgwood
Dek Messecar
Doug Boyle
Simon Bentall
Jimmy Hastings

Caravan are an English band from the Canterbury area, founded by former Wilde Flowers members David Sinclair, Richard Sinclair, Pye Hastings and Richard Coughlan in 1968. [1] The band have never achieved the great commercial success that was widely predicted for them at the beginning of their career, but are nevertheless considered a key part of the Canterbury scene, blending psychedelic rock, jazz and classical influences to create a distinctive progressive rock sound.

Canterbury Cathedral city in Kent, England

Canterbury is a historic English cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, situated in the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent, England. It lies on the River Stour.

The Wilde Flowers British band

The Wilde Flowers were the archetypal Canterbury scene music group based in the vicinity of Canterbury, England.

David Sinclair, is a keyboardist who has been strongly associated with the progressive rock Canterbury Scene since the late 1960s. He became famous with the band Caravan and was responsible as a songwriter for creating some of their best-known tracks: "For Richard", "Nine Feet Underground", "The Dabsong Conshirtoe", "Proper Job/Back To Front".

Contents

The band were originally based in Whitstable, Kent, near Canterbury, but moved to London when briefly signed to Verve Records. After being dropped by Verve, the band signed to Decca Records, where they released their most critically acclaimed album, In the Land of Grey and Pink , in 1971. Dave Sinclair left after the album's release and the group split up the following year. Hastings and Coughlan added new members, notably viola player Geoffrey Richardson, continuing on before splitting in 1978.

Whitstable town in Kent, England

Whitstable is a seaside town on the north coast of Kent in south-east England, 5 miles (8km) north of Canterbury and 2 miles (3km) west of Herne Bay. It has a population of about 32,000.

Kent County of England

Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Greater London to the north-west, Surrey to the west and East Sussex to the south-west. The county also shares borders with Essex along the estuary of the River Thames, and with the French department of Pas-de-Calais through the Channel Tunnel. The county town is Maidstone.

Verve Records American record label

Verve Records, also known as The Verve Music Group, founded in 1956 by Norman Granz, is home to the world's largest jazz catalogue and includes recordings by artists such as Ella Fitzgerald, Nina Simone, Stan Getz and Billie Holiday, among others. It absorbed the catalogues of Granz's earlier labels, Clef Records, founded in 1946, Norgran Records, founded in 1953, and material previously licensed to Mercury Records.

The band reformed several times in the following decades, and Caravan still remain active as a live band in the 21st century, despite Coughlan's death in December 2013.

History

Early career

The group's original members, David Sinclair, Richard Sinclair, Pye Hastings and Richard Coughlan had all been in the Canterbury-based Wilde Flowers, albeit not at the same time. Richard Sinclair had been an early member, but left in September 1965 to study at college. [2] Hastings had replaced Robert Wyatt as the group's singer and Coughlan as drummer in the band when Wyatt, who performed both roles, formed Soft Machine. [3] David Sinclair joined the group in late 1966, but after future Soft Machine member Hugh Hopper left the group in June the following year, they began to run out of momentum and broke up in October 1967. [4]

Richard Sinclair British bassist

Richard Stephen Sinclair is an English progressive rock bassist, guitarist, and vocalist who has been a member of several bands of the Canterbury scene.

Pye Hastings British musician

Julian Frederick Gordon 'Pye' Hastings is a British musician. Born in Scotland and raised in Canterbury, Kent, he is the guitarist and vocalist of the Canterbury scene band Caravan and brother of Jimmy Hastings.

Richard Coughlan musician

Richard Coughlan was an English musician, best known as the drummer and percussionist of the Canterbury scene progressive rock band Caravan. He was one of the founding members of Caravan in 1968 and remained with the band until his death. AllMusic called Coughlan "one of art rock's longest tenured musicians".

