Massif de la Hotte

Last updated
Massif de la Hotte
Location Haiti
Nearest city Jérémie
Les Cayes
Port-Salut
Coordinates 18°22′59″N74°1′32″W / 18.38306°N 74.02556°W / 18.38306; -74.02556 Coordinates: 18°22′59″N74°1′32″W / 18.38306°N 74.02556°W / 18.38306; -74.02556

The Massif de la Hotte is a mountain range in southwestern Haiti, on the far-western end of the Tiburon Peninsula. The region is relatively remote and is one of the most biologically diverse and significant areas of all of Hispaniola. It also supports some of the last stands of Haiti's dense cloud forest on its peaks. About 2.5 million years ago, the Massif de la Hotte was separated from the rest of the country by a deep, wide sea channel, which resulted in a hotbed of endemism in its bird, plant, and reptile communities. [1]

Haiti country in the Caribbean

Haiti, officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola, east of Cuba in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea. It occupies the western three-eighths of the island, which it shares with the Dominican Republic. Haiti is 27,750 square kilometres (10,714 sq mi) in size and has an estimated 10.8 million people, making it the most populous country in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the second-most populous country in the Caribbean as a whole.

Hispaniola island in the Caribbean

Hispaniola is an island in the Caribbean island group known as the Greater Antilles. It is the second largest island in the Caribbean after Cuba, and the most populous island in the Caribbean; it is also the eleventh most populous island in the world.

Cloud forest rainforest

A cloud forest, also called a water forest and primas forest, is a generally tropical or subtropical, evergreen, montane, moist forest characterized by a persistent, frequent or seasonal low-level cloud cover, usually at the canopy level, formally described in the International Cloud Atlas (2017) as silvagenitus. Cloud forests often exhibit an abundance of mosses covering the ground and vegetation, in which case they are also referred to as mossy forests. Mossy forests usually develop on the saddles of mountains, where moisture introduced by settling clouds is more effectively retained.

Contents

Haiti has a World Heritage site located here. [2] In the wake of the 2010 Haiti earthquake, UNESCO's World Heritage Program is helping Haiti assess the damage. [3]

2010 Haiti earthquake magnitude 7.0 Mw earthquake on 2010-01-12

The 2010 Haiti earthquake was a catastrophic magnitude 7.0 Mw earthquake, with an epicenter near the town of Léogâne (Ouest) and approximately 25 kilometres (16 mi) west of Port-au-Prince, Haiti's capital. The earthquake occurred at 16:53 local time on Tuesday, 12 January 2010.

UNESCO Specialised agency of the United Nations

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational, scientific, and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter. It is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation.

Biodiversity and conservation

Most of the island's endemic species exist within the 'de la Hotte Biosphere. Rising to a peak level of approximately 7700 ft (2347 m) in Pic Macaya; Haiti's second highest peak, the Massif's high and fluctuating elevations supports some of Hispaniola’s highest levels of biological diversity and endemism. Much of the region lies within the Pic Macaya National Park.

Pic Macaya Mountain in Haiti

Pic Macaya is the second-highest mountain in Haiti, rising to an elevation of 2,347 metres above sea level. It is located in the Massif de la Hotte, 36 kilometres northwest of Les Cayes and 195 km (121 mi) west of Port-au-Prince. The mountain is located in the Pic Macaya National Park.

Pic Macaya National Park one of two national parks of the Republic of Haiti

Pic Macaya National Park is one of two national parks of the Republic of Haiti. It is located in the country's southern peninsula, within the Massif de la Hotte. Featuring the country's last stand of virgin cloud forest, it encompasses more than 8,000 hectares. Elevations in the rugged park reach a maximum height of 2,347 meters above sea level at Pic Macaya, the second highest point in Haiti behind Pic la Selle. A majority of the park is composed of two tall peaks: Pic Macaya and Pic Formon.

Conservation International recognizes the region as one of the most conservation-urgent in the world in which 13 of Hispaniola's most critically endangered species (all amphibians) occur. [4] Among the most critically endangered frog species are Eleutherodactylus chlorophenax and Eleutherodactylus parapelates , two frog species endemic to Haiti. The Hispaniolan trogon has a recognized presence in the region.

