Catalunyan Saddle (Katalunska Sedlovina \ka-ta-'lun-ska se-dlo-vi-'na\) is a saddle of 1260 m height in the Friesland Ridge of the Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island, in the South Shetland Islands. The saddle is bounded by Lyaskovets Peak to the east and by Presian Ridge to the west. The saddle was named in honour of the Catalans Francesc Sàbat (q.v. Sàbat Hill) and Jorge Enrique (q.v. Enrique Hill) from Juan Carlos I Base who established the first route via the saddle to Mount Friesland on 30 December 1991.
Friesland Ridge is a ridge on Livingston Island in the South Shetlands, part of the Tangra Mountains. The summit, Mount Friesland, which rises to 1,700 metres (5,600 ft), is the northwesternmost of the ridge’s six main peaks. Its elevation was estimated at 1,684 metres (5,525 ft) by a 1995/96 Bulgarian survey; the present figure was produced by a 2003 Australian GPS survey, and closely matched by the Bulgarian survey Tangra 2004/05.
Tangra Mountains form the principal mountain range of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The range had been nameless until 2001, when it was named after the Bulgar god Tangra.
Livingston Island is an Antarctic island in the Southern Ocean, part of the South Shetlands Archipelago. It was the first land discovered south of 60° south latitude in 1819, a historic event that marked the end of a centuries-long pursuit of the mythical Terra Australis Incognita and the beginning of the exploration and utilization of real Antarctica. The name Livingston, although of unknown derivation, has been well established in international usage since the early 1820s.
The saddle is located at Coordinates: which is 11.5 km east of St. Kliment Ohridski Base and 3.4 km south of Kuzman Knoll. Part of the saddle is occupied by an amazingly shaped ice-covered feature called the Sphinx.
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.
St. Kliment Ohridski Base is a Bulgarian Antarctic base on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands.
Kuzman Knoll is a solitary ice-covered knoll rising to 620 m in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The knoll forms a conspicuous landmark in Wörner Gap area, overlooking Huron Glacier and upper Perunika Glacier. It was named after Kuzman Tuhchiev, participant in the 1993/94 Bulgarian Antarctic campaign and base commander at St. Kliment Ohridski during the 1994-96 seasons.
The saddle was occupied by a bivouac of the Bulgarian Tangra 2004/05 Survey team (Lyubomir Ivanov and Doychin Vasilev) during 14 December–16 December 2004 and was mapped in 2005.
The Tangra 2004/05 Expedition was commissioned by the Antarctic Place-names Commission at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria, managed by the Manfred Wörner Foundation, and supported by the Bulgarian Antarctic Institute, the Institute of Mathematics and Informatics at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgarian Posts, Uruguayan Antarctic Institute, Peregrine Shipping (Australia), and Petrol Ltd, TNT, Mtel, Bulstrad, Polytours, B. Bekyarov and B. Chernev (Bulgaria).
Lyubomir Ivanov is a Bulgarian scientist, non-governmental activist, and Antarctic explorer. He is a graduate of the St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia with M.S. degree in Mathematics in 1977, earned his PhD from Sofia University in 1980 under the direction of Dimiter Skordev, with a dissertation entitled Iterative Operative Spaces, and was the 1987 winner of Acad. Nikola Obreshkov Prize, the highest Bulgarian award in mathematics.
Doychin Vasilev is a Bulgarian alpinist and cinematographer who has climbed five Himalayan 8,000 m peaks: Dhaulagiri, Mount Everest (1997), Makalu (1998), and Shishapangma and Cho Oyu (1999). President of Alpine Club Vihren, Sofia. Participant in the Bulgarian Antarctic expedition Tangra 2004/05, noted by Discovery Channel as a timeline event in Antarctic exploration.
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.
Bransfield Strait is a body of water about 100 kilometres (60 mi) wide extending for 300 miles (500 km) in a general northeast – southwest direction between the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula.