Coughlan, Hastings and the two Sinclairs subsequently formed Caravan in 1968. "We all had the same goal" recalled Richard Sinclair, "to make our music, write it ourselves, and make a living from it." [5] The band rented a house in Whitstable, Kent for six months, where they began to write and rehearse new material. [6] They also borrowed Soft Machine's PA for rehearsals while that band was on tour with Jimi Hendrix in the US, as Caravan did not have enough funds for their own equipment. [7] They were forced to leave in June and ended up living in tents and rehearsing in a local church hall. [6] By October, they had attracted the interest of music publisher Ian Ralfini, [8] :4 who signed them to the American record label, Verve Records, and became the first British act they signed. [6] Verve subsequently released the band's debut LP, Caravan (1968), later the same year, but a few months later moved out of the UK record business and dropped the band. [8] :3

Jimi Hendrix American guitarist, singer and songwriter

James Marshall "Jimi" Hendrix was an American rock guitarist, singer, and songwriter. Although his mainstream career spanned only four years, he is widely regarded as one of the most influential electric guitarists in the history of popular music, and one of the most celebrated musicians of the 20th century. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame describes him as "arguably the greatest instrumentalist in the history of rock music".

<i>Caravan</i> (Caravan album) 1969 music album by Caravan

Caravan is the debut album by the British Canterbury scene progressive rock band Caravan. It was released in October 1968.

After a series of gigs in London, including the Speakeasy Club, the band were introduced to Terry King, who became the group's first manager. David Hitchcock, who had been working in the art department of Decca Records, asked the company's president, Hugh Mendl to sign the band. [8] :4 They began recording their second album, If I Could Do It All Over Again, I'd Do It All Over You (1970) in September 1969, while continuing to gig on the university circuit, and appearing at festivals alongside Pink Floyd, Yes, The Nice and Soft Machine. [8] :5 Recording If I could ... continued in February 1970, with the 14-minute track "For Richard", showing the band's contrast in styles and jazz-rock influence. [8] :7 The album was released in August, alongside an appearance at the Plumpton Festival with Van der Graaf Generator, Yes and Colosseum. [9] :4 The accompanying single "Hello Hello" helped them land an appearance on the TV show Top of the Pops , performing the album's title track. [8] :9

Dave Hitchcock is a former record producer working with Genesis, Caravan, Camel, Curved Air and Renaissance.

Decca Records US/British record label

Decca Records is a British record label established in 1929 by Edward Lewis. Its U.S. label was established in late 1934 by Lewis, along with American Decca's first president Jack Kapp and later American Decca president Milton Rackmil. In 1937, anticipating Nazi aggression leading to World War II, Lewis sold American Decca and the link between the UK and U.S. Decca labels was broken for several decades. The British label was renowned for its development of recording methods, while the American company developed the concept of cast albums in the musical genre. Both wings are now part of the Universal Music Group, which is owned by Vivendi, a media conglomerate headquartered in Paris, France. The US Decca label was the foundation company that evolved into UMG.

Hugh Rees Christopher Mendl was a British record producer, A&R representative, and manager who worked for Decca Records for over 40 years.

Caravan had started to build a live following by mid-1970, including an appearance at the Kralingen Pop Festival in the Netherlands to an audience of 250,000 and the 10th Plumpton Festival. In autumn 1970, Caravan began working on one of their most critically acclaimed albums, In the Land of Grey and Pink (1971). The balance of songwriting changed from the previous two albums, with Richard Sinclair taking a more prominent role. His song, "Golf Girl" was originally written about his then girlfriend (and future wife), but the lyrics were rewritten in the final version. [9] :8 The group decided to follow up "For Richard" with a suite of short sections of songs written by David Sinclair, that the rest of the band worked on and linked together to form a side-long track, "Nine Feet Underground". Although, the track was recorded in five separate stages and spliced together, the band performed the suite live as it was finally presented on the album, and it remained a popular track in their live set. [9] :9 The album was released in April 1971, and though it did not chart, it has remained in print ever since, and has been remastered for CD several times, [9] :10 notably a digital remaster in 2011 by Porcupine Tree's Steven Wilson. [10] "Nine Feet Underground" in particular was a regular fixture on late-night FM radio during the early 1970s. [11]

Kralingen Music Festival

The Kralingen Music Festival was a pop and rock music festival held in the Kralingse Bos, in the Kralingen neighbourhood of Rotterdam in the Netherlands, on 26–28 June 1970.

