Kuzman Knoll

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Location of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands Livingston-Island-location-map.png
Location of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands
Kuzman Knoll from the north foothills of Ravda Peak Kuzman.jpg
Kuzman Knoll from the north foothills of Ravda Peak
Topographic map of Livingston Island and Smith Island Livingston-Island-Map-2010-15.png
Topographic map of Livingston Island and Smith Island

Kuzman Knoll (Kuzmanova Mogila \'kuz-ma-no-va mo-'gi-la\) is a solitary ice-covered knoll rising to 620 m in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The knoll forms a conspicuous landmark in Wörner Gap area, overlooking Huron Glacier and upper Perunika Glacier. It was named after Kuzman Tuhchiev, participant in the 1993/94 Bulgarian Antarctic campaign and base commander at St. Kliment Ohridski during the 1994-96 seasons.

Livingston Island Island of the South Shetland Islands

Livingston Island is an Antarctic island, part of the South Shetlands Archipelago in the Southern Ocean. It was the first land discovered south of 60° south latitude in 1819, a historic event that marked the end of a centuries-long pursuit of the mythical Terra Australis Incognita and the beginning of the exploration and utilization of real Antarctica. The name Livingston, although of unknown derivation, has been well established in international usage since the early 1820s.

South Shetland Islands A group of islands north of the Antarctic Peninsula

The South Shetland Islands are a group of Antarctic islands with a total area of 3,687 square kilometres (1,424 sq mi). They lie about 120 kilometres (75 mi) north of the Antarctic Peninsula, and between 430 kilometres (270 mi) to 900 kilometres (560 mi) south-west from the nearest point of the South Orkney Islands. By the Antarctic Treaty of 1959, the islands' sovereignty is neither recognized nor disputed by the signatories and they are free for use by any signatory for non-military purposes.

Antarctica Polar continent in the Earths southern hemisphere

Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14,200,000 square kilometres, it is the fifth-largest continent. For comparison, Antarctica is nearly twice the size of Australia. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km in thickness, which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic Peninsula.

Contents

The feature is named ‘Tukhchiev Knoll’ by the U.S. and British Antarctic naming committees; "Kuzman Knoll" is the official Bulgarian name, which is established among the Spanish and Bulgarian scientists working in the area.

First ascent by the Bulgarians Kuzman Tuhchiev and Vasil Gurev from St. Kliment Ohridski Base during the 1994/95 season.

St. Kliment Ohridski Base Antarctic base in Bulgaria

St. Kliment Ohridski Base is a Bulgarian Antarctic base on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands.

Location

The knoll is located at 62°38′09.8″S60°09′42.4″W / 62.636056°S 60.161778°W / -62.636056; -60.161778 Coordinates: 62°38′09.8″S60°09′42.4″W / 62.636056°S 60.161778°W / -62.636056; -60.161778 which is 1.1 km north-northeast of Camp Academia site, 1.1 km east of the midpoint of Wörner Gap, 3.68 km east-northeast of the summit of Pliska Ridge, 4.07 km north-northeast of Mount Friesland, 3 km southeast of Mount Bowles and 3.32 km southwest of Atanasoff Nunatak (Bulgarian mapping in 1996, 2005 and 2009, from 1995/96 and 2004/05 topographic surveys respectively).

Geographic coordinate system Coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.

Camp Academia Antarctic camp in Bulgaria

Camp Academia is a geographical locality in eastern Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, named for the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in appreciation of Academy’s contribution to the Antarctic exploration. The site was first occupied in the 2004/05 austral summer, and has been designated since 2004 as the summer post office Tangra 1091, the southernmost branch of the Bulgarian Posts Plc.

Wörner Gap

Wörner Gap is a flat saddle extending 3 km in the south-north direction between Friesland Ridge and Bowles Ridge in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Its elevation decreases from 585 m in the south to 541 m in the middle, and 525 m in the north. The gap separates the glacial catchments of Perunika Glacier to the west and Huron Glacier to the east, and is linked to the east to Kuzman Knoll, a conspicuous landmark in the area. The gap is visited by field parties from St. Kliment Ohridski Base and Juan Carlos I Base and is subject to Spanish and Bulgarian glaciological studies.

Maps

Antarctic Place-names Commission

The Antarctic Place-names Commission was established by the Bulgarian Antarctic Institute in 1994, and since 2001 has been a body affiliated with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria.

International Standard Book Number Unique numeric book identifier

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Bulgarian Beach

Bulgarian Beach is a coast in the north part of Hurd Peninsula, eastern Livingston Island, extending 2.3 km from Hespérides Point to the southwest to Perunika Glacier to the northeast, and forming the southeast coast of Emona Anchorage.

Catalunyan Saddle

Catalunyan Saddle is a saddle of 1260 m height in the Friesland Ridge of the Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island, in the South Shetland Islands. The saddle is bounded by Lyaskovets Peak to the east and by Presian Ridge to the west. The saddle was named in honour of the Catalans Francesc Sàbat and Jorge Enrique from Juan Carlos I Base who established the first route via the saddle to Mount Friesland on 30 December 1991.

Dimov Gate

Dimov Gate is a 300 m wide ice-covered pass in Antarctica, located in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica and bounded by Rayna Knyaginya Peak in Bowles Ridge to the southeast and by Hemus Peak to the northwest. The pass separates the glacial catchments of Kaliakra Glacier, and the tributary glacier draining the area between Hemus Peak and Bowles West Peak and flowing west-southwestwards into Perunika Glacier. It affords overland access from Perunika Glacier to the northern slopes of Bowles Ridge and to upper Kaliakra Glacier.

