Islami Jamhoori Ittehad

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Islamic Democratic Alliance
Islami Jamhoori Ittehad

اسلامی جمہوری اتحاد
AbbreviationIDA/IJI
LeaderSahibzada Najam Sialvi
Founder Ghulam Mustafa Jatoai
Founded1988
Dissolved1990
Succeeded by Pakistan Muslim League (N)
Headquarters Islamabad
Ideology Conservatism
Neoliberalism
Political position Right-wing
Seats in the National Assembly (before dissolution)
111 / 207
Party flag
Flag of IJI.svg

The Islami Jamhoori Ittehad (English lit. Islamic Democratic[ citation needed ] Alliance; acronym: IDA[ citation needed ] or IJI; Urdu : اسلامی جمہوری اتحاد) was a right-wing conservative alliance formed in September 1988 to oppose the democratic socialist Pakistan Peoples Party in elections that year. [1] The alliance comprised nine parties, of which the major components were the Pakistan Muslim League (PML), National Peoples Party (NPP), Jamaat-e-Islami (JI), with PML accounting for 80% of the IJI's electoral candidates. The Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) agency, under director Hamid Gul, had a major role in forming the center-of-right political alliance. [2] [3] Care had been taken to ensure that the alliance comprised nine parties to generate comparison with the nine-party Pakistan National Alliance (PNA) that had campaigned against PPP in 1977. [4]

Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, natural, normal, or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics, or tradition. Hierarchy and inequality may be viewed as natural results of traditional social differences or the competition in market economies. The term right-wing can generally refer to "the conservative or reactionary section of a political party or system".

Pakistan Peoples Party centre-left, progressive, and social democratic political party in Pakistan

The Pakistan Peoples Party is a left-wing, socialist-progressive political party of Pakistan. Affiliated with the Socialist International, Its political philosophy and position, in the country's political spectrum, is considered centre-left, and involves supporting public ownership, egalitarianism, equality, and a strong national defence. Since its foundation in 1967, it had been a major and influential political left-wing force in the country and the party's leadership has been dominated by the members of the Bhutto family. Its centre of power lies in the southern province of Sindh.

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The head of the party was Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi, but its most resourceful leader was Nawaz Sharif, a young industrialist whom Zia ul-Haq had appointed chief minister of Punjab. Sharif was vying for control of the Pakistan Muslim League, which was headed at that time by former Prime Minister Muhammad Khan Junejo. [5]

Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi former Caretaker Prime Minister of Pakistan

Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi was a Pakistani politician, and was Prime Minister of Pakistan in an acting capacity for three months, from 6 August 1990 to 6 November 1990. Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi's ancestors were Murids of the Pir's of Sarhandi.

Nawaz Sharif Pakistani businessman and politician

Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif is a Pakistani businessman and politician who served for three non-consecutive terms as the Prime Minister of Pakistan, and for two terms as the Chief Minister of Punjab.

Muhammad Khan Junejo Prime Minister of Pakistan

Mohammad Khan Junejo was a Pakistani politician and an agriculturist who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan, having elected in this capacity in 1985 until being dismissed in 1988.

It won only fifty-three seats in the National Assembly, compared with ninety-two won by the PPP. Most IJI seats were won in Punjab. Nawaz Sharif emerged from the 1988 elections as the most powerful politician outside the PPP. In December 1988, he succeeded in forming an IJI administration in Punjab and became the province's chief minister. It was from this power base that he waged the political battles that eventually led to his becoming prime minister in 1990. In the supercharged atmosphere of the 1990 elections, the electorate surprised observers. Neither the IJI nor the PPP was expected to come up with a firm mandate to rule. Yet the IJI received a strong mandate to govern, winning 105 seats versus forty-five seats for the Pakistan Democratic Alliance (PDA), of which the PPP was the main component in the National Assembly. [6] Opposition groups alleged large scale selective rigging of seats to not just ensure an IJI victory but also prevent those opposed to Military influence from being elected. [7]

National Assembly of Pakistan Legislative Assembly in Pakistan

The National Assembly is the lower house of the bicameral Majlis-e-Shura, which also comprises the President of Pakistan and Senate of Pakistan. The National Assembly and the Senate both convene at Parliament House in Islamabad. The National Assembly is a democratically elected body consisting of a total of 336 members, before 25th ammendment they used to be 342' who are referred to as Members of the National Assembly (MNAs), of which 272 are directly elected members and 70 reserved seats for women and religious minorities. A political party must secure 137 seats to obtain and preserve a majority.

Prime Minister of Pakistan position

The Prime Minister of Pakistan is the head of government of Pakistan and designated as the "chief executive of the Republic".

In the 1993 national elections, the IJI coalition no longer existed to bring together all the anti-PPP forces. The religious parties expended most of their energies trying to form a workable electoral alliance rather than bolstering the candidacy of Nawaz Sharif, the only person capable of challenging Benazir Bhutto.

Benazir Bhutto 11th Prime Minister of Pakistan

Benazir Bhutto was a Pakistani politician who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1988 to 1990 and again from 1993 to 1996. She was the first woman to head a democratic government in a Muslim majority nation. Ideologically a liberal and a secularist, she chaired or co-chaired the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) from the early 1980s until her assassination in 2007.

Controversies

Islami Jamhori Ittehad was allegedly an establishment-backed political alliance against the Benazir Bhuto-led PPP, formed after doling out money to the politicians, which caused the PPP's defeat in the said general elections. In 1993, former Air Chief Asghar Khan had moved SC against foul play in the 1990 general elections. The case is also known as Mehrangate scandal.

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1990 Pakistani general election

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References

  1. B. Chakma (25 June 2014). South Asia in Transition: Democracy, Political Economy and Security. Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. –. ISBN   978-1-137-35664-2.
  2. Hameed Gul admits he formed IJI, The News (Pakistan), August 30, 2009
  3. Editorial: What the generals must apologise for Daily Times, February 01, 2008
  4. Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military by Husain Haqqani, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2005, p 207.
  5. Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military by Husain Haqqani, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2005, pp. 202–203.
  6. Profile: Islami Jamhoori Ittehad U.S. Library of Congress
  7. How an election was stolen: the PDA white paper on the Pakistan elections (1990) Peoples Democratic Alliance

Bibliography

Husain Haqqani Pakistani diplomat

Husain Haqqani is a Pakistani journalist, academic, political activist and former ambassador of Pakistan to Sri Lanka and the United States.

See also