Plumpton, East Sussex village and civil parish in the Lewes District of East Sussex, England

Plumpton is a village and civil parish in the Lewes District of East Sussex, England. The village is located five miles (8 km) north-west of Lewes. The parish measures 6.5 miles in length on its north-south axis and 1 mile at its widest on the B2116 Underhill Road. The southern half of the parish lies within the South Downs National Park and the highest point is the crest of Plumpton Plain at 214m (702 feet), which is traversed by the South Downs Way. The parish includes the small village of Plumpton adjacent to the Downs and to the north the larger village of Plumpton Green where most of the community and services are based. Plumpton is probably best known for its race course and, to a lesser extent, Plumpton College, formerly Plumpton Agricultural College.

<i>In the Land of Grey and Pink</i> 1971 studio album by Caravan

In the Land of Grey and Pink is the third album by English progressive rock band Caravan, released in April 1971 on Deram Records. It was produced by David Hitchcock and was the last album to feature the original lineup of Richard Coughlan, Pye Hastings, Richard Sinclair and Dave Sinclair until 1982's Back to Front.

Despite the critical success of In the Land of Grey and Pink, the group were disappointed by its lack of commercial success, believing that Decca were not promoting the band properly or investing enough money. In August 1971, David Sinclair accepted a job with former Soft Machine drummer Robert Wyatt's new band, Matching Mole. Reflecting on the decision to leave, Sinclair later said "I felt the whole thing was going a bit stagnant ... I wanted to play with other people, but had to accept that with Caravan it was either all or nothing." [9] :11 Hastings remembers that "Dave's departure was a serious blow." [12] :5

Line-up changes

The remaining members continued on together and Richard Sinclair invited keyboardist Steve Miller to join the band. [12] :5 However, it was immediately apparent that the style of the band would be different. Sinclair and Miller wanted to perform more jazz-rock, while Hastings was frustrated that the previous style was being neglected, and that it was "virtually impossible" to get Miller to perform in David Sinclair's style. [12] :8 The band started recording a new album, Waterloo Lily (1972) in late 1971, which was the first use of orchestral instrumentation, arranged by Hastings and his brother, Jimmy, who had guested on previous albums. [12] :9 The album was released in May 1972, but by this time, musical differences had come to a head, and after a gig with Genesis in July, the band split. Richard Sinclair later said, "It didn't quite work with Steve in the band because the music started to go a bit too loose for the way that Pye and Richard Coughlan played." [12] :10

Hastings and Coughlan decided to continue as Caravan, and the duo recruited viola player Geoffrey Richardson, bassist Stu Evans and keyboardist Derek Austin and toured extensively. This line-up did not make any recordings before Evans was replaced by John G. Perry and Dave Sinclair rejoined the group in 1973. [1]

The resulting album For Girls Who Grow Plump in the Night (1973) was a major critical achievement [1] and showed that the group could survive the loss of co-vocalist Richard Sinclair. Jimmy Hastings reprised his role as orchestrator along with Martyn Ford and John Bell, [13] while the Soft Machine's Mike Ratledge contributed an instrumental piece, "Backwards" as part of a medley. [14] The group followed this with a live album, Caravan and the New Symphonia (1974), including orchestral arrangements by Ford [15] and conducting by Simon Jeffes. [13]

Perry left after the New Symphonia and was replaced by Mike Wedgwood for the album Cunning Stunts (1975), which reached the top 50 in the UK [16] and was a minor hit in the US, reaching number 124. [1] It was the last album released on Decca, which preceded a number of other problems in the band. David Sinclair left after the album was recorded and was replaced by Jan Schelhaas, with the band's sound becoming more mainstream. [13] The group signed to Miles Copeland's BTM Records [1] and recorded Blind Dog at St. Dunstans (1976) which was another minor album hit, [17] but by this point the group were out of step with the prevailing musical trends, and after a final album, Better by Far (1977) on Arista Records, [1] the group split. [13]

Later years

Pye Hastings performing with Caravan at the High Voltage Festival in 2011 PyeHastingsBC.jpg
Pye Hastings performing with Caravan at the High Voltage Festival in 2011

Caravan were largely dormant in the 1980s until a 1990 reunion, planned as a one-off for television, reinvigorated their career. [13] The group continued to tour in the early 1990s, before Richard Sinclair left. He was replaced by Jim Leverton, while Geoffrey Richardson rejoined the band. This version of the group released The Battle of Hastings in 1995. [13]