The Antarctic Peninsula, known as O'Higgins Land in Chile, Tierra de San Martin in Argentina, and originally known as the Palmer Peninsula in the US and as Graham Land in Great Britain, is the northernmost part of the mainland of Antarctica, located at the base of the Southern Hemisphere.
Lyaskovets Peak is the easternmost peak of Friesland Ridge in the Tangra Mountains, eastern Livingston Island and has an elevation 1,473 m. The peak is bounded by Catalunyan Saddle to the west and Shipka Saddle to the east and is heavily glaciated and crevassed, with precipitous western, southern and eastern slopes. It surmounts Huron Glacier to the northwest and northeast, and Macy Glacier and Brunow Bay area to the south. Its northern offshoot forms Zograf Peak, and is linked to Lozen Nunatak, Erma Knoll and Aheloy Nunatak in Huron Glacier.
Klisura Peak is a peak rising to approx. 600 m in Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains, eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The peak overlooks Macy Glacier to the northeast, east and southeast and was named after the Bulgarian town of Klisura.
Levski Ridge is the central ridge of the Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island. Its summit, Great Needle Peak rises to 1,680m and is the second highest summit of the island after Mount Friesland.
Omurtag Pass is a 720 m high pass between Mount Bowles and Ticha Peak in Bowles Ridge, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica and is part of an overland route between the Wörner Gap area and upper Kaliakra Glacier. The pass is named after Khan Omurtag of Bulgaria, 814-831 AD.
Orpheus Gate, also Orpheus Pass, is the 548 m high and 380 m wide pass in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica bounded by Pliska Ridge to the southeast and Burdick Ridge to the northwest, Huntress Glacier to the southwest and Perunika Glacier to the northeast.
Presian Ridge is a ridge of elevation 1456 m extending 950 m in east-weat direction in Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Situated between the island's summit Mount Friesland to the west and Catalunyan Saddle to the east. Surmounting Wörner Gap, Camp Academia locality and upper Huron Glacier to the north, and Macy Glacier to the south.
Simeon Peak rises to 1,580 m in Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The peak is heavily glaciated, connected to St. Boris Peak to the northeast by Paril Saddle, and surmounts Huntress Glacier to the northwest, Ruen Icefall to the southwest, and Macy Glacier to the east. It was first ascended and GPS-surveyed by the Bulgarian climbers D. Boyanov, N. Petkov and N. Hazarbasanov from Nesebar Gap via the head of Huntress Glacier, Academia Peak, St. Boris Peak and Paril Saddle on 15 January 2017.
Veleka Ridge is a predominantly ice-free ridge extending 3 km between Charity Glacier in the north and Botev Point in the south, and 1.3 km wide, in the southwest extremity of Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The ice-free surface area of the ridge and the adjacent Arkutino Beach is 468 hectares. Surmounting Tarnovo Ice Piedmont to the east, Charity Glacier to the north, Arkutino Beach to the west, and Barnard Point and Botev Point to the southwest and south respectively. The ridge's summit Veleka Peak rises to 538 m in its north extremity.
Vidin Heights are predominantly ice-covered heights rising to 604 m on Varna Peninsula, eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The feature is approximately 8 km long from the north end of Leslie Gap east-northeastwards to Inott Point and 9.6 km north-northeastwards to Sayer Nunatak. The summit, Miziya Peak, is located 9.25 km north by east of Mount Bowles, 4.24 km north-northeast of Leslie Hill, 9.47 km south of Williams Point and 7.52 km west of Edinburgh Hill. The heights feature also Samuel Peak 1.9 km east-southeast of Miziya Peak, and Sharp Peak at their east-northeast extremity. The heights surmount Saedinenie Snowfield to the northwest, Rose Valley Glacier to the northeast, Debelt Glacier and Panega Glacier to the southeast, and Kaliakra Glacier to the south.
