|Source||Texas Hill Country|
|- location||Bandera County, Texas|
|- elevation||577 m (1,893 ft)|
|River mouth||Frio River|
|- location||Frio County, Texas|
|- elevation||182 m (597 ft)|
|Battle of the Arroyo Hondo|
|Part of Woll Expedition|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Mathew Caldwell||Adrián Woll|
|Casualties and losses|
Hondo Creek is a tributary of the Frio River in Texas that rises in Bandera County northwest of Tarpley and runs approximately 67 miles to its mouth near Pearsall, Texas. The creek crosses through three counties including Bandera, Medina, and Frio.
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean.
The Frio River is a river in the U.S. state of Texas. The word frío is Spanish for cold, a clear reference to the spring-fed coolness of the river.
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast.
Hondo ( Spanish for deep) Creek begins in the Texas Hill Country. The initially broken waters of the stream travels through limestone benches and steep slopes until the land flattens near Tarpley. This section of the creek is generally shallow with a bottom of clay loam, which serves as a habitat for Ashe juniper and live oak woods. As it runs south, the creek grows in depth in the surrounding rolling plain, and a mixture of clay with a large concentration of sand is found in its bed. As the tributary approaches its mouth, the environment changes to fertile crop lands with Mesquite trees growing along its bank.
Spanish or Castilian is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.
The Texas Hill Country is a geographic region located in the Edwards Plateau at the crossroads of West Texas, Central Texas, and South Texas. Given its location, climate, terrain, and vegetation, the Hill Country can be considered the border between the American Southwest and Southeast.
Limestone is a carbonate sedimentary rock that is often composed of the skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, foraminifera, and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). A closely related rock is dolostone, which contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite, CaMg(CO3)2. In fact, in old USGS publications, dolostone was referred to as magnesian limestone, a term now reserved for magnesium-deficient dolostones or magnesium-rich limestones.
Hondo Creek where it meets Quahi Creek was the site of the Battle of the Arroyo Hondo in 1842.The battle occurred following the third in a series of three invasions by Mexican forces in 1842 to reclaim territory lost during the 1836 Texas Revolution. After the 1200-man Mexican army was defeated in San Antonio by Mathew Caldwell and 200 gathered Texans, the forces of Mexican General Adrián Woll headed west. On September 21, they met up with a few Texas Rangers, who were part of the Texas forces, Under the command of John Coffee Hays, known as "Captain Yak" by the Indians, the Rangers attacked on the banks of the creek, and a battle ensued. Four Rangers were wounded including Samuel Luckie. The Rangers captured a cannon battery but had to abandon it, as the Texas Army did not advance to their position.
The Texas Revolution was a rebellion of colonists from the United States and Tejanos in putting up armed resistance to the centralist government of Mexico. While the uprising was part of a larger one that included other provinces opposed to the regime of President Antonio López de Santa Anna, the Mexican government believed the United States had instigated the Texas insurrection with the goal of annexation. The Mexican Congress passed the Tornel Decree, declaring that any foreigners fighting against Mexican troops "will be deemed pirates and dealt with as such, being citizens of no nation presently at war with the Republic and fighting under no recognized flag." Only the province of Texas succeeded in breaking with Mexico, establishing the Republic of Texas, and eventually being annexed by the United States.
San Antonio, officially the City of San Antonio, is the seventh-most populous city in the United States, and the second-most populous city in both Texas and the Southern United States, with more than 1.5 million residents. Founded as a Spanish mission and colonial outpost in 1718, the city became the first chartered civil settlement in present-day Texas in 1731. The area was still part of the Spanish Empire, and later of the Mexican Republic. Today it is the state's oldest municipality.
Matthew Caldwell,, also spelled Mathew Caldwell was a 19th-century Texas settler, military figure, Captain of the Gonzales – Seguin Rangers and a signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence. Because of his recruitment ride ahead of the Battle of Gonzales, some have called him the Paul Revere of Texas.
Although accounts of the battle vary, the Texans had fared well. Caldwell believed that his men could overtake the Mexican Army. However, the Texas forces were outnumbered, under-provisioned, and facing fierce cannon fire; they lacked a consensus, and the leaders were unable to rally unanimity for an offensive action.
Following the battle, the Texans disbanded and the Mexican forces continued their trek southwestward, back to Mexico.A historical marker can now be found in Medina County where the battle is believed to have taken place.
Medina County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 46,006. Its county seat is Hondo. The county is named for the Medina River.