Gurev Gap

Gurev Gap is a flat ice-covered saddle of elevation 450 m extending 3 km in south-north direction between Hemus Peak and Gleaner Heights in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The gap separates the glacial catchments of Kaliakra Glacier to the east, and Saedinenie Snowfield and Perunika Glacier to the west. It is part of the overland route from the St. Kliment Ohridski Base via the Balkan Snowfield, Rezen Saddle and Perunika Glacier to Varna Peninsula. The saddle was first trekked on 24 December 2004 by the Tangra 2004/05 Survey team from Camp Academia, and was named for Vasil Gurev, physicist at St. Kliment Ohridski in 1994/95 and subsequent seasons.

Ioannes Paulus II Peninsula

Ioannes Paulus II Peninsula is an ice-covered peninsula on the north coast of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica that is bounded by Hero Bay to the east and Barclay Bay to the west. It extends 13 km in length in north-south direction and is 8 km wide. Its north extremity is formed by the ice-free Cape Shirreff, an area visited by early 19th century sealers. The peninsula's interior is occupied by Oryahovo Heights.

Maritsa Peak mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Maritsa Peak rises to 560 m in eastern Bowles Ridge on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It has precipitous rocky south slopes, and is situated on the west side of Pirdop Gate, surmounting Huron Glacier to the south and Struma Glacier to the north. The peak is "named after the Maritsa River in Bulgaria."

Orpheus Gate

Orpheus Gate, also Orpheus Pass, is the 548 m high and 380 m wide pass in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica bounded by Pliska Ridge to the southeast and Burdick Ridge to the northwest, Huntress Glacier to the southwest and Perunika Glacier to the northeast.

Rezen Knoll

Rezen Knoll is a knoll rising to 433 m in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The knoll is bounded to the east, north and west by Perunika Glacier, and linked to Burdick Ridge by Rezen Saddle. The feature is 250 m wide, extending 500 m in east-west direction. Composed of lavas, with precipitous slopes except to the east. Partly ice-free height and western and northern slopes.

Rezen Saddle

Rezen Saddle is a geographical feature on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The 600 m long horseshoe-shaped flat saddle of elevation 420 m lies between Rezen Knoll and Burdick Ridge in eastern Livingston Island, affording overland access from Balkan Snowfield to upper Perunika Glacier and Bowles Ridge area.

Rozhen Peninsula

Rozhen Peninsula extends 9 km in the southwest direction towards Barnard Point, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, and 8.8 km wide. It is bounded by False Bay and its segment Inept Cove to the west, Bransfield Strait to the southeast and Brunow Bay to the east. Its interior is occupied by the Friesland Ridge of Tangra Mountains.

St. Naum Peak

St. Naum Peak is a rocky peak of elevation 560 m in the east extremity of Peshev Ridge, Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Separated from Balchik Ridge and Silistra Knoll to the east by Starosel Gate, and surmounting Macy Glacier to the north and Boyana Glacier to the south.

Varna Peninsula

Varna Peninsula is a roughly rectangular predominantly ice-covered peninsula forming the northeast extremity of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It is bounded by Hero Bay to the northwest, by Moon Bay to the southeast, and by McFarlane Strait to the northeast.

Vergilov Rocks

Vergilov Rocks are a group of rocks off Bulgarian Beach on Hurd Peninsula in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, consisting of one main rock and two adjacent smaller ones submerging at high water.

Yankov Gap

Yankov Gap is an ice-covered saddle linking Melnik Ridge and Bowles Ridge in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The gap is at an elevation of 575 m and extends 1 km in the north-south direction from Samokov Knoll in Melnik Ridge to Asparuh Peak in Bowles Ridge. Yankov Gap is part of the divide between the glacial catchments of the head of Kaliakra Glacier to the west and Struma Glacier to the east.

Zograf Peak mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Zograf Peak rises to 1,011 metres at the northeastern extremity of the Friesland Ridge in the Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The peak is heavily glaciated and crevassed, with precipitous and partly ice-free northern slopes. The peak surmounts Huron Glacier to the north and Shipka Valley to the east, and is accessible via the saddle of elevation 975 m linking it to the north rib of Lyaskovets Peak. The peak is linked to the northeast by Lozen Saddle to Lozen Nunatak, Erma Knoll and Aheloy Nunatak.

Bowles Ridge

Bowles Ridge is the central ridge of eastern Livingston Island. The ridge extends 6.5 km in the east-west direction and is 1.5 km wide. The summit of the ridge is Mount Bowles which rises to 822m and is located 9.77 km northwest of Great Needle Peak, 6.08 km north by west of Mount Friesland, 8.77 km east-northeast of St. Kliment Ohridski base and 9.25 km south by west of Miziya Peak.

Desolation Island (South Shetland Islands)

Desolation Island is one of the minor islands in the South Shetlands archipelago, Antarctica situated at the entrance to Hero Bay, Livingston Island. The island is V-shaped with its northern coast indented by Kozma Cove. Surface area 3.12 square kilometres (1.20 sq mi).

Hannah Point

Hannah Point is a point on the south coast of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It forms the east side of the entrance to Walker Bay and the west side of the entrance to South Bay. Surmounted by Ustra Peak to the north, with Liverpool Beach extending between the peak and the tip of Hannah Point. Ice-free area ca. 122 hectares.

Burdick Ridge

Burdick Ridge is a ridge rising to an elevation of 773 metres (2,536 ft) on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands. Extending for 1.9 kilometres (1.2 mi) between Orpheus Gate in the southeast and Rezen Saddle in the northwest, it is bounded by Perunika Glacier to the northeast and Balkan Snowfield to the southwest. It takes its name from its highest point, Burdick Peak.

References


This article includes information from the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria which is used with permission.