The group continued to play into the 21st century. They have also achieved steady sales and a fan following with the support of Stuart Maconie' "Freak Zone" show on BBC 6 Music. [18] After performing at NEARFest in 2002, [14] they released The Unauthorized Breakfast Item album in 2003, where David Sinclair was replaced by a returning Jan Schelhaas. An archive collection of BBC sessions from 1968–1975, The Show of Our Lives was released in 2007. [18]

Jan Schelhaas performing with Caravan in 2012 Jan Schelhaas.jpg
Jan Schelhaas performing with Caravan in 2012

In 2010, Pye Hastings announced that the band had resumed activity in anticipation of a one-off concert recording at Metropolis Studios for ITV, which took place in December 2010. New material was written for a debut performance and the band was joined by Mark Walker on drums and percussion, as Richard Coughlan, whilst still a member of the band, was too ill to tour with the group. [19] The DVD of this gig was released in May 2011 and the recording was shown on ITV as part of the Legends series. [20]

In January 2013, the band completed a successful UK tour to celebrate the 40th Anniversary of the album For Girls Who Grow Plump in the Night (1973). [21] This was followed later in the year by the announcement of a new album, Paradise Filter (2013). The album was funded by a PledgeMusic campaign, scheduled for release on 24 February 2014. Hastings declared "now you can be part of the whole process by pledging to support this project". [22]

On 1 December 2013, founding member Coughlan died, having been in poor health for some years. [19] [23] His funeral took place in Canterbury on 20 December. A statement from the band stated "his unique style of playing and wonderful character will be sorely missed." [24]

Caravan headlined the RoSfest festival in Pennsylvania, USA from 2–4 May 2014.

Musical style

Caravan are considered a key example of the Canterbury scene genre. [25] Their records generally indicate a jazz influence, and the group's lyrics have been described as whimsical and very "English", particularly during Richard Sinclair's tenure in the band. [26] Following Sinclair's departure, the musical direction has been predominantly led by Pye Hastings, who preferred a softer pop rock approach. [14] Though the group share a common history with Soft Machine, they have been considered more melodic and closer to folk music [27] and frequently displaying a sense of humour. The group were predominantly album-oriented, but Hastings believes the group recorded enough straightforward pop that could have been hit singles if the record company had taken sufficient interest. [28]

Instrumentally, David Sinclair's fuzztone Hammond organ sound is a key ingredient of the early Caravan albums, [25] and his playing is the dominant instrument on them. [26] His musical palette subsequently expanded to include synthesizers. [14] Jimmy Hastings' woodwind playing and orchestral arrangements have also been a regular feature in the band's music since its inception. [12] :9

Personnel

Members

Lineups

1968–19711971–19721972–19731973–1974
  • Pye Hastings – guitar, vocals
  • Richard Sinclair – bass, vocals
  • Richard Coughlan – drums, percussion
  • Steve Miller – keyboards
  • Pye Hastings – guitar, vocals
  • Richard Coughlan – drums, percussion
  • Derek Austin – keyboards
  • Stuart Evans – bass
  • Geoffrey Richardson – guitar, viola, violin
  • Pye Hastings – guitar, vocals
  • Richard Coughlan – drums, percussion
  • Geoffrey Richardson – guitar, viola, violin
  • John G. Perry – bass
  • Dave Sinclair – keyboards
1974–19751975–19761976–19781978–1980
  • Pye Hastings – guitar, vocals
  • Richard Coughlan – drums, percussion
  • Geoffrey Richardson – guitar, viola, violin
  • Dave Sinclair – keyboards
  • Mike Wedgwood – bass, vocals
  • Pye Hastings – guitar, vocals
  • Richard Coughlan – drums, percussion
  • Geoffrey Richardson – guitar, viola, violin
  • Mike Wedgwood – bass, vocals
  • Jan Schelhaas – keyboards
  • Pye Hastings – guitar, vocals
  • Richard Coughlan – drums, percussion
  • Geoffrey Richardson – guitar, viola, violin
  • Jan Schelhaas – keyboards
  • Dek Messecar – bass

Disbanded

1980–19811981–19851985–19901990–1992
  • Pye Hastings – guitar, vocals
  • Richard Coughlan – drums, percussion
  • Geoffrey Richardson – guitar, viola, violin
  • Dek Messecar – bass
  • Dave Sinclair – keyboards
  • Pye Hastings – guitar, vocals
  • Richard Coughlan – drums, percussion
  • Dave Sinclair – keyboards
  • Richard Sinclair – bass

