The Central England Temperature (CET) record is a meteorological dataset originally published by Professor Gordon Manley in 1953 and subsequently extended and updated in 1974, following many decades of painstaking work. The monthly mean surface air temperatures, for the Midlands region of England, are given (in degrees Celsius) from the year 1659 to the present.
Gordon Valentine Manley, FRGS was a British climatologist who has been described as "probably the best known, most prolific and most expert on the climate of Britain of his generation". He assembled the Central England temperature (CET) series of monthly mean temperatures stretching back to 1659, which is the longest standardised instrumental record available for anywhere in the world. It provides a benchmark for proxy records of climatic change for the period covered, and is a notable example of scientific scholarship and perseverance. His two papers describing the work are available online.
In colloquial language, an average is a single number taken as representative of a list of numbers. Different concepts of average are used in different contexts. Often "average" refers to the arithmetic mean, the sum of the numbers divided by how many numbers are being averaged. In statistics, mean, median, and mode are all known as measures of central tendency, and in colloquial usage any of these might be called an average value.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold. It is measured with a thermometer calibrated in one or more temperature scales. The most commonly used scales are the Celsius scale, Fahrenheit scale, and Kelvin scale. The kelvin is the unit of temperature in the International System of Units (SI), in which temperature is one of the seven fundamental base quantities. The Kelvin scale is widely used in science and technology.
This record represents the longest series of monthly temperature observations in existence. It is a valuable dataset for meteorologists and climate scientists. It is monthly from 1659, and a daily version has been produced from 1772. The monthly means from November 1722 onwards are given to a precision of 0.1 °C. The earliest years of the series, from 1659 to October 1722 inclusive, for the most part only have monthly means given to the nearest degree or half a degree, though there is a small 'window' of 0.1 degree precision from 1699 to 1706 inclusive. This reflects the number, accuracy, reliability and geographical spread of the temperature records that were available for the years in question.
Climatology or climate science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time. This modern field of study is regarded as a branch of the atmospheric sciences and a subfield of physical geography, which is one of the Earth sciences. Climatology now includes aspects of oceanography and biogeochemistry. Basic knowledge of climate can be used within shorter term weather forecasting using analog techniques such as the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO), the Northern Annular Mode (NAM) which is also known as the Arctic oscillation (AO), the Northern Pacific (NP) Index, the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), and the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). Climate models are used for a variety of purposes from study of the dynamics of the weather and climate system to projections of future climate. Weather is known as the condition of the atmosphere over a period of time, while climate has to do with the atmospheric condition over an extended to indefinite period of time.
Although best efforts have been made by Manley and subsequent researchers to quality control the series, there are data problems in the early years, with some non-instrumental data used. These problems account for the lower precision to which the early monthly means were quoted by Manley. Parker et al. (1992)addressed this by not using data prior to 1772, since their daily series required more accurate data than did the original series of monthly means. Before 1722, instrumental records do not overlap and Manley used a non-instrumental series from Utrecht compiled by Labrijn (1945), to make the monthly central England temperature (CET) series complete.
For recent years there are two versions of the series: the "official" version maintained by the Hadley Centre, and a version maintained by Philip Eden which he argues is more consistent with the series as originally compiled by Manley.
The Met Office Hadley Centre for Climate Change — named in honour of George Hadley — is one of the United Kingdom's leading centres for the study of scientific issues associated with climate change. It is part of, and based at the headquarters of the Met Office in Exeter.
Geoffrey Philip Eden FRMetS was a leading British weather journalist and weather historian.
During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, a cool period which coincided with snowy winters and generally cool summers, the temperatures fluctuated widely but with little trend. From 1910, temperatures increased slightly until about 1950 when they flattened before a sharp rising trend began in about 1975. Temperatures in the most recent decade (years 2001-2010) were slightly higher in all seasons than the long-term average.
