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|John T. Jost|
|Born|| 1968 (age 49–50)|
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
|Education||Duke University, University of Cincinnati, Yale University|
|Known for||Political behavior, intergroup relations|
|Spouse(s)||Orsolya Hunyady(m. 2001)|
|Awards||Society of Experimental Social Psychology's Career Trajectory Award (2010)|
|Fields|| Social psychology |
|Institutions||New York University|
|Doctoral advisor||William J. McGuire|
John Thomas Jost (born 1968)is a social psychologist best known for his work on system justification theory and the psychology of political ideology. Jost received his AB degree in Psychology and Human Development from Duke University (1989) and his PhD in Social and Political Psychology from Yale University (1995), where he was the last doctoral student of William J. McGuire.
Social psychology is the scientific study of how people's thoughts, feelings and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined or implied presence of others. In this definition, scientific refers to the empirical investigation using the scientific method. The terms thoughts, feelings and behavior refer to psychological variables that can be measured in humans. The statement that others' presence may be imagined or implied suggests that humans are malleable to social influences even when alone, such as when watching television or following internalized cultural norms. Social psychologists typically explain human behavior as a result of the interaction of mental states and social situations.
Duke University is a private research university in Durham, North Carolina. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892. In 1924, tobacco and electric power industrialist James Buchanan Duke established The Duke Endowment and the institution changed its name to honor his deceased father, Washington Duke.
Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution.
Jost has contributed extensively to the study of stereotyping, prejudice, intergroup relations, social justice, and political psychology. In collaboration with Mahzarin Banaji, he proposed a theory of system justification processes in 1994, and in collaboration with Jack Glaser, Arie Kruglanski, and Frank Sulloway he proposed a theory of political ideology as motivated social cognition in 2003. Since 2003, he has been on the faculty of New York University, where he is Professor of Psychology and Politics (Affiliated Appointment). Jost is a member of numerous professional organizations and societies, and was President of the International Society of Political Psychology from 2015 to 2016.
In social psychology, a stereotype is an over-generalized belief about a particular category of people. Stereotypes are generalized because one assumes that the stereotype is true for each individual person in the category. While such generalizations may be useful when making quick decisions, they may be erroneous when applied to particular individuals. Stereotypes encourage prejudice and may arise for a number of reasons.
Prejudice is an affective feeling towards a person or group member based solely on that person's group membership. The word is often used to refer to preconceived, usually unfavourable, feelings towards people or a person because of their political affiliation, sex, gender, beliefs, values, social class, age, disability, religion, sexuality, race/ethnicity, language, nationality, beauty, occupation, education, criminality, sport team affiliation or other personal characteristics. In this case, it refers to a positive or negative evaluation of another person based on that person's perceived group membership.
Intergroup relations refers to interactions between individuals in different social groups, and to interactions taking place between the groups themselves collectively. It has long been a subject of research in social psychology, political psychology, and organizational behavior.
Jost's awards include the following:
Morton Deutsch was an American social psychologist and researcher in conflict resolution. Deutsch was one of the founding fathers of the field of conflict resolution. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Deutsch as the 63rd most cited psychologist of the 20th century.
System justification theory (SJT) is a theory within social psychology that system-justifying beliefs serve a psychologically palliative function. It proposes that people have several underlying needs, which vary from individual to individual, that can be satisfied by the defense and justification of the status quo, even when the system may be disadvantageous to certain people. People have epistemic, existential, and relational needs that are met by and manifest as ideological support for the prevailing structure of social, economic, and political norms. Need for order and stability, and thus resistance to change or alternatives, for example, can be a motivator for individuals to see the status quo as good, legitimate, and even desirable.
Mahzarin Rustum Banaji FBA is an American psychologist at Harvard University, known for her work popularizing the concept of implicit bias in regards to race, gender, sexual orientation, and other factors.
Edward Tory Higgins is the Stanley Schachter Professor of Psychology, Professor of Business, and Director of the Motivation Science Center at Columbia University. Higgins has a broad set of research interests, including motivation and cognition, judgment and decision-making, and social cognition. His more notable contributions to the field of psychology include work on priming, self-discrepancy theory, and regulatory focus theory. He is also the author of Beyond Pleasure and Pain: How Motivation Works, and Focus: Use Different Ways of Seeing the World for Success and Influence.