Disbanded

  • Pye Hastings – guitar, vocals
  • Richard Coughlan – drums, percussion
  • Dave Sinclair – keyboards
  • Richard Sinclair – bass, vocals
1992–19951995–19961996–19971997–2002

Disbanded

  • Pye Hastings – guitar, vocals
  • Richard Coughlan – drums, percussion
  • Dave Sinclair – keyboards
  • Jim Leverton – bass
  • Geoffrey Richardson – guitar, viola, violin
  • Pye Hastings – guitar, vocals
  • Richard Coughlan – drums, percussion
  • Dave Sinclair – keyboards
  • Jim Leverton – bass
  • Simon Bentall – percussion
  • Doug Boyle – guitar
  • Jimmy Hastings – flute, saxophone
  • Pye Hastings – guitar, vocals
  • Richard Coughlan – drums, percussion
  • Dave Sinclair – keyboards
  • Jim Leverton – bass
  • Doug Boyle – guitar
  • Geoffrey Richardson – guitar, viola, violin
2002–20072007–20102010–20132013–present
  • Pye Hastings – guitar, vocals
  • Richard Coughlan – drums, percussion
  • Jim Leverton – bass
  • Doug Boyle – guitar
  • Geoffrey Richardson – guitar, viola, violin
  • Jan Schelhaas – keyboards
  • Pye Hastings – guitar, vocals
  • Richard Coughlan – drums, percussion
  • Jim Leverton – bass
  • Geoffrey Richardson – guitar, viola, violin
  • Jan Schelhaas – keyboards
  • Pye Hastings – guitar, vocals
  • Richard Coughlan – drums, percussion
  • Jim Leverton – bass
  • Geoffrey Richardson – guitar, viola, violin
  • Jan Schelhaas – keyboards
  • Mark Walker – drums, percussion
  • Pye Hastings – guitar, vocals
  • Jim Leverton – bass
  • Geoffrey Richardson – guitar, viola, violin
  • Jan Schelhaas – keyboards
  • Mark Walker – drums, percussion

Timeline

Caravan (band)

Discography

Studio albums

Live albums

Compilations

UK Singles

[29]

Filmography

Related Research Articles

The Canterbury scene is a subgenre of, or sibling to, progressive rock. The term describes a loosely defined style of music created by a number of improvisational musicians, some of whom were based in the city of Canterbury, Kent, England during the late 1960s and early 1970s.

<i>For Girls Who Grow Plump in the Night</i> 1973 studio album by Caravan

For Girls Who Grow Plump in the Night is the 1973 and fifth studio album released by the Canterbury scene band Caravan. Richard Sinclair and Steve Miller left the band prior to the recording of this album. They were replaced by John G. Perry and the returning Dave Sinclair. Viola player Geoff Richardson was added to the band.

<i>If I Could Do It All Over Again, Id Do It All Over You</i> 1970 studio album by Caravan

If I Could Do It All Over Again, I'd Do It All Over You is the second album by Canterbury Scene band Caravan, released in September 1970. It was the predecessor to their best-known album In the Land of Grey and Pink (1971). The album is representative of the Canterbury scene genre featuring representative organ solos and melodic vocals typical of the band's style. The album was released on Decca Records, as was the title track as a single release.

<i>Blind Dog at St. Dunstans</i> 1976 studio album by Caravan

Blind Dog at St. Dunstans is the seventh studio album by Canterbury Scene rock band Caravan. It was released in 1976.

<i>Cunning Stunts</i> (Caravan album) 1975 studio album by Caravan

Cunning Stunts is the sixth studio album by the progressive rock band Caravan, released in 1975. It was their first album with the bass guitarist, vocalist and songwriter Mike Wedgwood. The title of the album is a spoonerism for "Stunning Cunts", which is typical of their cheeky use of language. Two previous Caravan albums with titles that are also sexual plays on words are If I Could Do It All Over Again, I'd Do It All Over You (1970) and For Girls Who Grow Plump in the Night (1973).

<i>The Show of Our Lives – Caravan at the BBC 1968–1975</i> 2007 live album by Caravan

The Show of Our Lives – Caravan at the BBC 1968–1975 is a double album of tracks recorded for the BBC in the period 1968–1975, for John Peel's Top Gear, amongst others by the British Canterbury scene progressive rock band Caravan.