Taking the 359-year period for the series as a whole:
|Year||10.95 °C (51.71 °F)||2014|
|Spring (March–May)||10.27 °C (50.49 °F)||2017|
|Summer (June–August)||17.77 °C (63.99 °F)||1976|
|Autumn (September–November)||12.63 °C (54.73 °F)||2006|
|Winter (December–February)||6.77 °C (44.19 °F)||1868/1869|
|January||7.5 °C (45.5 °F)||1916|
|February||7.9 °C (46.2 °F)||1779|
|March||9.2 °C (48.6 °F)||1957|
|April||11.8 °C (53.2 °F)||2011|
|May||15.1 °C (59.2 °F)||1833|
|June||18.2 °C (64.8 °F)||1846|
|July||19.7 °C (67.5 °F)||2006|
|August||19.2 °C (66.6 °F)||1995|
|September||16.8 °C (62.2 °F)||2006|
|October||13.3 °C (55.9 °F)||2001|
|November||10.1 °C (50.2 °F)||1994|
|December||9.7 °C (49.5 °F)||2015|
|Year||6.86 °C (44.35 °F)||1740|
|Spring (March–May)||5.63 °C (42.13 °F)||1837|
|Summer (June–August)||13.10 °C (55.58 °F)||1725|
|Autumn (September–November)||7.50 °C (45.50 °F)||1676|
|Winter (December–February)||−1.17 °C (29.89 °F)||1683/1684|
|January||−3.1 °C (26.4 °F)||1795|
|February||−1.9 °C (28.6 °F)||1947|
|March||1.0 °C (33.8 °F)||1674|
|April||4.7 °C (40.5 °F)||1701 and 1837|
|May||8.5 °C (47.3 °F)||1698|
|June||11.5 °C (52.7 °F)||1675|
|July||13.4 °C (56.1 °F)||1816|
|August||12.9 °C (55.2 °F)||1912|
|September||10.5 °C (50.9 °F)||1674, 1675, 1694 and 1807|
|October||5.3 °C (41.5 °F)||1740|
|November||2.3 °C (36.1 °F)||1782|
|December||−0.8 °C (30.6 °F)||1890|
Since 1878, the Central England temperature has recorded daily maximum and minimum temperatures; its daily mean records began in 1772. The tables below show the record average max/min for each season and each calendar month since 1878.
|Year||7.19 °C (44.94 °F)||2006|
|Spring (March–May)||5.97 °C (42.75 °F)||1999|
|Summer (June–August)||12.40 °C (54.32 °F)||2003|
|Autumn (September–November)||9.10 °C (48.38 °F)||2006|
|Winter (December–February)||3.83 °C (38.89 °F)||1934/35|
|January||5.2 °C (41.4 °F)||1916|
|February||4.3 °C (39.7 °F)||1903 and 1926|
|March||5.6 °C (42.1 °F)||1957|
|April||6.5 °C (43.7 °F)||2011|
|May||8.9 °C (48.0 °F)||1889 and 1952|
|June||11.6 °C (52.9 °F)||2017|
|July||14.0 °C (57.2 °F)||1983|
|August||14.0 °C (57.2 °F)||1997|
|September||12.8 °C (55.0 °F)||2006|
|October||10.2 °C (50.4 °F)||2001|
|November||7.7 °C (45.9 °F)||1994|
|December||7.0 °C (44.6 °F)||2015|
|Year||4.36 °C (39.85 °F)||1879|
|Spring (March–May)||2.30 °C (36.14 °F)||1887|
|Summer (June–August)||9.70 °C (49.46 °F)||1922|
|Autumn (September–November)||4.17 °C (39.51 °F)||1919|
|Winter (December–February)||−3.10 °C (26.42 °F)||1962/63|
|January||−4.8 °C (23.4 °F)||1963|
|February||−5.1 °C (22.8 °F)||1985|
|March||−2.0 °C (28.4 °F)||1883|
|April||1.4 °C (34.5 °F)||1917|
|May||4.7 °C (40.5 °F)||1885|
|June||7.9 °C (46.2 °F)||1916|
|July||9.8 °C (49.6 °F)||1919|
|August||9.3 °C (48.7 °F)||1885|
|September||6.6 °C (43.9 °F)||1986|
|October||3.2 °C (37.8 °F)||1919|
|November||−0.4 °C (31.3 °F)||1915|
|December||−3.8 °C (25.2 °F)||2010|
|Year||14.84 °C (58.71 °F)||2003|
|Spring (March–May)||15.73 °C (60.31 °F)||1893|
|Summer (June–August)||23.47 °C (74.25 °F)||1976|
|Autumn (September–November)||16.23 °C (61.21 °F)||2006|
|Winter (December–February)||9.63 °C (49.33 °F)||2015/16|
|January||10.3 °C (50.5 °F)||1916|
|February||11.3 °C (52.3 °F)||2019|
|March||13.8 °C (56.8 °F)||1938|
|April||17.1 °C (62.8 °F)||2011|
|May||19.0 °C (66.2 °F)||1992|
|June||22.6 °C (72.7 °F)||1976|
|July||25.6 °C (78.1 °F)||2006|
|August||25.1 °C (77.2 °F)||1995|
|September||20.9 °C (69.6 °F)||2006|
|October||17.1 °C (62.8 °F)||1921|
|November||12.5 °C (54.5 °F)||1994 and 2011|
|December||12.3 °C (54.1 °F)||2015|
|Year||10.52 °C (50.94 °F)||1879|
|Spring (March–May)||10.10 °C (50.18 °F)||1879|
|Summer (June–August)||16.97 °C (62.55 °F)||1879|
|Autumn (September–November)||11.03 °C (51.85 °F)||1887|
|Winter (December–February)||2.47 °C (36.45 °F)||1962/63|
|January||0.6 °C (33.1 °F)||1963|
|February||0.1 °C (32.2 °F)||1947|
|March||5.7 °C (42.3 °F)||2013|
|April||9.3 °C (48.7 °F)||1879|
|May||12.8 °C (55.0 °F)||1902|
|June||15.5 °C (59.9 °F)||1909|
|July||16.6 °C (61.9 °F)||1879|
|August||16.0 °C (60.8 °F)||1912|
|September||14.4 °C (57.9 °F)||1952|
|October||10.1 °C (50.2 °F)||1896|
|November||5.8 °C (42.4 °F)||1919|
|December||1.2 °C (34.2 °F)||1890|
Daily mean temperatures have been available since 1772, with max and min data available from 1878 onward.