Conservation International nonprofit environmental organization

Conservation International (CI) is an American nonprofit environmental organization headquartered in Arlington, Virginia. Its goal is to protect nature as a source of food, fresh water, livelihoods and a stable climate.

Eleutherodactylus parapelates is a species of frog in the family Eleutherodactylidae. It is endemic to the Massif de la Hotte in southwestern Haiti. Common names Casillon robber frog and Macaya burrowing frog has been coined for it.

Hispaniolan trogon species of bird

The Hispaniolan trogon is a species of bird in the family Trogonidae. It is the national bird of Haiti. It is endemic to the shared island of Hispaniola in the Caribbean. It is one of the only two trogon species found only on the Caribbean islands. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist montane forests and what is now heavily degraded forest. It is threatened by habitat loss. It is mostly confined to a few remaining protected areas.

See also

Geography of Haiti

The Republic of Haiti comprises the western three-eighths of the island of Hispaniola, west of the Dominican Republic. Haiti is positioned east of the neighboring island of Cuba, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean. Haiti's geographic coordinates are at a longitude of 72° 25′ west and a latitude of 19° 00′ north.

The UN Environment World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) is an executive agency of UN Environment, based in Cambridge in the United Kingdom. UNEP-WCMC has been part of UN Environment since 2000, and has responsibility for biodiversity assessment and support to policy development and implementation. The World Conservation Monitoring Centre was previously an independent organisation jointly managed by IUCN, UN Environment and WWF established in 1988, and prior to that the Centre was a part of the IUCN Secretariat.

Related Research Articles

<i>Eleutherodactylus amadeus</i> species of amphibian

Eleutherodactylus amadeus, commonly known as Mozart's frog or Haitian robber frog, is a species of frog in the family Eleutherodactylidae. It is endemic to the Massif de la Hotte, southwestern Haiti. After not having been seen after 1991, the species was reported again in 2011.

Eleutherodactylus apostates is a species of frog in the Eleutherodactylidae family endemic to the Massif de la Hotte, southwestern Haiti. It is sometimes referred to as the apostates robber frog The specific name is an allusion to its closest relatives being from northern Hispaniola, its southern distribution being an apostasy of sorts.

South Island telegraph frog is a species of frog in the Eleutherodactylidae family endemic to Hispaniola. It occurs in the Massif de la Hotte and Massif de la Selle, Haiti, and in the Sierra de Baoruco, the Dominican Republic.

The short-nosed green frog or shortsnout robber frog is a species of frog in the Eleutherodactylidae family endemic to the Massif de la Hotte, Haiti. Its natural habitats are dwarf cloud forests, although it can also be found in clearings. It is found under ground cover, and the eggs are laid on the ground. It is threatened by habitat loss; while the species occurs in the Pic Macaya National Park, there is no active management for conservation, and the habitat loss continues in the park.

The false green robber frog is a species of frogs in the family Eleutherodactylidae. It is endemic to the Massif de la Hotte, southwestern Haiti.

Eleutherodactylus corona is a species of frog in the family Eleutherodactylidae. It is endemic to the Massif de la Hotte, Haiti. The specific name corona is derived from the Latin word for "crown" and refers to the distinctive tubercles on the top of the head of these frogs. Common name Caye Paul robber frog has been coined for it.

Eleutherodactylus counouspeus is a species of frog in the Eleutherodactylidae family endemic to the Massif de la Hotte, Haiti. Its natural habitats are limestone caves and crevices in closed, humid forest at elevations of 300–760 m (980–2,490 ft) asl. It is a moderately common species but threatened by habitat loss. The species occurs in the Pic Macaya National Park, but there is no active management for conservation, and habitat loss continues in the park.

Eleutherodactylus dolomedes is a species of frog in the family Eleutherodactylidae. It is endemic to the Massif de la Hotte, Haiti.

Eleutherodactylus eunaster is a species of frog in the Eleutherodactylidae family endemic to the Massif de la Hotte, Haiti. Its natural habitats are mesic hardwood closed-canopy forests at elevations of 575–1,300 m (1,886–4,265 ft) asl. It is an arboreal species that is moderately common in suitable habitat. It is threatened by habitat loss primarily caused by logging for charcoaling and slash-and-burn agriculture. While the species occurs in the Pic Macaya National Park, there is no active management for conservation, and habitat loss continues also in the park.