<i>Back to Front</i> (Caravan album) 1982 studio album by Caravan

Back to Front is the 1982 album released by Caravan. Back to Front featured the original lineup of Richard Coughlan, Pye Hastings, Richard Sinclair and David Sinclair after 1971's In the Land of Grey and Pink and would be the last album to feature that lineup.

<i>BBC Radio 1 Live in Concert</i> (Caravan album) 1991 live album by Caravan

BBC Radio 1 Live in Concert is the 1991 album released by Caravan. It was recorded live on 21 March 1975 at the Paris Theatre, London.

<i>The Battle of Hastings</i> (album) 1995 studio album by Caravan

The Battle of Hastings is the 1995 album released by the British Canterbury scene progressive rock band Caravan.

<i>The Unauthorized Breakfast Item</i> 2003 studio album by Caravan

The Unauthorized Breakfast Item is a studio album by progressive rock band Caravan, released in 2003.

<i>Live: Canterbury Comes to London</i> 1999 live album by Caravan

Canterbury Comes to London: Live from Astoria is a live album by the progressive rock band Caravan from 17 September 1997 at The Astoria, London, being released 20 April 1999.

<i>Green Bottles for Marjorie: The Lost BBC Sessions</i> 2002 live album by Caravan

Green Bottles for Marjorie: The Lost BBC Sessions is a live album by the progressive rock group Caravan, offering several early BBC Radio broadcast.

<i>Ether Way</i> 1998 live album by Caravan

Ether Way: BBC Sessions 1975-77 is a live album by the progressive rock band Caravan released 1998.

<i>The Best of Caravan – Canterbury Tales</i> 1976 greatest hits album by Caravan

Canterbury Tales: The Best of Caravan is the 1976 compilation album released by Caravan. It was expanded, repackaged and released in 1994.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Elder, Bruce. "Caravan Biography". AllMusic . Retrieved 20 April 2007.
  2. Bennett 2005, p. 61.
  3. Bennett 2005, p. 67.
  4. Bennett 2005, p. 68.
  5. Romano 2010, p. 192.
  6. 1 2 3 In The Land of Grey and Pink (original sleeve notes). Decca. 2001. p. 7. 8829832.
  7. Bennett 2005, p. 127.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Powell, Mark (2001). If I Could Do It All Over Again, I'd Do It All Over You (Media notes). Decca Records. 8829682.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 Powell, Mark (2001). In The Land of Grey And Pink (Media notes). Decca Records. 882932.
  10. Thompson, Dave. "In the Land of Grey and Pink (2011 remaster)". AllMusic. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
  11. Martin 1998, p. 190.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Powell, Mark (2001). Waterloo Lily (Media notes). Decca Records. 8829822.
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Hinton 2003, p. 171.
  14. 1 2 3 4 Romano 2010, p. 193.
  15. Martin 1998, p. 222.
  16. "Chart Stats – Caravan – Cunning Stunts". Chartstats.com. Retrieved 4 November 2009.
  17. "Chart Stats – Caravan – Blind Dog At St Dunstan's". Chartstats.com. Retrieved 4 November 2009.
  18. 1 2 Jackman, Robert (2007). "The Show of Our Lives - BBC 1968–75". BBC Music. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
  19. 1 2 "Richard Cloughland RIP (1947–2013)". Caravan (official website). Retrieved 21 February 2014.
  20. "Classic Rock Legends: Caravan Live at Metropolis Studios DVD". Caravan (official website). Retrieved 21 February 2014.
  21. "Plump Caravan tour announced". Gettothefront.co.uk.[ permanent dead link ]
  22. "Caravan - Paradise Filter (2014 Studio Album)". Compact Disc Services. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
  23. "Richard Coughlan". Calyx.perso.neuf.fr. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
  24. "Caravan - Drummer Richard Coughlan Dies". Contact Music. 13 December 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
  25. 1 2 "Pilgrims' prog rock". The Guardian. 20 October 2006. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
  26. 1 2 Irvin 2007, p. 234.
  27. Romano 2010, p. 191.
  28. "Interview with Pye Hastings by Andrew Darlington". Soundchecks Music Review. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
  29. "Caravan". Discogs. Retrieved 20 July 2018.

Bibliography