|January||11.6 °C (52.9 °F)||23 Jan 1834|
|February||12.8 °C (55.0 °F)||4 Feb 2004|
|March||14.8 °C (58.6 °F)||27 Mar 1777|
|April||19.7 °C (67.5 °F)||29 Apr 1775|
|May||21.2 °C (70.2 °F)||29 May 1780|
|June||23.0 °C (73.4 °F)||3 Jun 1947|
|July||25.2 °C (77.4 °F)||29 Jul 1948|
|August||24.9 °C (76.8 °F)||1 Aug 1995|
|September||22.6 °C (72.7 °F)||1 Sep 1906|
|October||20.2 °C (68.4 °F)||1 Oct 1985|
|November||15.4 °C (59.7 °F)||5 Nov 1938|
|December||12.9 °C (55.2 °F)||12 Dec 1994|
|January||10.5 °C (50.9 °F)||3 Jan 1932|
|February||10.8 °C (51.4 °F)||4 Feb 2004|
|March||11.2 °C (52.2 °F)||30 Mar 1998|
|April||12.3 °C (54.1 °F)||24 Apr 2007|
|May||14.6 °C (58.3 °F)||30 May 1944|
|June||17.2 °C (63.0 °F)||22 Jun 1941|
|July||18.8 °C (65.8 °F)||29 Jul 1948|
|August||18.8 °C (65.8 °F)||11 Aug 1997|
|September||18.4 °C (65.1 °F)||5 Sep 1949|
|October||15.4 °C (59.7 °F)||3 Oct 2011|
|November||13.5 °C (56.3 °F)||22 Nov 1947|
|December||11.9 °C (53.4 °F)||12 Dec 1994|
|January||13.7 °C (56.7 °F)||9 Jan 1998|
|February||16.4 °C (61.5 °F)||13 Feb 1998|
|March||22.1 °C (71.8 °F)||29 Mar 1965|
|April||25.0 °C (77.0 °F)||16 Apr 2003|
|May||29.0 °C (84.2 °F)||29 May 1944|
|June||30.3 °C (86.5 °F)||28 Jun 1976|
|July||33.2 °C (91.8 °F)||3 Jul 1976|
|August||33.2 °C (91.8 °F)||3 Aug 1990|
|September||31.3 °C (88.3 °F)||2 Sep 1906|
|October||27.1 °C (80.8 °F)||1 Oct 2011|
|November||18.7 °C (65.7 °F)||4 Nov 1946|
|December||14.7 °C (58.5 °F)||23 Dec 1977|
The United Kingdom straddles the higher mid-latitudes between 49° and 61° N. It is on the western seaboard of Afro-Eurasia, the world's largest land mass. Since the UK is always in or close to the path of the polar front jet stream, frequent changes in pressure and unsettled weather are typical. Many types of weather can be experienced in a single day. In general the climate of the UK is cool and often cloudy, and high temperatures are infrequent.
The Climate of Mumbai is a tropical ,wet and dry climate. Mumbai's climate can be best described as moderately hot with high level of humidity. Its coastal nature and tropical location ensures temperatures do not fluctuate much throughout the year.
A degree day is a measure of heating or cooling. Total degree days from an appropriate starting date are used to plan the planting of crops and management of pests and pest control timing. Weekly or monthly degree-day figures may also be used within an energy monitoring and targeting scheme to monitor the heating and cooling costs of climate controlled buildings, while annual figures can be used for estimating future costs.
Thomas Barker was a Rutland squire who kept a detailed weather record at Lyndon Hall from 1736 to 1798.