Social identity is the portion of an individual's self-concept derived from perceived membership in a relevant social group. As originally formulated by social psychologists Henri Tajfel and John Turner in the 1970s and the 1980s, social identity theory introduced the concept of a social identity as a way in which to explain intergroup behaviour.
Michael A. Hogg is a British psychologist, and Professor of Social Psychology in the Department of Psychology at Claremont Graduate University in Los Angeles. He is also an honorary Professor of Social Psychology at the University of Kent in the UK.
Anthony Galt Greenwald is a social psychologist and, since 1986, professor of psychology at University of Washington.
Phoebe C. Ellsworth is an American social psychologist and professor at the University of Michigan, holding dual appointments at the Psychology Department and in the Law School.
Linda J. Skitka is a professor of psychology at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Skitka's research bridges a number of areas of inquiry including social, political, and moral psychology. She has authored or co-authored papers in these areas for the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Social Justice Research, and Political Psychology. She is best known for her research into justice and fairness, moral conviction, and political reasoning. She is the current president of the Midwestern Psychological Association, the president-elect for the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, served as president of the International Society for Justice Research from 2006–2008, served on the executive committee for the Society for Experimental Social Psychology, and was the founding chairperson of a consortium of professional societies that collaborated to launch the scholarly journal Social Psychological and Personality Science . Skitka is also on numerous editorial boards for academic journals, has received research funding from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Templeton Foundation, and has won several awards for excellence in teaching, mentoring, service and research. Skitka received her BA in Psychology from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor and her M.A. and PhD in Psychology at the University of California, Berkeley.
Daniel Bar-Tal is an Israeli academic, author and Branco Weiss Professor of Research in Child Development and Education at School of Education, Tel Aviv University.
Melanie Killen is a developmental psychologist and Professor of Human Development and Quantitative Methodology, Professor of Psychology (Affiliate), and the Associate Director for the Center for Children, Relationships, and Culture at the University of Maryland, as well as Honorary Professor of Psychology at the University of Kent, Canterbury, U.K. She has conducted extensive research on social and moral development, social exclusion and the origins of prejudice, moral reasoning and group dynamics, peer relationships, and social-cognitive development. She has received funding from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), and the National Science Foundation (NSF) for her research. In 2008, she was awarded Distinguished Scholar-Teacher by the Provost's office at the University of Maryland.
Fathali M. Moghaddam is an Iranian psychologist, professor of psychology at Georgetown University and director of the Interdisciplinary Program in Cognitive Science (ICOS), Department of Government, Georgetown University.
Arie W. Kruglanski is a social psychologist best known for his work on Goal Systems and Cognitive Closure. He is currently a Distinguished Professor of Psychology at the University of Maryland.
David Amodio is an American scientist who examines the psychological and neural mechanisms underlying social behavior, with a focus on self-regulation and intergroup relations. Amodio is known for his role in developing the field of social neuroscience and for his neuroscientific approach to social psychology.
Richard J. Crisp is an author, blogger, scientist and Professor of Psychology at Durham University. He is co-originator of the imagined contact hypothesis and a major contributor to the field of social psychology.
Dominic Abrams, is a Professor of Social Psychology and the Director of the Centre for the Study of Group Processes in the School of Psychology at the University of Kent. His research examines prejudice, discrimination, social attitudes and social change across the life course. It spans social and developmental psychology and gerontology and uses a wide range of methods, most frequently surveys and experiments.
Lee J. Jussim is an American social psychologist.
William James McGuire was an American social psychologist known for his work on the psychology of persuasion. He was a faculty member at Yale University from 1970 until he retired in 1999, and chaired the psychology department there from 1971 to 1973. He was the editor-in-chief of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology from 1967 to 1970.
Felicia Pratto is a social psychologist known for her work on intergroup relations, dynamics of power, and social cognition. She is Professor of Psychological Sciences at the University of Connecticut. Pratto is a Fellow of the Association for Psychological Science.
The Social Psychology Network (SPN) is an educational organization with more than 1,500 members worldwide. SPN was founded by psychology professor Scott Plous as a website in 1996. Development of SPN was supported by several grants from the National Science Foundation. The website includes a large collection of social psychology links, a feed of related news, and discussion forums for students and professionals interested in social psychology.