Also marked along the stream in Medina County, is the Cow Camp Massacre. This is the site of a January 27, 1866, Native American attack that occurred as three minors (aged 12–19) set up camp along Hondo Creek to recover lost livestock.Eight Indians followed one of the boys to the camp. He and another were captured, but one escaped. Of the two captured, one was never seen again and the other's mutilated body was found several days later.
According to Texas Parks and Wildlife, the following fish have been caught in the tributary (records in parenthesis):
Real County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 3,309. The county seat is Leakey. The county is named for Julius Real (1860–1944), a former member of the Texas State Senate.
Bandera County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population is 20,485. Its county seat is Bandera. The county was formed in 1856 from Bexar and Uvalde counties. The county and its seat are named for Bandera Pass, which in turn uses the Spanish word for flag.
William Alexander Anderson "Bigfoot" Wallace was a famous Texas Ranger who took part in many of the military conflicts of the Republic of Texas and the United States in the 1840s, including the Mexican–American War.
830 is the North American telephone area code for the portion of the state of Texas surrounding and to the west of the city of San Antonio. It was created July 7, 1997, in a split from 210, which was retained by most of San Antonio, with a few outer portions of the city moving to 830. This split occurred only five years after 210 split off from 512. However, San Antonio's rapid growth and the proliferation of cell phones and pagers forced the entire suburban ring around San Antonio into another area code within a short time.
Cibolo Creek is a stream in South Central Texas, United States that runs approximately 96 miles (154 km) from its source at Turkey Knob near Boerne, Texas, to its confluence with the San Antonio River in Karnes County. The creek serves as a tributary of the San Antonio River and forms the easternmost boundary of its watershed.
The Mier expedition was an unsuccessful military operation launched in November 1842 by a Texian militia against Mexican border settlements; it was related to the Somervell expedition. It included a major battle at Ciudad Mier on December 26 and 27, 1842, which the Mexicans won. The Texian attack was launched partly in hopes of financial gain and partly in retaliation for the Dawson Massacre earlier that year, in which thirty-six Texas militia were killed by the Mexican Army. Both conflicts were part of continuing efforts by each side to control the land between the Rio Grande and Nueces River. The Republic of Texas believed that this territory had been ceded to it in the Treaties of Velasco, by which they gained independence; but Mexico did not agree.
The Dawson massacre, also called the Dawson expedition, was an incident in which 36 Texian militiamen were killed by Mexican soldiers on September 17, 1842 near San Antonio de Bexar. The event occurred during the Battle of Salado Creek, which ended with a Texan victory. This was among numerous armed conflicts over the area between the Rio Grande and Nueces rivers, which the Republic of Texas tried to control after achieving independence in 1836.
Tarpley is an unincorporated community in Bandera County, Texas, United States. It is part of the San Antonio Metropolitan Statistical Area. The town is located about 12 miles southwest of Bandera. The zip code is 78883.
Salado Creek is a waterway in San Antonio that runs from northern Bexar County for about 38 miles (61 km) to the San Antonio River near Buena Vista.
The Battle of Rosillo Creek was a conflict of the Mexican War of Independence occurring March 29, 1813 in Coahuila y Tejas, approximately nine miles southeast of San Antonio de Bexar near the confluence of Rosillo Creek and Salado Creek.
The Battle of Alazan Creek, occurred on the banks of Alazan Creek in Spanish Texas on June 20, 1813, during the Mexican War of Independence. The location is today in Bexar County, Texas, in the United States, just west of downtown San Antonio.
The Córdova Rebellion, in 1838, was an uprising instigated in and around Nacogdoches, Texas. Alcalde Vicente Córdova and other leaders supported the Texas Revolution as long as it espoused a return to the Constitution of 1824,
The Battle of Salado Creek was a decisive engagement in 1842 which repulsed the final Mexican invasion of the Republic of Texas. Colonel Mathew Caldwell of the Texas Rangers led just over 200 militia against an army of 1,600 Mexican Army soldiers and Cherokee warriors, and defeated them outside of San Antonio de Bexar along Salado Creek. As a result of this action, French-Mexican commander General Adrián Woll retreated south and back into Mexico.
James Milford Day (1815–1894) was a 19th-century Texas military figure. He was a member of Mathew Caldwell's and Jack Hay's Seguin Rangers and a participant in the Mexican–American War.
Robert Addison Gillespie (1815–1846) was a business man, land speculator, and Captain in the Texas Rangers under John Coffee Hays and Zachary Taylor. Gillespie died in the Battle of Monterrey. Gillespie County, Texas, was named in his honor.
Seco Creek, is a tributary stream of the Hondo Creek, in Frio County, Texas. Named Rio Seco in 1689 by Captain Alonso De León, governor of Coahuila, when his expedition crossed the creek.