<i>Eleutherodactylus glandulifer</i> species of amphibian

Eleutherodactylus glandulifer is a species of frog in the Eleutherodactylidae family endemic to the Massif de la Hotte, Haiti. Its natural habitats are closed-canopy forests, usually near streams. Its most distinctive feature are its striking blue sapphire-colored eyes—a highly unusual trait among amphibians.

Eleutherodactylus lamprotes is a species of frog in the Eleutherodactylidae family endemic to the Massif de la Hotte, Haiti. Its common name is Castillon robber frog. The specific name refers to its contrasting colour patterns.

The spiny giant frog or Norton's robber frog, Eleutherodactylus nortoni, is a species of frog in the Eleutherodactylidae family. It is endemic to Hispaniola and known from the Massif de la Hotte, Massif de la Selle, and Sierra de Baoruco, occurring in both the Dominican Republic and Haiti. It is named after James W. Norton who accompanied Albert Schwartz in his 1974 expedition to Hispaniola and collected the holotype.

<i>Eleutherodactylus oxyrhyncus</i> species of amphibian

Eleutherodactylus oxyrhyncus is a species of frog in the Eleutherodactylidae family. It is endemic to Hispaniola and known from the Massif de la Hotte and Massif de la Selle, occurring in both the Dominican Republic and Haiti. Common name rednose robber frog has been coined for this species.

Eleutherodactylus semipalmatus is a species of frog in the Eleutherodactylidae family. It is endemic to Haiti and known from the Massif de la Hotte and Massif de la Selle. Its common name is foothill robber frog. Its natural habitats are streams and their vicinity in mesic hardwood forests at elevations of 303–1,697 m (994–5,568 ft) asl.

<i>Eleutherodactylus thorectes</i> species of amphibian

Eleutherodactylus thorectes is a species of frog in the Eleutherodactylidae family. It is endemic to Haiti and known from the Massif de la Hotte at high elevations. Specifically, it is known from Pic Macaya and Pic Formon at elevations of 1,700–2,340 m (5,580–7,680 ft) asl. Its natural habitats are closed montane pine and cloud forests with shrubs, tree ferns, bromeliads, and climbing bamboo. With a snout-vent length of 12–15 mm, this slightly arboreal species is one of the smallest of the world’s frogs. It is threatened by habitat loss caused by charcoal logging and agriculture. It is known from the Pic Macaya National Park, but habitat degradation is occurring in the park too.

Eleutherodactylus ventrilineatus is a species of frog in the Eleutherodactylidae family. It is endemic to Haiti and only known from the Pic Macaya and Pic Formon at elevations of 1,700–2,340 m (5,580–7,680 ft) asl. Its natural habitats are open areas in montane closed pine and cloud forests. It is threatened by habitat loss caused by logging and agriculture. It is known from the Pic Macaya National Park, but habitat degradation is occurring in the park too.

Wildlife of Haiti

The wildlife of Haiti is important to the country because of its biodiversity. According to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Haiti is considered to be "one of the most biologically significant countries of the West Indies". With an estimated 5,600 plant species on the island of Hispaniola, some of which only occur in Haiti, 36% are considered as endemic to the island. A mountainous area country, it is situated in the western three-eighths of Hispaniola and shares a border with the Dominican Republic. There are nine life zones, from low desert to high cloud forests, as well as four mountain ranges, and hundreds of rivers and streams and the coral reefs in the seas that surround the islands. Issues of environmental damage, expanding population, deforesting and erosion are of concern; less than 2% of the original forest remains on account of deforestation. This degradation is traced from the 17th century to 19th century starting with the French colonization of the Haiti and population explosion during the 20th century and for the purpose of forestry and sugar-related industries, degraded the forests. and the environment.

References

  1. Andrea Townsend. "Endangered Areas" . Retrieved 2007-06-11.
  2. "National History Park – Citadel, Sans Souci, Ramiers". UNESCO.org. Retrieved 23 January 2010.
  3. "World Heritage in Haiti". UNESCO.org. 2010-01-20. Retrieved 23 January 2010.
  4. "Expedition to Pic Macaya uncovers Haitian treasures". Hotspots E-News. Conservation International. 2006. Retrieved 22 September 2014.