The winter of 1962–63, known as the Big Freeze of 1963, was one of the coldest winters on record in the United Kingdom. Temperatures plummeted and lakes and rivers began to freeze over.
Events from the year 1899 in the United Kingdom.
The winter of 1894–95 was severe for the British Isles with a CET of 1.27 °C or 34.3 °F. Many climatologists have come to view this winter as the end of the Little Ice Age and the culmination of a decade of harsh winters in Britain. Whereas the average CET for the ten winters from 1885–86 to 1894–95 was 2.87 °C or 37.2 °F, no winter with a CET under 3.0 °C or 37.4 °F followed for twenty-two years and no month as cold as February or January 1895 until 1940. In contrast, between 1659 and 1894 no spell with every winter CET above 3.0 °C or 37.4 °F had lasted longer than twelve winters.
The winter of 2010–11 was a weather event that brought heavy snowfalls, record low temperatures, travel chaos and school disruption to the islands of Great Britain and Ireland. It included the United Kingdom's coldest December since Met Office records began in 1910, with a mean temperature of -1 °C, breaking the previous record of 0.1 °C in December 1981. Also it was the second-coldest December in the narrower Central England Temperature (CET) record series which began in 1659, falling 0.1 °C short of the all-time record set in 1890.
Homogenization in climate research means the removal of non-climatic changes. Next to changes in the climate itself, raw climate records also contain non-climatic jumps and changes for example due to relocations or changes in instrumentation. The most used principle to remove these inhomogeneities is the relative homogenization approach in which a candidate stations is compared to a reference time series based on one or more neighboring stations. The candidate and reference station(s) experience about the same climate, non-climatic changes that happen only in one station can thus be identified and removed.
The climate of New England varies greatly across its 500-mile (800 km) span from northern Maine to southern Connecticut. Extreme southern New England is considerably warmer, sunnier, and sees far less snow, than the northernmost points of northern New England.
The 2014–16 El Niño was a warming of the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean that resulted in unusually warm waters developing between the coast of South America and the International Date Line. These unusually warm waters influenced the world's weather in a number of ways, which in turn significantly affected various parts of the world. These included drought conditions in Venezuela, Australia and a number of Pacific islands while significant flooding was also recorded. During the event, more tropical cyclones than normal occurred within the Pacific Ocean, while fewer than normal occurred in the Atlantic Ocean.
The summer of 2014 in Sweden was unusually warm, especially in the northern parts of the country. July was the warmest ever month on record in the north-west.
The 1995 United Kingdom and Ireland heat wave was a severe weather event that occurred between late July and late August, and was part one of the warmest summers recorded in the UK, and one of the warmest Augusts ever recorded in many locations around the UK, as well as being one of the driest summers ever recorded in the UK, with many weather stations having the Summer of 1995 drier than, or comparable with the Summer of 1976. Ireland was also widely affected by the heatwave with temperatures reaching over 30 °C (86 °F) in some locations, as well as exceptionally low rainfall throughout the summer.
The Spring 2013 United Kingdom cold spell was a period of unusually cold weather in the United Kingdom between 6 March and early April 2013. The cold spell consisted of very low temperatures and significant snowfall. Freezing temperatures worsened due to the significant overcast and cloud covered skies. Extensive snowfall occurred on 11 and 12 March in the South East, North and West of England and in Wales. England as a whole also suffered heavy snowfall on 22 and 23 March 2013.
The winter of 1981–82 in the United Kingdom was a severe cold wave that was formed in early December 1981 and lasted until mid-late January in 1982, and was one of the coldest Decembers recorded in the United Kingdom.
The Winter of 1985–86 in Great Britain and Ireland contained two periods of notably cold weather. November 1985 brought an early start to winter with the month being the coldest in the Central England region since 1925, with an average temperature of 4.1 °C (39.4 °F). However, December was milder than average and January close to average before February became the coldest month of any kind since January 1963 with an average temperature of −1.1 °C (30.0 °F). March and April were also below average, especially April which was the coldest since 1922 with an average temperature of just 5.8 °C (42.4 °F).
The 2018 British Isles heat wave was a period of unusually hot weather that took place in June, July and August. It led to record-breaking temperatures in the UK and Ireland. It caused widespread drought, hosepipe bans, crop failures, and a number of wildfires. These wildfires worst affected northern moorland areas around the Greater Manchester region, the largest was at Saddleworth Moor and another was at Winter Hill, together these burned over 14 square miles (36 km2) of land over a period of nearly a month.
The 1808 United Kingdom heat wave was a period of exceptionally high temperatures during July 1808. In the Central England Temperature series, dating back to 1659, at the time it was the 2nd hottest July on record, the hottest since 1783. The month included some of the highest temperatures ever recorded in the UK.