Zemen Knoll is a peak of 453 m in the Vidin Heights on Varna Peninsula, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The knoll overlooks Kaliakra Glacier to the southeast, and Saedinenie Snowfield to the northwest and west. The feature is named after the town of Zemen in Western Bulgaria.
Zograf Peak rises to 1,011 metres at the northeastern extremity of the Friesland Ridge in the Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The peak is heavily glaciated and crevassed, with precipitous and partly ice-free northern slopes. The peak surmounts Huron Glacier to the north and Shipka Valley to the east, and is accessible via the saddle of elevation 975 m linking it to the north rib of Lyaskovets Peak. The peak is linked to the northeast by Lozen Saddle to Lozen Nunatak, Erma Knoll and Aheloy Nunatak.
Camp Academia is a geographical locality in eastern Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, named for the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in appreciation of Academy’s contribution to the Antarctic exploration. The site was first occupied in the 2004/05 austral summer, and has been designated since 2004 as the summer post office Tangra 1091, the southernmost branch of the Bulgarian Posts Plc.
Bowles Ridge is the central ridge of eastern Livingston Island. The ridge extends 6.5 km in the east-west direction and is 1.5 km wide. The summit of the ridge is Mount Bowles which rises to 822m and is located 9.77 km northwest of Great Needle Peak, 6.08 km north by west of Mount Friesland, 8.77 km east-northeast of St. Kliment Ohridski base and 9.25 km south by west of Miziya Peak.
Paril Saddle is a saddle of elevation 1398 m in Friesland Ridge in Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island, Antarctica. Bounded by St. Boris Peak to the northeast, and Simeon Peak to the southwest. Overlooking Macy Glacier to the east and southeast, and Huntress Glacier to the west and northwest. Bulgarian topographic survey in 1995/96, and mapping in 2005 and 2009. It was first visited and GPS-surveyed by the Bulgarian climbers D. Boyanov, N. Petkov and N. Hazarbasanov on 15 January 2017.
Mount Friesland is a mountain rising to 1,700.2 metres (5,578 ft) in the homonymous Friesland Ridge, the summit of Tangra Mountains and Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Its north rib is connected to Pliska Ridge by Nesebar Gap on the west, and to Bowles Ridge by Wörner Gap on the north. On the east Mount Friesland is connected to Presian Ridge and further on to Catalunyan Saddle and Lyaskovets Peak. On the south-southwest it is connected by a short saddle to ‘The Synagogue’ a sharp-peaked rock-cored ice formation abutting neighbouring St. Boris Peak. The peak is heavily glaciated and crevassed, surmounting Huntress Glacier to the west, Perunika Glacier to the north-northwest, Huron Glacier to the northeast and Macy Glacier to the southeast. The local weather is notoriously unpleasant and challenging; according to the seasoned Antarctic mountaineer Damien Gildea who climbed in the area, 'just about the worst weather in the world'.
Great Needle Peak is the summit of the central Levski Ridge in Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island, Antarctica. Rising to 1,679.5 m, it is the third highest peak of both the mountains and the island after Mount Friesland (1700.2 m) and St. Boris Peak (1685 m). Great Needle Peak surmounts Huron Glacier and its tributary draining Devnya Valley to the north, Magura Glacier to the east, Srebarna Glacier to the south, and Macy Glacier to the southwest.
Helmet Peak is a conspicuous peak rising to 1,254 metres (4,114 ft) in Levski Ridge, Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica just southward of the mouth of Huron Glacier. It is bounded by Devnya Valley to the west, Iskar Glacier to the northeast, and Magura Glacier to the southeast, and has precipitous west and east slopes. It was named by Discovery Investigations personnel during the period 1926–32.
The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) is an interdisciplinary body of the International Council for Science (ICSU).
The Antarctic Place-names Commission was established by the Bulgarian Antarctic Institute in 1994, and since 2001 has been a body affiliated with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria.
This article includes information from the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria which is used with permission.
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